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ARCHIVED: Pavement Recycling Guidelines for State and Local Governments
Participant's Reference Book

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PDF Version (130 mb)

December 1997
Publication No. FHWA-SA-98-042

Table Of Contents

  1. Introduction to Pavement Recycling
  2. Performance Data of Recycled Mixtures
  3. Selection of Pavement for Recycling and Recycling Strategies
  4. Economics of Recycling
  5. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling - Batch Plant (Construction Methods and Equipment)
  6. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling - Drum Plant (Construction Methods and Equipment)
  7. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling (Materials and Mix Design)
  8. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling (Case Histories and QC/QA)
  9. Hot In-Place Recycling (Construction Methods and Equipment)
  10. Hot In-Place Recycling (Materials and Mix Design)
  11. Hot In-Place Recycling (Case History and QC/QA)
  12. Cold-Mix Asphalt Recycling - Central Plant (Construction Methods and Equipment)
  13. Cold In-Place Recycling (Construction Methods and Equipment)
  14. Cold-Mix Asphalt Recycling (Materials and Mix Design)
  15. Cold-Mix Asphalt Recycling (Case Histories and QC/QA)
  16. Full Depth Reclamation (Construction Methods and Equipment)
  17. Full Depth Reclamation (Case Histories and QC/QA)
  18. Structural Design of Recycled Pavements

Technical Report Standard Title Page

1. Report No.
2. Government Accession No.
3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle
Pavement Recycling Guidelines for State and Local Governments
Participant's Reference Book
5. Report Date
December 1997
6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)
Prithvi S. Kandhal, Rajib B. Mallick
8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address
National Center for Asphalt Technology
211 Ramsay Hall
Auburn University, AL 36849
10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)
11. Contract or Grant No.
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Federal Highway Administration
Office of Engineering / Office of Technology Applications
1200 New Jersey Avenue SE
Washington, DC 20590
13. Type of Report and Period Covered
Final Report
September 1995 - December 1997
14. Sponsoring Agency Code
15. Supplementary Notes
Contracting Officer's Technical Representative - Mike Moravec; Phone: 202-366-6626
16. Abstract

Recycling or reuse of existing asphalt pavement materials to produce new pavement materials has the following advantages:

  1. reduced costs of construction,
  2. conservation of aggregate and binder,
  3. preservation of the existing pavement geometrics,
  4. preservation of the environment, and
  5. conservation of energy

This document was prepared to provide the following information on recycling of asphalt pavements:

  1. performance data,
  2. legislation / specification limits,
  3. selection of pavement for recycling and recycling strategies,
  4. economics of recycling, and
  5. structural design of recycled pavements

The following recycling methods have been included:

  • hot-mix asphalt recycling (both batch and drum plants),
  • asphalt surface recycling,
  • hot in-place recycling,
  • cold-mix asphalt recycling, and
  • full depth reclamation.

Materials and mix design, construction methods and equipment, case histories and quality control / quality assurance have been discussed for all recycling methods.

This participant's reference book was developed to support a 2-day workshop on pavement recycling guidelines for state and local governments.

17. Key Words
Pavement recycling, asphalt pavements, hot recycling, cold recycling, selection, economics, pavement design, performance.
18. Distribution Statement
No restrictions. This document is available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161
19. Security Classification (of this report)
20. Security Classification (of this page)
21. No. of Pages
22. Price

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) / Reproduction of completed page authorized


Sincere appreciation and acknowledgment is given to the following companies who furnished materials used in the development of this course.

  • Alliance for Transportation Research
  • Asphalt Recycling & Reclaiming Association
  • Astec Industries
  • Brown and Brown, Inc.
  • Cedarapids, Inc.
  • CMI Corporation
  • Cutler Repaving Inc.
  • Dustrol, Inc.
  • E.J. Breneman, Inc.
  • Gorman Bros., Inc.
  • Hamm Compactors, Inc.
  • Highway Rehabilitation Corporation
  • Martec Recycling Corporation
  • Midland Machinery Co.
  • Pavement Recycling Technologies, Inc.
  • Remixer Contracting Company, Inc.
  • Terrel Research
  • Valentine Surfacing
  • Wirtgen America, Inc.


Recycling of existing asphalt pavements for pavement rehabilitation or reconstruction has the following advantages: (a) reduced costs of construction, (b) conservation of asphalt and aggregate, (c) preservation of the existing pavement geometrics, (d) preservation of the environment, and (e) conservation of energy. Recycling is no longer considered an experimental process by many highway agencies. These agencies permit recycling alternate on a routine basis in their standard highway construction specifications and/or special provisions. There is a need to train government highway officials and engineers in pavement recycling so that its use becomes wide spread and benefits are realized at all levels.

This participant's reference book has been developed to support a 2-day workshop on all aspects of recycling of asphalt pavements.

The objectives of this 2-day training course are to provide participants with:

  1. An understanding of the various methods and technology (hot and cold) of recycling asphalt pavements.
  2. The ability to determine when asphalt recycling is a viable pavement rehabilitation alternative.
  3. The knowledge of how to select the most appropriate asphalt recycling method.
  4. Information on equipment, construction methods, and QC/QA involved in recycling.

The 2-day training will provide an in-depth technical knowledge of the following recycling methods: hot mix asphalt recycling (both batch and drum plants), hot in-place recycling, cold-mix asphalt recycling (both in-place and central plant), and full depth reclamation of asphalt pavements. The training will also include the following topics: performance data of recycled mixes, selection of pavements for recycling and recycling strategies, and economics of recycling. Although mix design and structural design of recycled pavement are not included in the 2-day workshop, information on these topics are included in the participant's handbook and a set of visual aids is available for mix design and pavement design engineers.

The training can be divided into independent, self contained session modules capable of being added or deleted depending on the participants' needs and time constraints. For example, session modules can be put together to address the following audience: (1) administrators, (2) pavement design engineers, (3) mix design engineers/technicians, and (4) construction engineers/inspectors.

Each chapter in this participant's reference book represents a corresponding workshop session in the 2-day workshop. Some repetitions in a few chapters are inevitable because some participants may not be interested to read all chapters if they are attending a specialized, shorter version of the 2-day workshop. Each chapter contains a list of references at the end for further reading if so desired.

Mr. Mike Moravec of FHWA's Office of Technology Applications is the Contracting Officer's Technical Representative for this project. This manual was co-authored by:

Prithvi S. Kandhal
Associate Director, NCAT

Rajib B. Mallick
Senior Research Associate, NCAT

Pavement recycling operation

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Updated: 10/21/2022
Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000