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Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-12-033    Date:  December 2012
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-12-033
Date: December 2012


The Exploratory Advanced Research Program

Recent International Activity in Cooperative Vehicle–Highway Automation Systems

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This report has been prepared with the support of the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA’s) Exploratory Advanced Research Program under the technical supervision of the FHWA Turner–Fairbank Highway Research Program’s Office of Operations Research and Development. This work was initiated to provide the U.S. transportation research community with a better understanding of the current state of research and development and to encourage broader thinking about cooperative vehicle–highway automation systems based on developments in other countries. This topic has received increased attention in the industrialized world, even while interest in the United States has been at a relatively low level in recent years. It is now time that the United States take a fresh look at the technical and institutional issues associated with vehicle automation and its implications for the future of the surface transportation system, particularly when interest in the topic has been growing within the automotive and information technology industries.

Joseph I. Peters
Office of Operations Research and Development

Debra S. Elston
Office of Corporate Research, Technology, and Innovation Management



This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document. The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers’ names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

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Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.


2. Government Accession No. 3 Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

Recent International Activity in Cooperative Vehicle–Highway
Automation Systems

5. Report Date

December 2012

6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)

S.E. Shladover

8. Performing Organization Report No.


9. Performing Organization Name and Address

University of California PATH Program
1357 S.46th Street, Bldg. 452
Richmond, CA 94804-4648

Cambridge Systematics, Inc.
100 Cambridge Park Drive, Suite 400
Cambridge, MA 02140-2322

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

11. Contract or Grant No.

Contract DTFH61-06-D-00004, Task Order CA04-070

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Corporate Research, Technology, and Innovation Management
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Final Report, January 2011 – December 2012

14. Sponsoring Agency Code


15. Supplementary Notes

FHWA’s Contracting Officer’s Task Manager (COTM): Robert Ferlis, HRDO-2

16. Abstract

This report summarizes the current state of the art in cooperative vehicle–highway automation systems in Europe and Asia based on a series of meetings, demonstrations, and site visits, combined with the results of literature review. This review covers systems that provide drivers with a range of automation capabilities, from driver assistance to fully automated driving, with an emphasis on cooperative systems that involve active exchanges of information between the vehicles and the roadside and among separate vehicles. The trends in development and deployment of these systems are examined by country, and the similarities and differences relative to the U.S. situation are noted, leading toward recommendations for future U.S. action.

The Literature Review on Recent International Activity in Cooperative Vehicle-Highway Automation Systems is published separately as FHWA-HRT-13-025.

17. Key Words

Automated Vehicles, Autonomous Systems, Autonomous Vehicles, Cooperative Automation Systems, Intelligent Transportation Systems, Personal Rapid Transit Vehicles, Public Transport Systems, Vehicle Automation Systems, Vehicle-to Infrastructure Cooperation, Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications.

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

19. Security Classification
(of this report)


20. Security Classification
(of this page)


21. No. of Pages


22. Price


Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized

SI* (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors




Institutional and Political Environment for Cooperative Vehicle–Highway Automation

Current European Projects in Cooperative Vehicle–Highway Automation

Current Asian Activities in Cooperative Vehicle–Highway Automation

Comparison with Current U.S. Status




AAC Advisory acceleration control
ACC Adaptive cruise control
ADAS Advanced driver assistance system
AHSRA Advanced Cruise–Assist Highway Systems Research Association
AIST Agency for Industrial Science and Technology
BASt Bundesanstalt für Strassenwesen (Federal Highway Research Institute in Germany)
BMBF Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany)
BMFT Bundesministerium für Forschung und Technologie (Federal Ministry of Research and Technology in Germany)
CACC Cooperative adaptive cruise control
CHAUFFEUR European Commission–funded truck–platooning research project
CVHAS Cooperative vehicle–highway automation systems
CVS Computer–controlled vehicle system
DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DG Directorate General within the European Commission
DG-CONNECT Directorate General for Communications Networks, Content and Technology
DG-ENTR Directorate General for Enterprise and Industry
DG-INFSO Directorate General for Information Society and Media (obsolete)
DG-MOVE Directorate General for Mobility and Transport
DG-RTDDirectorate General for Research and Innovation
DLR Deutschen Zentrum für Luft– und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center)
DriveC2X European project on communication between cars and other cars/infrastructure/nomadic devices
DSRC Dedicated short–range communication
DVI Driver–vehicle interface
EC European Commission
EU European Union
GM General Motors
GPS Global positioning system
HAVEit Highly Automated Vehicles for Intelligent Transport
HIDO Highway Industry Development Organization
HMI Human–machine interface
I2V Infrastructure–to–vehicle
ICT Information and Communication Technology
IFSTTAR Institut Français des Sciences et Technologies des Transports, de l’Aménagement et des Réseaux (French Institute of Science and Technology for Transportation, Development and Networks)
IMTS Intelligent Multimode Transit System
INRETS Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leurs Sécurité (National Institute for Research on Transportation Systems and Their Safety in France)
INRIA Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique (National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control in France)
ITS Intelligent transportation systems
LCPC Laboratoire Centrale des Ponts et Chaussées (Central laboratory of bridges and roads in France)
LIVIC Laboratoire sur les Interactions Véhicule-Infrastructure- Conducteur (Laboratory on the interactions among vehicles, infrastructure, and drivers in France)
METI Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
MITI Ministry of International Trade and Industry (obsolete)
MLIT Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport
NAHSC National Automated Highway Systems Consortium
NPA National Police Agency
NSF National Science Foundation
OEM Original equipment manufacturer
PARTAGE French project on driver assistance systems
PATH Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways
PROMETHEUS PROgraMme for European Traffic with Highest Efficiency and Unprecedented Safety
PRT Personal rapid transit
PSA French auto manufacturer (maker of Peugeot and Citroën)
RCA Radio Corporation of America
RWTH Rheinisch–Westfälische Technische Hochschule (Rhine–Westfalian Technical University in Aachen, Germany)
SARTRE SAfe Road TRains for the Environment
SCORE@F Système COopératif Routier Expérimental Français (French Experimental Cooperative Road System field operational test)
SPITS Strategic Platform for Intelligent Traffic Systems
TMC Transportation management center
TNO Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek (Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research)
TRL Technology readiness level
V2I Vehicle–to–infrastructure
V2V Vehicle–to–vehicle
VITA II VIsion Technology Application (second generation test vehicle in PROMETHEUS by Daimler–Benz)



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