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This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-04-035
Date: October 1998 - September 2003

Technical Publications Catalog

Safety

TechBriefs

A Review of the Impacts of the Towaway Reporting Threshold on a Highway Safety Program

FHWA-RD-01-114

This summary report reviews the potential impacts of a towaway reporting threshold on the North Carolina Highway Safety Improvement Program listings, and on the locations and types of crash patterns identified on collision diagrams by field engineers.

www.hsisinfo.org/pdf/01-114.pdf

Advanced Traveler Information System Capabilities: Human Factors Research Needs

FHWA-RD-98-186

This document summarizes the identified human factors research needs for advanced traveler information systems.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/humanfac/98186.cfm

Basic Collision Warning and Driver Information Systems: Human Factors Research Needs

FHWA-RD-98-184

This document summarizes the identified human factors research needs for basic safety and information systems, one of five configurations of in-vehicle safety and driver information systems.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/humanfac/98184.cfm

Evaluation of Design Consistency Methods for Two-Lane Rural Highways, Technical Summary

FHWA-RD-99-174

This document pertains to new data on the design consistency module, one of seven modules being developed as part of the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/99174/99174.pdf

GIS-Based Crash Referencing and Analysis System

FHWA-RD-99-081

This document presents information about geographic information systems (GIS), a collection of hardware and software used to edit, analyze, and display geographical information stored in a spatial database. Computerized crash analysis systems in which crash data, roadway inventory data, and traffic operations data can be merged are used in many States to identify problem locations and assess the effectiveness of implemented countermeasures.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/99081/index.cfm

GIS Tools for Improving Pedestrian and Bike Safety

FHWA-RD-00-153

This document presents information about geographic information system (GIS) software that turns statistical data such as crashes and geographic data such as roads and crash locations into meaningful information for spatial analysis and mapping. In this project, GIS-based analytical techniques were applied to a series of pedestrian and bicycle safety issues, including safe routes for walking to school, selection of streets for bicycle routes, and high crash zones for pedestrians.

http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/tools/docs/gis.pdf

Highway Fog Warning System

FHWA-RD-99-110

This document analyzes a study conducted to develop a low-cost, reliable fog sensor. The need for a highway fog warning system has long been internationally recognized. With such a system, motorists could avoid often-fatal pile-up crashes caused by dense or patchy fog.

www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov//JPODOCS/PERIODIC//76M01!.PDF

Human Factors Design Research Needs for the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) Program

FHWA-RD-98-147

This document summarizes the activities and results of a preliminary human factors review for the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) program. The objective of the project was to help the U.S. Department of Transportation identify human factors work that needs to be done early in the life cycle of the IVI program to ensure safe and well-engineered vehicles.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/humanfac/98147.cfm

Integrated Capabilities In Heavy Vehicles: Human Factors Research Needs

FHWA-RD-98-187

This document summarizes the identified human factors research needs for integrated in-vehicle systems for commercial vehicle operations.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/humanfac/98187.cfm

Integrated ITS Capabilities In Transit Vehicles: Human Factors Research Needs

FHWA-RD-98-188

This document summarizes the identified human factors research needs for integrated intelligent transportation systems capabilities in transit vehicles.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/humanfac/98188.cfm

Intersection Collision Warning System

FHWA-RD-99-103

This document describes a project on an intersection collision warning system. It was designed to enhance driver awareness of traffic situations at intersections by providing timely and easily understood warnings of vehicles entering the intersection.

Library and www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/99103/index.cfm

Roundabouts: An Informational Guide

FHWA-RD-00-068

This document presents information on roundabout intersections based on established international and U.S. practices and supplemented by recent research. The guide is comprehensive in recognition of the diverse needs of transportation professionals and the public for introductory material through design detail, as well as the wide range of potential applications of roundabout intersections.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/00068/index.cfm

Rural ITS

FHWA-RD-99-102

This document presents information about rural intelligent transportation systems (ITS) that focuses on travelers' and operators' needs in non-urban areas of the United States. Rural ITS infrastructure aims to improve the quality of life for rural residents and travelers by facilitating safer, more secure, and more efficient movement of people and goods.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/operations/its/99102/index.cfm

Safety Effectiveness of Intersection Left- and Right-Turn Lanes

FHWA-RD-02-103

This document summarizes the findings of a report called Safety Effectiveness of Intersection Left- and Right-Turn Lanes (FHWA-RD-02-089). The report presents the results of research on the safety effectiveness of providing left- and right-turn lanes for at-grade intersections.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/02089/index.cfm

Safety Effects of the Conversion of Rural Two-Lane Roadways to Four-Lane Roadways

FHWA-RD-99-206

This summary report analyzes the issue of conversion of rural roadways from two lanes to four lanes, which is of increasing importance to State and local transportation agencies, the Federal Highway Administration, and the public. Interest also is increasing in better defining the safety effects of such conversions, since conversions often become highly politicized.

www.hsisinfo.org/pdf/99-206.pdf

The Bicycle Compatibility Index: A Level of Service Concept

FHWA-RD-99-127

This document describes the Bicycle Compatibility Index, a model for evaluating roadways to determine geometric and operational requirements to allow efficient operation of both bicycles and motor vehicles. It was developed under the Federal Highway Administration's Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Research Program, which focuses on identifying problem areas for pedestrians and bicycles, developing analysis tools that allow planners to target problem areas, and evaluating countermeasures to reduce crashes involving pedestrians and bicyclists.

Library and http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/tools/docs/techbrief0799.pdf

The Effects of Airbags on Severity Indices for Roadside Objects

FHWA-RD-98-056

This summary report analyzes collisions with roadside objects and measures the average severity of their impacts, which will aid in determining where best to spend roadside improvement funds. Airbags have been shown to reduce the severity of driver injury in roadside crashes, and this report uses a large sample of airbag-equipped vehicles and a multi-State database for analyzing and validating the effectiveness of airbags.

www.hsisinfo.org/pdf/98-056.pdf

Using GIS in the Analysis of Truck Crashes

FHWA-RD-99-119

This summary report presents computerized crash analysis systems in which crash data, roadway inventory data, and traffic operations data are merged and used in many States and municipalities to identify problem locations and assess the effectiveness of implemented countermeasures. Integrating this traditional system with a geographic information system offering spatial referencing capabilities and graphical displays can result in a more effective crash analysis program.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/99-119.pdf

Technical Reports

1994 Ford Explorer XLT Broadside Collision With a Narrow Fixed Object: FOIL Test Number 98S005

FHWA-RD-98-150

This report contains the test procedures, setup, and results from the first of three broadside crash tests conducted at the Federal Highway Administration's Federal Outdoor Impact Laboratory. The three vehicles used for these tests were a 1994 Ford Explorer XLT (covered in this report), a 1994 Toyota pickup truck, and a 1995 Honda Accord LX.

www.ntis.gov, PB99-130296

1994 Toyota Pickup Broadside Collision With a Narrow Fixed Object: FOIL Test Number 98S006

FHWA-RD-98-151

This report contains the test procedures, setup, and results from the second of three broadside crash tests conducted at the Federal Highway Administration's Federal Outdoor Impact Laboratory. The three vehicles used for these tests were a 1994 Ford Explorer XLT, a 1994 Toyota pickup truck (covered in this report), and a 1995 Honda Accord LX.

www.ntis.gov, PB99-130304

1995 Honda Accord LX Broadside Collision With a Narrow Fixed Object: FOIL Test Number 98S007

FHWA-RD-99-024

This report describes the test procedures, setup, and results from the last of three broadside crash tests conducted at the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) Federal Outdoor Impact Laboratory. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration enlisted FHWA to aid in developing laboratory test procedures to be used in an amended version of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201.

www.ntis.gov, PB99-130312

A Comparative Analysis of Bicycle Lanes Versus Wide Curb Lanes: Final Report

FHWA-RD-99-034

This report provides a description of the research methodology, data collection procedures, and analysis used in a study to compare the safety and operations of bicycle lanes and wide curb lanes.

www.ntis.gov, PB2000-101611 and www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/pedbike/99034/99034.pdf

A Safety Evaluation of UVA Vehicle Headlights

FHWA-RD-99-074

This report investigates the safety of using ultraviolet-activated (UVA) fluorescent technology in vehicle headlights. The major project activities involved determining changes in driver performance and visibility of roadway delineation and pedestrians, and assessing the effects on safety. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis was conducted that compared the expense of installing and maintaining fluorescent materials to any savings achieved from the reduction in highway crashes.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/99074/index.cfm

A Safety Evaluation of UVA Vehicle Headlights

FHWA-RD-99-079

This report discusses research designed to investigate the safety and cost/benefits possible from the use of ultraviolet-activated (UVA) fluorescent technology for vehicle headlights. The major project activities involved determining changes in driver performance and visibility of roadway delineation and pedestrians, and assessing the effects on safety.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/99079/index.cfm

Accident Models for Two-Lane Rural Roads: Segments and Intersections

FHWA-RD-98-133

This report describes the collection, analysis, and modeling of crash and roadway data pertaining to segments and intersections on rural roads in Minnesota (1985-1989) and Washington State (1993-1995). The segments are on two-lane roads, and the intersections are three- and four-legged intersections that are stop-controlled on the minor legs. Data were acquired from the Highway Safety Information System, photologs, construction plans, and State databases. More than 1,300 segments and 700 intersections are included in the final samples on which the modeling is based.

www.ntis.gov, PB99-142713 and www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/98133/index.cfm

Advanced Traveler Information Systems and Commercial Vehicle Operations Components of the Intelligent Transportation Systems: On-Road Evaluation of ATIS Messages

FHWA-RD-99-132

This report describes the results of an on-road study that examined how advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) information influences driver behavior. The objective of the study was to develop ATIS design guidelines, primarily for in-vehicle signing and information systems and in-vehicle safety advisory and warning systems, to define the amount and format of information that can safely be displayed in an ATIS.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/99132/index.cfm

Alternative Design Consistency Rating Methods for Two-Lane Rural Highways, Final Report

FHWA-RD-99-172

This report investigates alternatives that could be used in the design consistency module of the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model.

www.ntis.gov, PB2001-102932

An Evaluation of High-Visibility Crosswalk Treatment-Clearwater, Florida

FHWA-RD-00-105

This report examines the effect of a novel overhead illuminated crosswalk sign and high-visibility ladder-style crosswalk in Florida. This was part of a larger Federal Highway Administration research study investigating the effectiveness of innovative engineering treatments on pedestrian safety.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/00105/index.cfm

An Evaluation of Illuminated Pedestrian Push Buttons in Windsor, Ontario

FHWA-RD-00-102

This report evaluates the effects of illuminated push buttons on pedestrian behavior. This was part of a larger Federal Highway Administration research study investigating the effectiveness of innovative engineering treatments on pedestrian safety.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/00102/index.cfm

Applying Vehicle Dynamics Analysis and Visualization to Roadway and Roadside Studies

FHWA-RD-98-030

This report describes the application of vehicle dynamic modeling and visualization to highway safety design within the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model. This concept is intended to allow highway engineers to test roadway designs by computer simulation of vehicle encounters with roadway geometry and to assess roadway alignment and visibility features using three-dimensional graphical visualization.

www.ntis.gov, PB99-162786

Bicycle Lanes Versus Wide Curb Lanes: Operational and Safety Findings and Countermeasure Recommendations

FHWA-RD-99-035

This report describes results of an investigation of the long-standing issue of whether bicycle lanes or wide curb lanes are preferable. The study indicated that both bicycle lanes and wide curb lanes can and should be used to improve riding conditions for bicyclists.

www.ntis.gov, PB2000-101612 and http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/pedbike/99035/index.cfm

Capacity Analysis of Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities: Recommended Procedures for the "Bicycles" Chapter of the Highway Capacity Manual

FHWA-RD-98-108

This report contains new and revised procedures for analyzing various types of exclusive and mixed-use bicycle facilities. These procedures, based on research on domestic and international bicycle operations conducted to date, are recommended to determine the level of service for bicycle facilities. This document addresses procedures for streets, roads, and intersections with designated bicycle facilities.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/98-108/cover.htm

Capacity Analysis of Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities: Recommended Procedures for the "Pedestrians" Chapter of the Highway Capacity Manual

FHWA-RD-98-107

This report contains new and revised procedures for analyzing various types of exclusive and mixed-use pedestrian facilities. These procedures are recommended to determine the level of service for pedestrian facilities on the basis of a summary of available U.S. and international literature, as described in the Federal Highway Administration document, Literature Synthesis for Chapter 13, "Pedestrians," of the Highway Capacity Manual, by the same authors.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/pedbike/98108/index.cfm

Capacity Analysis of Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities: Recommended Procedures for the "Signalized Intersections" Chapter of the Highway Capacity Manual

FHWA-RD-98-106

This report describes the effects of pedestrians and bicyclists on the capacity of signalized intersections. It incorporates the results of a multiregional data-collection effort that confirms the validity of a conflict zone occupancy approach to analyze pedestrian and bicycle effects on signalized intersection capacity. These procedures augment the existing signalized intersection level of service procedures in the Highway Capacity Manual for locations with substantial pedestrian and/or bicycle traffic conflicting with vehicular turning movements.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/pedbike/98106/index.cfm

Characteristics and Needs for Overhead Guide Sign Illumination From Vehicular Headlamps

FHWA-RD-98-135

This report covers a literature review to determine the minimum luminance value needed and an overview of the equipment developed for field studies of vehicle headlamp illuminance. It also includes the results of a small laboratory study to determine minimum luminance of highway guide signs, field studies to determine illuminance values from a sample of the fleet of vehicles on highways, and a study of illuminance values obtained from the headlamps of 50 known vehicles of varying ages and types.

www.ntis.gov, PB99-175549

Commercial Vehicle Driver Survey: Assessment of Parking Needs and Preferences

FHWA-RD-01-160

This report measures truck driver parking needs and preferences. Through a nationwide survey of truck drivers, the study sought to determine how truck drivers plan for and address their parking needs, how they select when and at which facilities to park, and what they think of the adequacy of current parking facilities.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/01160/index.cfm

Crash Models for Rural Intersections: Four-Lane by Two-Lane Stop-Controlled and Two-Lane by Two-Lane Signalized

FHWA-RD-99-128

This report describes the collection, analysis, and modeling of crash and roadway data for intersections on rural roads in California and Michigan from 1993 to 1995. Three classes of intersections are considered: (1) three-legged intersections with major road four-lane and minor leg two-lane stop controls, (2) four-legged intersections with major road four-lane and minor legs two-lane stop controls, and (3) signalized intersections with two-lane major and minor roads. Data were acquired from the Highway Safety Information System, State and Federal photologs, and field work at all intersections.

Library and www.ntis.gov, PB2000-102367

Development of Human Factors Guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) and Commercial Vehicle Operations: An Examination of Driver Performance Under Reduced Visibility Conditions When Using an In-Vehicle Signing and Information System

FHWA-RD-99-130

This report presents a study to determine the benefits realized by drivers using an in-vehicle signing and information system. Three measures of driver performance were collected, along with subjective preference data. The results indicated that the use of the in-vehicle signing and information system display led to more appropriate speeds and greater reaction distances for all drivers.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/99130/index.cfm

Development of Human Factors Guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) and Commercial Vehicle Operations: Driver Response To Unexpected Situations When Using an In-Vehicle Information System

FHWA-RD-99-131

This report presents a study that investigated advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) and commercial vehicle operations applications, and their effect on driver behavior and performance. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the benefits and drawbacks of using an in-vehicle information system when the driver is confronted with unexpected situations.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/99131/index.cfm

Development of Prototype Driver Models for Highway Design

FHWA-RD-99-069

This report addresses the development of the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM). The goal of the IHSDM research program is to develop a systematic approach that will allow highway designers to explicitly consider the safety implications of design decisions from the planning stage through the final design stage.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/99069/index.cfm

Dynamic Evaluation of the New FOIL Instrumented Rigid Pole: FOIL Test Numbers 96F008 Through 96F015

FHWA-RD-99-026

This report contains the test procedures, setup, and results from seven frontal full-scale vehicle crash tests conducted at the Federal Highway Administration's Federal Outdoor Impact Laboratory. This series of seven crash tests served multiple purposes. Its main objective was to make the new larger-capacity rigid pole operational.

Library and www.ntis.gov, PB99-130270

Effects of a Towaway Reporting Threshold on Crash Analysis Results (Summary Report)

FHWA-RD-98-114

This report analyzes procedures such as problem identification, countermeasures identification, and countermeasures evaluation commonly conducted by users of crash data when establishing policy, developing programs, and creating new roadway designs to enhance highway safety.

PDC Email: report.center@dot.gov

Estimating Roadside Encroachment Rates with the Combined Strengths of Accident- and Encroachment-Based Approaches, Final Report

FHWA-RD-01-124

This report assesses the consistency of estimating vehicle roadside encroachment rates using accident-based prediction models. The research used two data sets developed from the Federal Highway Administration's Highway Safety Information System. These data are more recent than those reported in previous assessments. By synthesizing the models developed from this and previous studies, a roadside encroachment rate estimation model was recommended. The model allows encroachment rates to be estimated by average annual daily traffic volume, lane width, horizontal curvature, and vertical grade for undivided, two-lane rural roads.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/01124.pdf

Evaluation of Automated Pedestrian Detection at Signalized Intersections

FHWA-RD-00-097

This report evaluates the safety effects of microwave and infrared detectors used in conjunction with standard pedestrian push buttons. This study was part of a larger Federal Highway Administration research study investigating the effectiveness of innovative engineering treatments on pedestrian safety.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/00097/index.cfm

Evaluation of Design Consistency Methods for Two-Lane Rural Highways, Executive Summary

FHWA-RD-99-173

This report provides a speed-profile model that can be incorporated into the design consistency module of the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model. The model can be used to evaluate the design consistency of the roadway or develop a speed profile for an alignment.

www.ntis.gov, PB2001-102933

Evaluation of the Blue Bike-Lane Treatment Used in Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Conflict Areas in Portland, Oregon

FHWA-RD-00-150

This report documents a 1997-1999 study by the city of Portland, OR, on the use of colored markings and a novel signing system to delineate selected conflict areas. The University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center analyzed the project data and found that most behavior changes were positive.

http://www.hsrc.unc.edu/research_library/PDFs/evaluationbluebike2000.pdf

Expert Systems for Crash Data Collection: Final Report

FHWA-RD-99-052

This report discusses the demand for better-quality crash data to meet a wide variety of needs. The goal of the Federal Highway Administration's Expert Systems for Crash Data Collection Program was to use expert systems technology to improve the accuracy and consistency of police-reported data. The program included the development and evaluation of three expert systems: (1) seat belt use derivation; (2) vehicle damage rating, including extent of deformation; and (3) roadside barrier problem identification.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/99052/index.cfm

Full-Coverage Collision Warning: Human Factors Research Needs

FHWA-RD-98-185

This report summarizes the identified human factors research needs for a full 360-degree collision warning coverage, one of five configurations of in-vehicle safety and driver information systems.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/98185/index.cfm

Full-Scale Crash Evaluation of a Modified Eccentric Loader Terminal, Final Report

FHWA-RD-99-031

This report presents the results of four of five National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 350-type crash tests conducted on a modified eccentric loader terminal system for W-beam guardrails. All vehicles used in this test were 1990 and 1991 year models.

www.ntis.gov, PB2000-100277

Guidebook on Methods to Estimate Non-Motorized Travel: Supporting Documentation

FHWA-RD-98-166

This two-volume report provides a means for practitioners to better understand and estimate bicycle and pedestrian travel and to address transportation planning needs. The guidebook describes and compares the various methods that can be used to forecast the demand of non-motorized travel and supports the prioritization analyses of non-motorized projects. This volume provides supporting documentation.

Library and http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/pedbike/98165/index.cfm

Highway Safety Information Systems Guidebook for the Minnesota State Data Files: Volume I

FHWA-RD-01-058

This guidebook contains Minnesota State data files for the Highway Safety Information System, a multistate database that contains crash, roadway inventory, and traffic volume data. The purpose of the guidebook is to provide sufficient information for both the analyst and the programmer to use the system effectively. This is Volume I of the guidebook, containing a basic description of the State data system, an alphabetized listing of all available variables, and definitions of each category within each variable.

http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/17000/17800/17828/PB2001104631.pdf

Highway Safety Information Systems Guidebook for the Minnesota State Data Files: Volume II

FHWA-RD-01-059

This guidebook contains Minnesota State data files for the Highway Safety Information System, a multistate database that contains crash, roadway inventory, and traffic volume data. The purpose of the guidebook is to provide sufficient information for both the analyst and the programmer to use the system effectively. This is Volume II of the guidebook, containing single-variable tabulations for a large number of key variables in each file. The tables include data covering 5 years.

http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/17000/17800/17829/PB2001104632.pdf

Highway Safety Information Systems Guidebook for the Utah State Data Files: Volume I

FHWA-RD-01-056

This guidebook contains Utah State data files for the Highway Safety Information System, a multistate database that contains crash, roadway inventory, and traffic volume data. The purpose of the guidebook is to provide sufficient information for both the analyst and the programmer to use the system effectively. This is Volume I of the guidebook, containing a basic description of the State data system, an alphabetized listing of all available variables, and definitions of each category within each variable.

http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/17000/17800/17830/PB2001104633.pdf

Highway Safety Information Systems Guidebook for the Utah State Data Files: Volume II

FHWA-RD-01-057

This guidebook contains Utah State data files for the Highway Safety Information System, a multistate database that contains crash, roadway inventory, and traffic volume data. The purpose of the guidebook is to provide sufficient information for both the analyst and the programmer to use the system effectively. This is Volume II of the guidebook, containing single-variable tabulations for a large number of key variables in each file. The tables include data covering 5 years.

http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/17000/17800/17831/PB2001104634.pdf

Honda Accord LX Broadside Collision With a Narrow Fixed Object: FOIL Test Number 97S003

FHWA-RD-98-008

This report documents the test procedures, setup, and results from the first of five broadside crash tests between a 1995 Honda Accord LX four-door sedan and the Federal Outdoor Impact Laboratory 300K instrumented rigid pole.

www.ntis.gov, PB98-131204

Honda Accord LX Broadside Collision With a Narrow Fixed Object: FOIL Test Number 97S004

FHWA-RD-98-009

This report documents the test procedures, setup, and results from the second of five broadside crash tests between a 1995 Honda Accord LX four-door sedan and the Federal Outdoor Impact Laboratory 300K instrumented rigid pole.

www.ntis.gov, PB98-131733

Honda Accord LX Broadside Collision With a Narrow Fixed Object: FOIL Test Number 97S005

FHWA-RD-98-010

This report documents the test procedures, setup, and results from the third of five broadside crash tests between a 1995 Honda Accord LX four-door sedan and the Federal Outdoor Impact Laboratory 300K instrumented rigid pole.

www.ntis.gov, PB98-131675

Honda Accord LX Broadside Collision With a Narrow Fixed Object: FOIL Test Number 97S006

FHWA-RD-98-011

This report documents the test procedures, setup, and results from the fourth of five broadside crash tests between a 1995 Honda Accord LX four-door sedan and the Federal Outdoor Impact Laboratory 300K instrumented rigid pole.

www.ntis.gov, PB98-131709

IHSDM Intersection Diagnostic Review Model Knowledge Base Report

FHWA-RD-02-045

This report documents the results of a study on the development of an expert system for the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM). The objective was to develop software to perform a diagnostic review of intersections on rural two-lane highways, referred to as the Intersection Diagnostic Review Model (IDRM). The report focuses on documenting the knowledge base developed for the IDRM software. It also documents the knowledge structure, problem definitions, models, decision algorithms, formulas, and parameter values implemented in the software.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/ihsdm/02045/index.cfm

Implementation of GIS-Based Highway Safety Analyses: Bridging the Gap

FHWA-RD-01-039

This report's goal is to discuss geographic information systems (GIS) and safety integration in terms that can be understood by both safety engineers and GIS specialists, and to describe issues and solutions involved in the integration of GIS into safety-related analysis efforts. The report is intended to serve as an educational document for both safety engineers and GIS professionals and to initiate a common dialogue. It is designed to bridge the gap between the desire to implement GIS highway safety analysis in an organization and the development of a geographic information systems for transportation (GIS-T) infrastructure to support that effort.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/1039.pdf

Influence of a Trailer's Axle Arrangement and Loads on the Stability and Control of a Tractor/Semitrailer

FHWA-RD-97-123

This report reveals the safety-related dynamic performance effects of varying a trailer's axle arrangement (tandem versus tridem), suspension type (steel versus air), tire type (dual versus wide-base single), and axle loading level. Typical five- and six-axle tractor/semitrailers (483-centimeter (188-inch) tractor and 14.6-meter (48-foot) van-semitrailer) were used in this study. Vehicle safety-related dynamic performance was examined, using a recent version of the constant-speed yaw/roll model developed by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

www.ntis.gov, PB99-107385

Injuries to Pedestrians and Bicyclists: An Analysis Based on Hospital Emergency Department Data

FHWA-RD-99-078

This report presents a descriptive analysis of data collected over a year at eight hospital emergency departments in California, New York, and North Carolina. Information was gathered on 2,509 persons treated for injuries incurred while bicycling or walking. The emergency department data were examined in conjunction with statewide hospital discharge and motor vehicle crash data in an attempt to better define the overall scope and magnitude of the pedestrian and bicyclist injury problem.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/pedbike/99078/index.cfm

In-Vehicle Display Icons and Other Information Elements: Literature Review

FHWA-RD-98-164

This report on a study of in-vehicle icons describes the objectives, methods, and findings associated with performing a literature review. The purpose was to conduct a review of relevant symbols and research, including the use of symbols by manufacturers and after-market vendors for existing and planned in-vehicle systems.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/98164/index.cfm

In-Vehicle Display Icons and Other Information Elements: Preliminary Assessment of Visual Symbols

FHWA-RD-99-196

This report on in-vehicle display icons describes the methods and results associated with the study's preliminary assessment of visual symbols. The purpose of the assessment is twofold: (1) identify credible procedures, heuristics, and principles for the joint use of visual, auditory, and tactile information to present in-vehicle messages; and (2) define message characteristics that should guide symbol design.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/99196/index.cfm

Model Development for National Assessment of Commercial Vehicle Parking

FHWA-RD-01-159

This report summarizes activities and research undertaken as part of a study mandated by the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century. The report also describes the development, calibration, and application of the model used to estimate truck parking demand. This model estimates parking demand for a highway segment rather than a single parking facility and incorporates a variety of factors known to affect the demand for truck parking. The report presents a step-by-step method for selecting analysis segments, data requirements, parameter values, and a sample model application.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/01159/index.cfm

Modeling Intersection Crash Counts and Traffic Volume

FHWA-RD-98-096

This report explores the feasibility of using available exposure measures to model crash counts at intersections. The basic purpose of exposure is to serve as a size factor to allow comparison of crash counts among populations of different sizes. In the context of highway crash studies, vehicle-miles of travel appears to be a natural exposure measure at first glance. It is closely related to traffic density, however, raising doubts about whether it can serve the intended purpose of an exposure measure.

PDC Email: report.center@dot.gov

National Model: Statewide Application of Data Collection and Management Technology to Improve Highway Safety

FHWA-RD-99-140

This report presents findings on how two Iowa State agencies collaborate to improve highway safety. Iowa is a model for the Nation on how agencies can work together to define new business processes and streamline the flow of safety information. The Iowa agencies use an integrated approach to safety management. The Iowa Department of Transportation leads efforts involving computer hardware and software technology and the Iowa Department of Public Safety leads the communications component, which uses the State's fiber-optic network. Fiber optics make it possible to move high volumes of data and images.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/national/index.cfm

Pedestrian Crosswalk Case Studies: Richmond, Virginia; Buffalo, New York; Stillwater, Minnesota

FHWA-RD-00-103

This report focuses on the effect of crosswalk markings on both pedestrian and driver behavior at unsignalized intersections. Crosswalks are among the treatments used to help pedestrians cross streets safely. This was part of a larger Federal Highway Administration research study investigating the safety effectiveness of crosswalks for pedestrians.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/00103/index.cfm

Pedestrian Safety in Australia

FHWA-RD-99-093

This report is one in a series of pedestrian safety synthesis reports prepared for the Federal Highway Administration to document pedestrian safety in other countries. This report describes Australia's use of traffic-calming techniques, innovative traffic signals, Puffin and Pelican crossings, and a "safe routes to school" program.

www.ntis.gov, PB2002-104282

Pedestrian Safety in Sweden

FHWA-RD-99-091

This report is one in a series of pedestrian safety synthesis reports prepared for the Federal Highway Administration to document pedestrian safety in other countries. This report reviews pedestrian safety research in Sweden and concludes that a need exists either to guarantee complete separation between pedestrians and vehicular traffic, or to create good conditions for proper interaction between pedestrians and drivers, such as restricting vehicle speeds to 30 kilometers per hour.

www.ntis.gov and www.hsrc.unc.edu/pdf/pedbike/99091.PDF

Prediction of the Expected Safety Performance of Rural Two-Lane Highways

FHWA-RD-99-207

This report presents an algorithm for predicting the safety performance of a rural two-lane highway. The crash prediction algorithm consists of base models and crash modification factors for both roadway segments and at-grade intersections on rural two-lane highways.

www.ntis.gov, PB2001-102166 and abstract online: www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/99207/index.cfm

Rest Area Forum: Summary of Proceedings

FHWA-RD-00-034

This report presents a summary of the Rest Area Forum held in Atlanta, GA, in June 1999. More than 70 representatives from Federal and State departments of transportation, the motor carrier industry, the private truck stop industry, commercial drivers, and safety advocates attended the forum. The purpose of the meeting was to identify issues and find solutions to provide adequate, safe parking for commercial drivers and their vehicles.

http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/16000/16100/16166/PB2000102857.pdf

Roundabouts: An Informational Guide

FHWA-RD-00-067

This report presents information on roundabout intersections based on established international and U.S. practices and supplemented by recent research. The guide is comprehensive in recognition of the diverse needs of transportation professionals and the public for introductory material through design detail, as well as the wide range of potential applications of roundabout intersections.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/00068/index.cfm

Safety Effectiveness of Intersection Left- and Right-Turn Lanes

FHWA-RD-02-089

This report presents the results of research that performed a before-and-after evaluation of the safety effects of providing left- and right-turn lanes for at-grade intersections. Geometric design, traffic control, traffic volume, and traffic crash data were gathered for a total of 280 improved intersections, as well as 300 similar intersections that were not improved during the study period. The types of improvement projects evaluated included installation of added left-turn lanes, added right-turn lanes, and extension of the length of existing left- or right-turn lanes.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/02089/index.cfm

Safety Performance Testing of a Modified Oregon Multidirectional Slip-Base Sign Support: FOIL Test Numbers 98F002 and 98F004

FHWA-RD-98-111

This report contains the test procedures, setup, and results from two crash tests performed at the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) Federal Outdoor Impact Laboratory (FOIL). The objective of these tests was to evaluate the safety performance of a small sign support system provided by the Oregon Department of Transportation (DOT) and to provide FHWA finite element model simulation engineers with data on the performance of a slip-base sign support. This report also documents the results from two crash tests using the FOIL bogie vehicle and Oregon DOT's 3X3 TBB sign support.

www.ntis.gov, PB99-129959

Speed Prediction for Two-Lane Rural Highways, Final Report

FHWA-RD-99-171

This report provides a speed profile model that can be incorporated into the design consistency module of the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model. The model can be used to evaluate the design consistency of the roadway or to develop a speed profile for an alignment. The model considers both horizontal and vertical curvature and the acceleration or deceleration behavior as a vehicle moves from one feature to another.

www.ntis.gov, PB2001-103175

Statistical Models of At-Grade Intersection Accidents-Addendum

FHWA-RD-99-094

This report is an addendum to FHWA-RD-96-125, titled Statistical Models of At-Grade Intersection Accidents. The objective of both reports is to develop crash prediction models relating total intersection accidents to highway design elements.

www.ntis.gov, PB2000-106046 and www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/99094/99094.pdf

Study of Adequacy of Commercial Truck Parking Facilities

FHWA-RD-01-158

This report documents the findings of a study to investigate the adequacy of commercial truck parking facilities throughout the Nation. This report describes the technical details of the analyses the Federal Highway Administration considered in preparing a report to the U.S. Congress in response to Section 4027 of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/01158/index.cfm/

Surrogate Safety Measures From Traffic Simulation Models

FHWA-RD-03-050

This project investigates the potential for deriving surrogate measures of safety from existing microscopic traffic simulation models for intersections. The process of computing the measures in the simulation, extracting the required data, and summarizing the results is called the surrogate safety assessment methodology. These surrogate measures could be used to support evaluation of traffic engineering alternatives for safety at signalized and unsignalized intersections.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/03050/index.cfm

Synthesis of Safety Research Related to Speed Management

FHWA-RD-98-154

This report presents a synthesis of research findings on the safety effects of speed, speed limits, enforcement, and engineering measures to manage speed. The report updates a similar synthesis published in 1982 and highlights the results of significant safety research related to speed completed since then.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/98154/index.cfm

Testing and Evaluation of a Portable Work Zone Sign Support: FOIL Test Numbers 98F008 and 98F009

FHWA-RD-98-183

This report contains the test procedures, setup, and results from two crash tests performed at the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) Federal Outdoor Impact Laboratory. FHWA will use this report and other information to determine the portable work zone sign support's level of safety.

Library and www.ntis.gov, PB99-130288

Testing of State Roadside Safety Systems, Volume IV: Appendix C-Crash Testing and Evaluation of a Pennsylvania Transition Design

FHWA-RD-98-039

This report presents studies conducted to crash test and evaluate new or roadside modified safety hardware and, where necessary, redesign the devices to improve their impact performance. This document presents Appendix C on evaluating a Pennsylvania transition design.

Library and www.ntis.gov, PB99-155103

Testing of State Roadside Safety Systems, Volume XI: Appendix J-Crash Testing and Evaluation of Existing Guardrail Systems

FHWA-RD-98-046

This report presents studies conducted to crash test and evaluate new or modified roadside safety hardware and, where necessary, redesign the devices to improve their impact performance. The three major areas addressed in this study are the impact performance of bridge railings, transitions from guardrails to bridge railings, and end treatments for guardrails and median barriers.

Library and www.ntis.gov, PB99-155111

Testing of State Roadside Systems, Volume I: Technical Report

FHWA-RD-98-036

This report presents studies conducted to crash test and evaluate new or modified roadside safety hardware and, where necessary, redesign the devices to improve their impact performance.

www.ntis.gov, PB99-155079

The Bicycle Compatibility Index: A Level of Service Concept, Final Report

FHWA-RD-98-072

This report describes a methodology for deriving a bicycle compatibility index (BCI) for use by bicycle coordinators, transportation planners, traffic engineers, and others to evaluate the capability of specific roadways to accommodate both motorists and bicyclists. The BCI methodology was developed for urban and suburban roadway segments (i.e., midblock locations exclusive of intersections) and incorporated variables that bicyclists typically use to assess the "bicycle friendliness" of a roadway (e.g., curb lane width, traffic volume, and vehicle speeds).

http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/tools/docs/bcifinalrpt.pdf

The Bicycle Compatibility Index: A Level of Service Concept, Implementation Manual

FHWA-RD-98-095

This report demonstrates the application of the bicycle compatibility index (BCI) to evaluate the capability of urban and suburban roadway sections to accommodate both motorists and bicyclists. The BCI methodology will allow practitioners to evaluate existing facilities to determine possible improvements and to determine operational and geometric requirements for new facilities.

www.hsrc.unc.edu/research/pedbike/98095/body_index.html

The Capability and Enhancement of VDANL and TWOPAS for Analyzing Vehicle Performance on Upgrades and Downgrades Within IHSDM

FHWA-RD-00-078

This report documents the results of research on and recommendations for defining and analyzing vehicle performance on upgrades and downgrades on two-lane rural roads. It also provides a comprehensive review of the capabilities of a vehicle dynamics simulation and a traffic flow simulation, and discusses relevant literature that might have an impact on future upgrades.

www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/00078/00078.pdf

The Effect of Crosswalk Markings on Vehicle Speeds in Maryland, Virginia, and Arizona

FHWA-RD-00-101

This report focuses on the effect of crosswalk markings on vehicle speeds at uncontrolled intersections in Maryland, Virginia, and Arizona. This was part of a larger Federal Highway Administration research study investigating the safety effectiveness of crosswalks for pedestrians.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/00101/index.cfm>

The Effects of Traffic Calming Measures on Pedestrian and Motorist Behavior

FHWA-RD-00-104

This report documents an evaluation of the effects of selected traffic-calming treatments on both pedestrian and motorist behavior. This was part of a larger Federal Highway Administration research study investigating the effectiveness of engineering treatments on pedestrian and bicycle safety.

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/00104/index.cfm

 

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