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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-05-053
Date: September 2005

Long-Term Plan for Concrete Pavement Research and Technology - The Concrete Pavement Road Map: Volume II, Tracks

APPENDIX A. Cross-Reference Tables

OVERVIEW

Conventionally separate concrete pavement topics are integrated across the research tracks in the CP Road Map. Distinct topic areas can be identified easily and pulled out of the tracks into their own table using the CP Road Map database. Three example topic areas are presented here as cross-reference tables:

Table A. Concrete pavement foundations and drainage.

Problem Statement Estimated Cost Products Benefits
 DG 1.3. Development of Model for Erosion Related to Material Properties under Dynamic Wheel Loading (see Track 2) $800 k–$1.2 M   A comprehensive base/subgrade erosion test and model capable of predicting vertical as well as horizontal displacement of fine particles as a function of traffic loading and climatic conditions; a more efficiently designed base and subbase course for specific site conditions. More reliable and cost effective base and subbase course support for specific site conditions. 
 DG 2.6. Improved Consideration of Foundation and Subdrainage Models (see Track 2)  $1 M–$2 M  An improved and more comprehensive design procedure that more fully considers the base layer, subbase layers, subgrade, and subdrainage of concrete pavements; guidelines that will be implemented into a future version of the pavement design guide. Improved consideration of the foundation and subdrainage that will be implemented into the pavement design guide to produce more reliable and cost effective designs.
ND 2.5. Concrete Pavement Support Sensing (see Track 3) $1 M–$1.5M Devices for measuring pavement support during construction. Automatic adjustments to the mix design, slab thickness, and joint spacing during construction, resulting from continuous monitoring of pavement support in front of the paving operation; high-quality pavements constructed precisely for the support over which they are placed.
 ND 2.9. Concrete Pavement Smoothness Sensing (see Track 3)  $1 M–$2 M  Wet smoothness-sensing equipment.  Pavement smoothness monitored behind the paver, permitting surface deviations to be corrected while the concrete is still plastic and allowing the paver or batching operation to be adjusted to prevent further surface deviations; smoother asconstructed pavements that do not require additional measures (diamond grinding) to meet smoothness specifications.
 ND 2.10. Concrete Pavement Texture (Skid Resistance, Splash/Spray) Sensing (see Track 3) $500 k–$1 M   Equipment for predicting skid resistance and splash/spray potential.  Continuously monitored surface texture, permitting real-time prediction of skid resistance and splash/spray potential; automatic adjustments to finishing and texturing processes to achieve the desired skid resistance and splash/spray characteristics, resulting in as-constructed pavements that meet surface texture requirements without the need for additional texturing measures.
EA 4.1. Rapid Subgrade/Subbase Stabilization (see Track 5) $1 M–$2 M New techniques and equipment for rapid subgrade/subbase stabilization. Rapid subgrade/subbase stabilization that will allow subgrade/subbase support to be repaired and restored before placing new pavement in a short construction window.
EA 4.2. Automated Subdrain Installation in Concrete Pavement Construction (see Track 5) $1 M–$2 M New techniques and equipment for automated subdrain installation. Automated subdrain installation that permits the process to be completed in a single pass immediately in front of the paver, thus expediting construction.

Table B. Concrete pavement maintenance and rehabilitation.

Problem Statement Estimated Cost Products Benefits
DG 3.2. Characterization of Existing PCC or Hot- Mix Asphalt Pavement to Provide an Adequate Rehabilitation Design (see Track 2) $3.5 M–$4.5 M Improved characterization of existing pavements; improved estimates of remaining life that will be useful for selecting from alternative rehabilitations; identification of solutions for overcoming existing poor design and material situations; improved support for unbonded concrete overlay design. Proper characterization of the existing pavement critical to reliable and cost effective rehabilitation design; rehabilitation design improvements to the pavement design guide.
DG 3.3. Improvements to Concrete Overlay Design Procedures (see Track 2) $4 M–$4.5 M Improved guidelines and design procedures for several types of concrete overlays, including concrete overlays of difficult existing pavements, ultrathin slab design that includes improved concrete-to-asphalt bonding procedures, improved layering modeling for unbonded concrete overlays, characterization of underlying PCC slab design and condition for unbonded overlays, and improved bonding between thin PCC overlay and existing PCC slabs. Concrete overlays of difficult existing pavements; ultrathin slab design, including improved concrete-to-asphalt bonding procedures; improved layering modeling for unbonded concrete overlays; characterization of underlying PCC slab design and condition for unbonded overlays; improved bonding between thin PCC overlay and existing PCC slabs.
DG 3.4. Improvements to Concrete Pavement Restoration/Preservation Procedures (see Track 2) $2 M–$3 M Improved guidelines and design procedures for several types of concrete overlays that improve their reliability, viability, and cost-effectiveness. Improved guidelines and design procedures for the several activities involved with restoring and preserving existing concrete pavements, resulting in improved decisionmaking for potential CPR projects in terms of selecting needed treatments(such as DBR), predicting remaining life, and further validating CPR as a reliable alternative.
DG 3.6. Optimizing Procedure for New Design and Future Maintenance and Rehabilitation Capable of Minimizing Total Life Cycle Costs, Lane Closure Time, and Other Design Goals over the Range of Design Life (see Track 2) $1 M–$2 M A comprehensive system that, for a given design project, analyzes a number of alternative initial designs, future preservation treatments, and rehabilitation options, and determines the optimum combination to minimize life cycle costs, initial construction cost, or lane closure time, and to address other needs of the designer. Such a system could handle varying design lives from 8 to more than 60 years. New and innovative design options that will improve options for the design to consider and provide more cost effective and reliable concrete pavement designs.
EA 5.1. High-Speed, In Situ PCC Pavement Breakup, Removal, and Processing (see Track 5) $2 M–$5 M Equipment for high-speed, one-pass, in situ breakup, removal, and processing of PCC pavement. Equipment that will permit old concrete pavement to be broken up,removed, and processed in place, allowing the concrete material to be recycled into base material or new concrete and significantly reducing or even eliminating waste material.
EA 5.2. Recycled Concrete Processing/ Improvement (see Track 5) $1 M–$2 M Equipment and recommendations for separating crushed concrete into usable materials. Equipment that will separate crushed concrete properly into materials that can be used for new concrete, minimizing or eliminating waste from reconstructed concrete pavements.
EA 5.3. High-Speed, In Situ, One-Pass, Full Concrete Pavement Reconstruction (see Track 5) $2 M–$5 M New equipment for one-pass pavement reconstruction. Equipment that permits one-pass concrete pavement reconstruction, including breaking up, removing, and processing the old pavement, and placing the new pavement using recycled materials from the old pavement; expedited pavement reconstruction with no waste generated.
EA 6.2. Automated Concrete Pavement Crack Sensing and Sealing (see Track 5) $500 k–$1 M Automated crack sensing and crack sealing equipment/vehicle. Automated concrete pavement crack sensing and crack sealing equipment that requires less labor, minimal traffic control, and provides a safer working environment for crack sealing.
EA 6.3. Fully Automated Concrete Pavement Restoration Equipment (see Track 5) $1 M–$2 M Fully automated one-pass DBR and patching equipment. Fully automated DBR and patching equipment that will expedite CPR processes, requiring less labor andlowering costs.
IJ 2.2. Development of Innovative Ways for Detecting Joint Deterioration in New and Older Pavements (see Track 6) $1 M–$1.5 M Validated and implementable procedures and guidelines for rapidly and reliably evaluating existing concrete pavement joints to determine preservation and repair treatments as well as structural and functional condition. Procedures to evaluate and recommend preservation and repair actions for existing joints.
RC 2.2. Precast Concrete Pavements for Slab Replacement (see Track 7) $500 k–$1 M Design standards, specifications, and best practice guidelines for using precast concrete in full-depth slab replacement. Best practice guidelines for using precast panels in full-depth slab replacement.
RC 2.4. Precast Joints for Joint Replacement (see Track 7) $500k–$1 M Design standards, specifications, and best practice guidelines for using precast panels for joint replacements. Best practice guidelines for using precast concrete panels for joint replacement.
RC 3.4. Accelerated Concrete Pavement Restoration Techniques (see Track 7) $500 k–$1 M Best practice guidelines for accelerated CPR techniques. Best practice guidelines for accelerated CPR techniques.
LL 1.3. Strategic Application of Preservation Treatments to Preserve Long Life Concrete Pavement (see Track 8) $500 k–$700 k Recommendations on the type, design, construction, and optimum application timing of restoration or rehabilitation treatments for extending pavements service life or indefinitely preserving the original pavement structure. Recommendations on the optimum application timing of restoration or rehabilitation treatments that will extend pavement service life or indefinitely preserve the original pavement structure; a tool for practicing engineers to use in designing long life, cost effective concrete pavements with minimal restoration.
PP 2.1. Guidelines for a Supplemental Pavement Management System and Feedback Loop for Continuous Concrete Pavement Improvements (see Track 10) $500 k–$750 k Guidelines for developing a supplemental PMS that includes design, construction, materials, and rehabilitation data in a format conducive to engineering decisionmaking. PMS that provide sufficient information for improving design, construction, materials, and rehabilitation; guidelines that produce information sufficient for key engineering decisions.
PP 2.2. Advancements in Forensic Analysis of Concrete Pavements (see Track 10) $500 k–$750 k A state-of-the-art forensic study manual. Forensic analysis that could be tied with the determination of remaining life to develop criteria for selecting appropriate rehabilitation and pavement strengthening actions to extend the existing pavement performance life.
BE 2.2. The Economic and Systemic Impacts of Concrete Pavement Mixof- Fixes Strategies (see Track 11) $250 k–$500 k Advanced mix-of-fixes strategies that address a variety of performance and budget requirements; demonstration of the need to develop additional concrete pavement products that meet price and performance criteria. Quantifications of a reasonable percentage of concrete pavement work with service life needs anywhere from 10 to 60 years.
AM 1.1. Flexible Cementitious Overlay Materials (see Track 12) $500 k–$1 M Specifications, design criteria, and construction procedures for flexible cementitious overlays. New, more durable overlay material that is not as susceptible to rutting and shoving as asphalt and can be placed in thin, flexible layers.

Table C. Environmental concrete pavement advancements.

Problem Statement Estimated Cost Products Benefits
MD 3.5. Functional PCC Pavement Models Adaptation (see Track 1) $250 k–$500 k Thoroughly documented models, also in computerized form, that can be used to predict the functional performance (e.g., smoothness) of a concrete pavement as a function of mix properties. Functional models predicting the linkage between concrete pavement function (e.g., smoothness, safety, noise) and mix properties in the mix design system; supplements for other ongoing efforts to develop these models.
ND 2.11. Tire-Pavement Noise Sensing (see Track 3) $500 k–$1 M Equipment for predicting pavement noise characteristics during construction. Prediction of tire-pavement noise potential during construction, allowing surface textures to be corrected while the concrete is still plastic and automatic adjustments to the surface texturing process to meet the tire-pavement noise restrictions; as-constructed pavements that meet stringent tire-pavement noise restrictions without the need for additional noise mitigation.
EA 5.1. High-Speed, In Situ PCC Pavement Breakup, Removal, and Processing (see Track 5) $2 M–$5 M Equipment for high-speed, one-pass, in situ breakup, removal, and processing of PCC pavement. Equipment that will permit old concrete pavement to be broken up, removed, and processed in place, allowing the concrete material to be recycled into base material or new concrete and significantly reducing or even eliminating waste material.
EA 5.2. Recycled Concrete Processing/ Improvement (see Track 5) $1 M–$2 M Equipment and recommendations for separating crushed concrete into usable materials. Equipment that will separate crushed concrete properly into materials that can be used for new concrete, minimizing or eliminating waste from reconstructed concrete pavements.
RC 2.5. Precast Quiet Pavement Surfaces (see Track 7) $500 k–$1 M Recommendations for noisereducing techniques for precast concrete pavement surfaces. Exploration of noise-reducing techniques that may not be viable for conventional concrete pavements but that can be incorporated into precast concrete pavements.
LL 1.1. Identifying Long Life Concrete Pavement Types, Design Features, Foundations, and Rehabilitation/ Maintenance Strategies (see Track 8) $800 k–$1.2 M Feasible pavement strategies and promising features for providing long life for each type of concrete pavement selected; case studies of past long life concrete pavements. Feasible pavement strategies for providing long life that will provide input throughout track 8 (Long Life Concrete Pavements).
BE 2.1. Achieving Sustainability with Concrete Pavements (see Track 11) $500 k–$750 k Macroanalysis of whole-life factors related to concrete pavements. A study of the broader issues associated with cement, aggregate, construction, rehabilitation, and concrete pavement salvaging that allows policymakers and engineers to examine the full societal value of concrete pavements and recommend improvements.
BE 5.1. The Impact of Concrete Pavement Reflectance, Absorption, and Emittance on the Urban Heat Island Effect (see Track 11) $250 k–$500 k A report detailing the impact of the reflectance of various concrete pavement types on the heat island effect. An examination of existing efforts to understand and reduce the heat island effect to determine their applicability to concrete pavements and help determine the impact of concrete pavements on the heat island effect, as well as the costs associated with reducing the effect.
AM 3.1. Cement Containing Titanium Dioxide (see Track 12) $100 k–$250 k Recommendations for the use of cement containing titanium dioxide in concrete paving mixes. Concrete pavements containing titanium dioxide that potentially can remove certain VOCs from the air, helping to reduce air pollution in urban areas.
AM 3.2. Sulfur Concrete (see Track 12) $100 k–$250 k Recommendations for using sulfur concrete in paving applications. Sulfur concrete that consists of 100 percent recycled material, made from byproducts of electricity production and petroleum refinement; a dense, acidresistant material that may have applications for concrete paving.
AM 3.3. Increased Percentages of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement as an Aggregate for Concrete Paving Mixtures (see Track 12) $1 M–$2 M Recommendations for using RAP as an aggregate for concrete paving mixes. RAP in concrete paving mixes, reducing the amount of RAP that must be disposed, as well as reducing the demand for virgin aggregate for concrete pavements.
AM 3.4. Mix Design Considerations with Recycled Concrete Aggregate (see Track 12) $1 M–$2 M Recommendations for using recycled concrete as aggregate in new pavement construction. Recycled concrete for aggregate in new concrete pavements, reducing the amount of reclaimed concrete pavement that must be disposed, as well as the demand for virgin aggregate in concrete pavements.
AM 3.5. Acceptance Criteria for Using Recycled Aggregate (see Track 12) $500 k–$1 M Recommendations for acceptance criteria and test procedures for recycled aggregate and concrete made with recycled aggregate. Established acceptance criteria and test procedures for recycled aggregate in new concrete pavements to promote the use of recycled aggregates, thereby reducing the demand for virgin aggregate for new construction.
AM 3.6. Waste Materials in Concrete Mixes (see Track 12) $1 M–2 M Recommendations (proportions and limits) for the use of waste materials in concrete paving mixes. Use of waste materials in concrete mixes, reducing the amount of waste materials and the demand for cement (which must be produced), while producing a better concrete mix.
AM 3.7. Ecocement for Concrete Mixes (see Track 12) $100 k–250 k Recommendations for the production and use of Ecocement in the United States. Ecocement that is produced during the incineration of solid waste and sewage sludge, reducing the amount of waste, while reducing the amount of cement required for concrete paving mixes, resulting in a faster setting concrete mix.
AM 3.8. Polymer Concrete Made from Recycled Plastic Bottles (see Track 12) $100 k–250 k Recommendations for using polymer concrete for paving applications. Polymer concrete that results in a more durable pavement or pavement overlay, making use of recycled plastic bottles and reducing the demand on landfills.

 

 


The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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