U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations
|This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information|
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-04-035
Date: October 1998 - September 2003
Technical Publications Catalog
LTPP Distress Identification Manual Sets a Standard for States: Illinois, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, and Oklahoma Use Manual as a Baseline for Identifying and Quantifying Distresses
This document describes how States are using the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program's Distress Identification Manual to plan and implement pavement products. The manual uses drawings, text, and color photographs to show common types of distress found in asphalt cement, jointed portland cement concrete, and continuously reinforced concrete pavements.
LTPP Findings Pay Off for Pennsylvania: Change in Pavement Joint Design Standard Saves Pennsylvania Money and Reduces Construction Problems
This document describes how the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation decided to change its practice of using skewed joints after reviewing the results of a Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program analysis project. The project analyzed LTPP pavement performance data to identify what did and did not work to control the development of joint faulting.
New Software Tool Paves the Way for More Cost-Effective, Durable Roads in Kansas: Kansas Relies on LTPPBind Software to Select Superpave Binder PGs
This document explains how the Kansas Department of Transportation uses LTPPBind to select its Superpave® binder performance grades.
Guide to Developing Performance-Related Specifications for PCC Pavements
This CD-ROM contains a four-volume report presenting model performance-related specifications for portland cement concrete pavements, along with step-by-step procedures for developing and using performance-related specifications.
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DataPave 3.0: User-Friendly Access to LTPP Data
This document describes DataPave, a user-friendly software package that contains most of the data available from the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program experiments, including inventory, material testing, pavement performance monitoring, climatic, traffic, maintenance, rehabilitation and seasonal testing data from 2,500 pavement test sections. The program brings LTTP data and a set of tools for searching, viewing, and manipulating the data to the desktop.
DataPave Online: Improving Pavement Design through Performance Data Analysis
This document describes DataPave Online, a Web site that simplifies the task of providing worldwide access to the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program data. Programmers can update the online database quickly with each new LTPP data release, providing access to the latest data when available. In addition, LTPP reference documents are available on the site for users to download.
DataPave: User-Friendly Access to LTPP Data
This document announces a simple, user-friendly CD-ROM software package that contains most of the data available from Long-Term Pavement Performance program experiments. These data include inventory, material testing, pavement performance monitoring, climatic, traffic, maintenance, rehabilitation, and seasonal testing data from pavement test sections at 900 locations on in-service highways throughout North America.
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LTPPBind: A New Tool for Selecting Cost-Effective Superpave Asphalt Binder Performance Grades
This document describes LTPPBind, a new software tool developed by the Long-Term Pavement Performance program to help highway agencies select the most suitable and cost-effective Superpave® performance grade for a particular site.
Manuals Provide Information for Pavement Maintenance and Repair
This document summarizes the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program's efforts to revise and update the original Strategic Highway Research Program manuals with pertinent long-term performance and cost-effectiveness information generated by its continued monitoring of LTPP test sections.
Rigid Pavement Design Software: A New Tool for Improved Rigid Pavement Design
This document describes the Rigid Pavement Design software program. The software allows engineers to tailor rigid pavement design to site-specific conditions, materials, traffic, and design details. The resulting design is more cost-effective and reliable.
Temperature Prediction and Adjustment Procedures for Asphalt Concrete Pavements
This document describes a model for predicting the temperature in an asphalt layer from surface temperature data collected during routine deflection, along with procedures to adjust deflection testing results for temperature.
Videotapes Explain the How and Why of LTPP's Revised Resilient Modulus Laboratory Tests and Procedures
This document describes videotapes that inform users about a standardized laboratory procedure developed by the Long-Term Pavement Performance program to measure the resilient modulus of subgrade materials, along with a related laboratory startup and calibration verification procedure.
Working With Your FWD Calibration Center Videotape
This document describes a videotape that the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program produced in 1997 that explains the how and why of LTPP's falling-weight deflectometer calibration procedures.
Accuracy of LTPP Traffic Loading Estimates
This document presents a study that analyzed the effect of varying truck load rates and data-collection plans on equivalent single-axle load (ESAL) estimates at sample sites in the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program database. Results of the analysis are documented in a report entitled Results of the Empirical Analysis of Alternative Data Collection Sampling Plans for Estimating Annual Vehicle Loads at LTPP Test Sites. The purpose of this document is to present key findings and products that resulted from the report.
Adequacy of Rut Bar Data Collection
This document presents information about pavement rutting and data collection. Rutting is a critical distress in flexible pavements that poses a serious safety hazard. The importance of timely corrective action for rutted pavements-coupled with the need for safe and efficient data collection-has led many State highway agencies to use automated survey vehicles to collect the data needed to assess and monitor rutting. Typically, these devices measure the distance from a reference point on the survey vehicle to the pavement surface at three or five points across the pavement width. The data are then used to compute an estimate of the depth of pavement rutting.
Comparison of Rehabilitation Strategies for AC Pavements
This document summarizes the results of a Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program SPS-5 experiment, entitled "Performance of Rehabilitated Asphalt Concrete Pavements in the LTPP Experiments-Data Collected Through February 1997." The study documents performance trends of the 17 SPS-5 projects using distress data collected through February 1997.
Full-Scale Accelerated Testing of Ultra-Thin Whitetopping Pavements
This document presents a study that addresses the effects of overlay thickness, joint spacing, and fiber reinforcement on the performance of ultra-thin whitetopping pavements.
Help With Converting Pavement Smoothness Specifications
This document reveals that pavement smoothness is a key factor in determining highway user satisfaction. To represent drivers' opinions of roadway conditions adequately, many highway agencies are transitioning to the International Roughness Index (IRI) or the Profile Index (PI), using a 0.0-millimeter (mm) blanking band (PI 0.0) rather than the PI using a 5- or 2.5-mm (.2- or .098-inch) blanking band (PI 5-mm or PI 2.5-mm). This change has led to the need for correlation equations to relate the current PI 5-mm or PI 2.5-mm smoothness specification levels to those in the new specifications.
Improved Prediction Models for PCC Pavement Performance-Related Specifications
This document describes a study with the main objective of improving the distress and smoothness prediction models used in the performance-related specifications approach for jointed plain concrete pavements. It also provides guidelines for calibrating these models for local conditions. Both the improved prediction models and the calibration procedures were implemented in the PaveSpec 3.0 performance-related specifications software.
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Key Findings from LTPP Distress Data
This document discusses key differences between two approaches to pavement distress data collection within the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program-"manual" distress surveys and photographic surveys.
Performance Trends of Rehabilitated AC Pavements
This document summarizes the results of a Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program GPS-6 experiment, entitled "Performance of Rehabilitated Asphalt Concrete Pavements in the LTPP Experiments-Data Collected Through February 1997." The study documents performance trends of the 125 GPS-6 test sections using distress data collected through February 1997.
Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Partial-Depth Spall Repair
This document examines the merits and deficiencies of current spall repair materials and practices. The primary aim of the partial-depth spall repair study was to determine the most effective and economical materials and procedures for placing quality, long-lasting partial-depth patches in jointed concrete pavements. Spalling is a common distress in jointed concrete pavements. It reduces pavement serviceability, and if left unrepaired, it can become hazardous to highway users.
This document describes a pothole experiment to determine which combinations of materials and patching procedures provide the most cost-effective repair of potholes in asphalt concrete-surfaced pavements.
Reducing Roughness in Rehabilitated Asphalt Concrete Pavements
This document presents a summary explanation of how much different rehabilitation treatments reduce roughness in pavements. It is based on a Long-Term Pavement Performance program study on "The Investigation of Development of Pavement Roughness."
Resealing Concrete Pavement Joints
This document summarizes publication FHWA-RD-99-137, which describes a study in which 1,600 joints at five test sites were resealed using 12 sealant materials and four installation methods. For 82 months, field performance data on the different sealants and installation methods were collected at each site.
Roughness Trends of Flexible Pavements
This document presents information on the changes in roughness of flexible pavements over time and their relationship to design factors, subgrade conditions, and climatic conditions. The results of this study were published in FHWA-RD-97-147, Investigation of Development of Pavement Roughness. This document summarizes those findings.
Sealing and Filling Cracks in Asphalt Pavements
This document summarizes a study to address deficiencies in current crack treatment materials, designs, and practices. The Strategic Highway Research Program and the Federal Highway Administration sponsored the most extensive investigation of crack treatment effectiveness ever undertaken. Monitoring and evaluation of these treatments were conducted under the Long-Term Pavement Performance program.
Variability of Pavement Distress Data from Manual Surveys
This document presents a study that assesses the variability of the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program distress data. The study includes an assessment of manual distress data variability, film-derived distress data variability, and the agreement between manual and film-derived distress data. The full report is contained in Study of LTPP Distress Data Variability, Volume I (FHWA-RD-99-074). The focus of this document is variability in manually collected pavement distress data.
What Makes Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Pavements Rough?
This document presents a summary of how and why roughness occurs in pavements. It summarizes the findings of a Long-Term Pavement Performance program study entitled "The Investigation of Development of Pavement Roughness."
Accelerated Aging of Concrete: A Literature Review
This report provides a review of the literature on accelerated aging of concrete. It was undertaken as part of a research project on predicting the long-term environmental performance of portland cement concrete pavements containing coal fly ash.
An Investment Benefiting America's Highways: The Long-Term Pavement Performance Program
This report describes the value of the research conducted under the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program, a 20-year effort with a goal of providing data and products that extend pavement life at a reasonable cost. It describes products that LTTP has developed and the benefits derived during the program's first decade, including falling-weight deflectometer calibration procedures and software for implementing rigid pavement design procedures.
Analysis of Time-Domain Reflectometry Data From LTPP Seasonal Monitoring Program Test Sections-Final Report
This report highlights procedures designed to produce good estimates of in situ gravimetric moisture content. All of the time-domain reflectometry (TDR) traces in the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program database were processed using the approach described in this report. TDR has become one of the most reliable methods for measuring in situ soil moisture content. TDR sensors developed by the Federal Highway Administration are being used in the LTPP seasonal monitoring program to monitor the in situ moisture content at selected sites.
Assessment of LTPP Friction Data
This report provides an assessment of the availability, characteristics, and quality of friction data collected as part of the Long-Term Pavement Performance study. Also, researchers assessed the availability of related pavement characteristics data.
Library and abstract online: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/pub_listing.cfm?areas=LTPP
Assessment of Selected LTPP Materials Data Tables and Development of Representative Test Tables
This report documents an evaluation of selected Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program materials data tables as of January 2000. Issues addressed include the availability, characteristics, and quality of the data in the selected tables. Data anomalies were identified and corrected where possible, and the cleaned-up data were used to develop representative data tables.
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Assessment of the SPS-7 Bonded Concrete Overlays Experiment: Final Report
This report presents an assessment of the Long-Term Pavement Performance SPS-7 experiment on bonded concrete overlays. This report provides background material for a meeting of State agencies held to review the status of the SPS-7 experiment.
Backcalculation of Layer Parameters for LTPP Test Sections, Volume I: Slab on Elastic Solid and Slab on Dense-Liquid Foundation Analysis of Rigid Pavements
This report documents the results, using deflection-testing data, of backcalculation of layer material properties for rigid pavements included in the Long-Term Pavement Performance program in the United States and Canada.
Back-Calculation of Layer Parameters for LTPP Test Sections, Volume II: Layered Elastic Analysis for Flexible and Rigid Pavements
This report documents the procedure and steps used to backcalculate the layered elastic properties (Young's modulus and the coefficient and exponent of the nonlinear constitutive equation) from deflection basin measurements for the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program test sections with a Level E data status. The report summarizes the reasons MODCOMP4 was selected for computing and analyzing the deflection data, provides a summary of the results using the linear elastic module (Young's modulus) for selected test sections, and identifies factors that can have a significant effect on the results.
Characterization of Transverse Profiles
This report examines several indices used to quantify and qualify the transverse profiles of pavement. These indices were studied to determine typical trends by climate, surface thickness, soil type, and age. This transverse profile data was collected under the Long-Term Pavement Performance project.
Common Characteristics of Good and Poorly Performing AC Pavements
This report documents the analysis and findings of a study conducted to identify the site conditions and design/construction features of flexible pavements that lead to good performance and those that lead to poor performance. Data from the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program test sections were used, along with findings from previous and ongoing analyses of LTPP data.
Library and www.ntis.gov, PB2000-102377
Concrete Mixture Optimization Using Statistical Methods: Final Report
This report presents the results of a joint study by the Federal Highway Administration and the National Institute of Standards and Technology to assess the feasibility of using statistical experiment design and analysis methods to optimize concrete mixture proportions. The laboratory phase of the study indicated that both the classical mixture method and the factorial approach could be applied to the problem of optimizing concrete mixture proportions. The factorial approach was used as the basis for developing an Internet-based computer program, the Concrete Optimization Software Tool, in the second phase of this project.
Design and Construction
This report evaluates and analyzes portland cement concrete pavements to develop recommendations for the design and construction of long-lived pavements. This volume describes improved pavement distress and roughness prediction models developed as part of the study. A key focus was to develop distress and roughness prediction models that incorporate mechanistic principles, but are still practical for use by State highway agencies.
Design and Construction of PCC Pavement, Volume I: Summary of Design Features and Construction Practices that Influence Performance of Pavements
This report evaluates and analyzes portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements to develop recommendations for the design and construction of long-lived pavements. This volume provides a concise summary of the study results. It includes an overview of the engineering and statistical analyses conducted and presents results State highway agencies can use to obtain high-performance PCC pavements.
Design and Construction of PCC Pavement, Volume II: Design Features and Practices that Influence Performance of Pavements
This report evaluates and analyzes portland cement concrete pavements to develop recommendations for the design and construction of long-lived pavements. This volume provides information on design features and construction practices that improve pavement performance. A key focus was to develop canonical discriminant functions that can be used to tell groups of pavements apart.
Determination of Frost Penetration in LTPP Sections, Final Report
This report determines frost penetration at selected seasonal monitoring program sections in the Long-Term Pavement Performance program. As part of the study, an interactive computer program, FROST, was developed to facilitate the interpretation of the electrical resistivity and temperature data. Analysis results include the freeze state at each electrical resistivity sensor and the frost penetration at each site.
Library and www.ntis.gov, PB2000-102952 and PB99-17556
Development of a Tire/Pavement Contact-Stress Model Based on Artificial Neural Networks
This report presents the first worldwide tire/pavement contact-stress model based on the artificial neural networks developed by the authors at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute at Pennsylvania State University. These models represent the first mathematical representation of real, measured contact stress at wide ranges of vertical loads and inflation pressures for two types of tires.
Distress Identification Manual for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Program
This manual provides a common language for describing cracks, potholes, rutting, spalling, and other pavement distresses being monitored by the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program. Color photographs and drawings illustrate the distresses found in three basic pavement types: asphalt concrete-surfaced, jointed (plain and reinforced) portland cement concrete, and continuously reinforced concrete. Methods for measuring the size of distresses and for assigning severity levels are given. The manual also describes how to conduct the distress survey, from obtaining traffic control to measuring the cracks in the pavement. Sample forms for recording and reporting the data are included.
Effects of Wheel-Load Spatial Repeatability on Road Damage: A Literature Review
This report reviews current and past research on vehicle/road interaction. Two of the most pressing issues in the area of heavy vehicle-generated road damage are the spatial repeatability of dynamic wheel loads produced by heavy vehicles and the use of wide-base dual tires. The outcome of this review plays a determining role in assessing heavy-truck suspension systems, tire configurations, and their contribution to pavement damage.
Estimating Cumulative Traffic Loads, Final Report for Phase 1
This report describes a procedure for obtaining axle load spectra for pavement sections under study in the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program. The procedure has been demonstrated and evaluated by applying it to 12 LTPP sections for which different amounts of monitoring traffic data were available.
Library and Abstract online: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/pub_details.cfm?id=65
Evaluation of Joint and Crack Load Transfer: Final Report
This report analyzes the load transfer efficiency of cracks and joints, which profoundly affects the performance of concrete pavements. Poor load transfer efficiency may lead to longitudinal cracking and excessive faulting of jointed concrete pavements and could accelerate punchout development in continuously reinforced concrete pavements. These distresses could lead to roughness and poor ride quality.
Library and abstract online: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/pub_details.cfm?id=65
Fast-Track Paving: Concrete Temperature Control and Traffic Opening Criteria for Bonded Concrete Overlays, Volume I: Final Report
This two-volume report presents research that focuses on modeling early-age behavior of portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements and bonded concrete overlays subjected to stresses from moisture and thermal changes. It includes the development of a two-part, versatile, comprehensive set of guidelines that provide direction on the proper selection of design and construction variables to minimize early-age damage to PCC pavement and bonded concrete overlay. This document presents the final report.
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Fast-Track Paving: Concrete Temperature Control and Traffic Opening Criteria for Bonded Concrete Overlays, Volume II: HIPERPAV User's Manual
This two-volume report presents research that focuses on modeling early-age behavior of portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements and bonded concrete overlays subjected to stresses from moisture and thermal changes. It includes the development of a two-part, versatile, comprehensive set of guidelines that provide direction on the proper selection of design and construction variables to minimize early-age damage to PCC pavement and bonded concrete overlay. This volume is a user's manual for HIPERPAVTM.
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Fast-Track Paving: Concrete Temperature Control and Traffic Opening Criteria for Bonding Concrete Overlays, Volume III: Addendum to the HIPERPAV User's Manual
This report is an addendum to the user's manual of the HIPERPAVTM (High Performance Paving) software package. This package incorporates the complex models developed and can be used as a stand-alone product to verify the overall effects of specific combinations of design, construction, and environmental inputs on early-age behavior of portland cement concrete pavement and bonded concrete overlay.
Fundamental Properties of Asphalts and Modified Asphalts-Volume I: Interpretive Report
This report's objective is to improve understanding of the expected performance of petroleum asphalts under service conditions. These conditions include physical behavior of thin asphalt films in contact with aggregate, rheology and oxidative aging of wet asphalt, behavior of asphalt after extended aging, and propensity of asphalt films to reconsolidate (heal) after microcracking.
Fundamental Properties of Asphalts and Modified Asphalts-Volume II: Final Report, New Methods
This report presents 16 new methods that distinguish behavioral characteristics of compositionally diverse petroleum asphalts.
FWD Calibration Centers Ensure States Get Quality Data: States Use Falling-Weight Deflectometer (FWD) Data to Develop More Cost-Effective Rehabilitation Strategies
This report addresses the benefits of working with falling-weight deflectometer (FWD) calibration centers in Minnesota, Nevada, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The centers help States collect accurate data, resulting in better decisions on when and where to conduct rehabilitation work, more cost-effective use of budget dollars targeted for rehabilitation projects, and better designs for new pavements and overlays.
Guide to Developing Performance-Related Specifications for PCC Pavements,Volume I: Practical Guide, Final Report, and Appendix A
This report, the first of a four-volume set, presents guidelines and recommendations to assist highway agencies in developing and using performance-related specifications for portland cement concrete pavement construction.
Guide to Developing Performance-Related Specifications for PCC Pavements,Volume II: Appendix B, Field Demonstrations
This report documents three methods used to demonstrate revised performance-related specifications (PRS) for portland cement concrete. In the first method, researchers conducted shadow field trials at four new construction projects. For the second method, researchers developed level 1 specifications for three typical designs used by a State highway agency. For the third method, researchers compared historical pay adjustments to PRS-based price adjustments predicted for the same pavement lots. Each method was used to investigate how practical PRS is and how easily it could be implemented.
Guide to Developing Performance-Related Specifications for PCC Pavements, Volume III: Appendices C Through F
This report contains the supporting documentation for the research study on developing performance-related specifications for portland cement concrete pavements.
Guidelines for Detection, Analysis, and Treatment of Materials-Related Distress in Concrete Pavement, Volume I: Final Report
This report's objective is to develop guidelines to provide pavement engineers and field and laboratory personnel with a systematic procedure for identifying, evaluating, treating, and preventing materials-related distress in portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements. The report also points out that well-designed and constructed PCC pavements are inherently durable and are expected to be relatively maintenance free during many years of service.
Guidelines for Detection, Analysis, and Treatment of Materials-Related Distress in Concrete Pavement, Volume II: Guidelines Description and Use
This report on materials-related stress in concrete pavement is divided into two major sections. The first section addresses the laboratory procedures used to examine concrete specimens and presents a systematic method of data collection, recording, and reporting. The second section presents a systematic approach for interpreting the laboratory data-along with design, construction, field evaluation, and performance data-to diagnose what distress mechanisms may be present.
Guidelines for Detection, Analysis, and Treatment of Materials-Related Distress in Concrete Pavement, Volume III: Case Studies Using the Guidelines
This report documents the investigation of materials-related distress (MRD) in concrete pavements and the development of systematic guidelines for evaluating MRD. The guidelines cover three major areas of MRD: (1) field distress surveys, pavement sampling, and sample handling; (2) laboratory testing, data analysis, and interpretation; and (3) treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention.
Guidelines for the Use of Lithium to Mitigate or Prevent ASR
This report provides information and guidance on testing, specifying, and using lithium compounds in new concrete construction, as well as in repair and service life extension applications. This report will be of interest to engineers, contractors, and others involved in the design and specification of new concrete, as well as those involved in mitigating the damaging effects of alkali-silica reaction in existing concrete structures.
Hot-Mix Asphalt Pavement Construction Report for the 1993-2000 FHWA Accelerated Loading Facility Project
The Federal Highway Administration is conducting studies to validate Superpave® binder and mixture tests using its accelerated loading facility. This report documents the mixture designs, construction procedures, and quality control and quality assurance tests for the asphalt pavement layers.
Library and www.ntis.gov, PB99-155061
Improved Prediction Models for PCC Pavement Performance-Related Specifications, Volume I: Final Report
This report focuses on the improvement of the key distress and smoothness prediction models used in the performance-related specifications (PRS) for jointed plain concrete pavement. The PRS methodology, under development by the Federal Highway Administration for several years, has now reached a level at which it can be implemented by State highway agencies. PRS for highway pavements depend heavily on performance prediction models to determine the impact of varying levels of construction quality. Volume I is the final report.
Improved Prediction Models for PCC Pavement Performance-Related Specifications, Volume II: PaveSpec 3.0 User's Guide
This report focuses on the improvement of the key distress and smoothness prediction models used in the performance-related specifications (PRS) for jointed plain concrete pavement. The PRS methodology, under development by the Federal Highway Administration for several years, has reached a level at which it can be implemented by State highway agencies. PRS for highway pavements depend heavily on performance prediction models to determine the impact of varying levels of construction quality. Volume II is a user's guide for PaveSpec 3.0.
Joint Sawing Guideline: The Window of Opportunity
This report presents information about the importance of joint sawing in the construction of jointed concrete pavements. The purpose of sawing joints in new concrete is to create a plane of weakness that will induce cracking at a desired location.
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Long-Term Effectiveness of Cathodic Protection Systems on Highway Structures
This report summarizes an evaluation of the protection provided by cathodic protection systems and estimates the expected service life for the anode materials in similar environments. Cathodic protection is the only rehabilitation technique proven to stop corrosion in salt-contaminated bridge decks, regardless of the chloride content of the concrete. This technology is based on the principle of applying an external source of current to counteract the internal corrosion current produced in reinforced concrete components. This report will be of interest to engineers involved in bridge design, maintenance, rehabilitation, and performance evaluation and prediction.
Long-Term Monitoring of Pavement Maintenance Materials Test Sites
This report presents a study that was part of the most extensive pavement maintenance experiment ever conducted. This study provides valuable data on the performance and cost effectiveness of various cold-mix materials and procedures for repairing asphalt concrete-surfaced pavements. The information derived from this study will advance the state of the practice of response-type pothole-patching operations.
Abstract online: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/pub_secondary.cfm?id=216
Long-Term Performance of Corrosion Inhibitors Used in Repair of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Components
This report describes a Strategic Highway Research Program project (SHRP C-103) that evaluated the effectiveness of using corrosion inhibitors to mitigate corrosion in reinforced concrete bridge components. This project, which concluded in 1993, involved a laboratory study and field validation.
LTPP Maintenance and Rehabilitation Data Review: Final Report
This report provides a detailed review of the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program maintenance and review data and presents the findings from the review. A total of 757 test sections have undergone some type of maintenance and review activity. Of these test sections, only 23 anomalies were found. These anomalies consist primarily of sections that have patching recorded in the maintenance and review tables, but no increase in patching area or number in the distress surveys.
LTPP Pavement Maintenance Materials: PCC Partial-Depth Spall Repair Experiment, Final Report
This report documents the Long-Term Pavement Performance program study on partial-depth spall repair of portland cement concrete, including the installation of 30 unique repair types at four different test sites, laboratory testing of experimental repair materials, and 7-year performance monitoring of the various partial-depth repairs.
Library and www.ntis.gov, PB2000-100915
LTPP Pavement Maintenance Materials: SHRP Crack Treatment Experiment, Final Report
This report presents the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) H-106 maintenance experiment and the Federal Highway Administration's Long-Term Monitoring of Pavement Maintenance Materials Test Sites program. The project studied two distinct asphalt concrete crack treatments: transverse crack sealing and longitudinal crack filling.
Library and www.ntis.gov, PB2000-102371
LTPP Pavement Maintenance Materials: SHRP Joint Reseal Experiment, Final Report
This report documents a portland cement concrete joint resealing study, including installation of 31 unique joint seal treatments at five different test sites, laboratory testing of experimental sealant materials, and 7-year performance monitoring of the various joint seal treatments. The study evaluated the relative performance of selected sealant materials and the effect of selected sealant installation methods. The study also identified sealant material properties and tests that correlate well with field performance.
Library and www.ntis.gov, PB2000-102370
LTPP Pavement Maintenance Materials: SPS-4 Supplemental Joint Seal Experiment, Final Report
This report documents the entire Long-Term Pavement Performance program SPS-4 supplemental joint seal study, including the installation of 29 unique joint seal treatments, the laboratory testing of experimental sealant materials, and the multiyear performance monitoring of the various joint seal treatments. It also discusses the results of comprehensive statistical analyses conducted on sealant material performance.
Library and www.ntis.gov, PB2000-100914
LTPP Product Plan
This report describes a plan for identifying, developing, and delivering products under the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program. It defines LTPP products as ready-to-use guidelines, procedures, protocols, best practices, software, and equipment. Under the plan, LTPP products must pass a means test with specific criteria, including whether the product has a sound technical basis and is supported by formal research results.
Materials and Procedures for Rapid Repair of Partial-Depth Spalls in Concrete Pavements-Manual of Practice
This manual of practice is an updated version of the 1993 Strategic Highway Research Program Spall Repair Manual. It contains the latest information on the performance of repair materials and methods; the availability and relative costs of repair materials; and the proper ways of planning, designing, constructing, and monitoring the performance of partial-depth spall repair projects. It also provides an updated partial listing of materials and equipment manufacturers.
Materials and Procedures for Repair of Joint Seals in Portland Cement Concrete Pavements-Manual of Practice
This manual of practice is an updated version of the 1993 Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) Joint Seal Repair Manual. The SHRP H-106 maintenance experiment and the Federal Highway Administration's long-term monitoring project also studied the resealing of joints in concrete pavements. Many different sealant materials and resealing methods were investigated from 1991 to 1998 through test sites installed at five U.S. locations.
Materials and Procedures for Repair of Potholes in Asphalt-Surfaced Pavements-Manual of Practice
This report presents the Strategic Highway Research Program H-106 maintenance experiment and the Federal Highway Administration Long-Term Monitoring of Pavement Maintenance Materials Test Sites project that studied the repair of potholes in asphalt-surfaced pavements. The findings of these combined studies have been merged with standard highway agency procedures to provide the most useful and up-to-date information on the practice of repairing potholes.
Materials and Procedures for Sealing and Filling Cracks in Asphalt-Surfaced Pavements-Manual of Practice
This manual of practice is an updated version of the 1993 Strategic Highway Research Program Crack Sealing and Filling Manual. It contains the latest information on the performance of treatment materials and methods; the availability and relative costs of sealant/filler materials; and the proper ways to plan, design, construct, and monitor the performance of crack treatment projects.
Measurement and Specification of Construction Quality, Volume I: Final Report
This report presents a study that consisted of testing six pavement projects, three hot-mix asphalt concrete and three portland cement concrete. The primary objectives were to (1) determine how quality control test results vary in construction projects and how this variability affects pavement performance, (2) assess the suitability of current methods of quantifying materials and construction quality and quality variability, and (3) develop and improve methods that minimize shortcomings. Volume I of this report contains information about data analysis.
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Mechanistic Evaluation of Test Data from LTPP Flexible Pavement Test Sections, Volume I: Final Report
This report analyzes how well some existing asphalt pavement mechanistic-empirical distress prediction models performed when used in conjunction with the data being collected as part of the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program. This study shows that, even given the current limitations in the LTPP database, the data can be used successfully to develop better insights into pavement behavior and improve pavement performance.
Mechanistic Evaluation of Test Data from LTPP Flexible Pavement Test Sections, Volume II: Appendices
This document presents the appendices of a report that analyzes how well some of the existing asphalt pavement mechanistic-empirical distress prediction models performed when used in conjunction with the data being collected as part of the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program. This study shows that, even given the current limitations in the LTPP database, the data can be used successfully to develop a better insights into pavement behavior and improve pavement performance.
Mechanistic Evaluation of Test Data from LTPP Jointed Concrete Pavement Test Sections
This report presents a study conducted to assess how well some mechanistic empirical-based distress prediction procedures for concrete pavement performed when used in conjunction with data collected as part of the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program. This study showed that, even with the current limitations in the LTPP database, the data can be used successfully to develop better insights into pavement behavior and improve pavement performance.
Abstract online: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/pub_secondary.cfm?id=226
Methodology for Determining Compaction Temperatures for Modified Asphalt Binders
This report documents a Federal Highway Administration study performed to assist asphalt mixture technologists in choosing an appropriate laboratory compaction temperature for asphalt mixture design. This temperature is important because it can affect both the optimum asphalt binder content and the mechanical properties of an asphalt mixture.
Microdamage Healing in Asphalt and Asphalt Concrete, Volume II: Laboratory and Field Testing to Assess and Evaluate Microdamage and Microdamage Healing
This report documents testing in the laboratory and field that provides evidence that microdamage healing in asphalt and asphalt concrete is real, measurable, and has a significant impact on pavement performance.
Library and www.ntis.gov, PB2001-107667
Microdamage Healing in Asphalt and Asphalt Concrete, Volume III: A Micromechanics Fracture and Healing Model for Asphalt Concrete
This report documents the development of a micromechanics fracture and healing model for asphalt concrete. This model can be used to calculate the density and growth of microcracks during repeated direct tensile controlled-strain loading.
Library and www.ntis.gov, PB2001-107668
Microdamage Healing in Asphalt and Asphalt Concrete, Volume IV: A Viscoelastic Continuum Damage Fatigue Model of Asphalt Concrete With Microdamage Healing
This report presents a mechanistic approach to fatigue characterization of asphalt-aggregate mixtures. This approach is founded on a uniaxial viscoelastic constitutive model that accounts for damage evolution under cyclic loading conditions.
OECD DIVINE Element 1: Accelerated Dynamic Pavement Testing
This report reveals that the weight of a truck's load affects the life of pavements and bridges and, therefore, the cost of maintaining and repairing the Nation's roads. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Road Transport Research Programme found that dynamic pavement loading is increasing in OECD countries, resulting in an increase in the rate of road wear. Although researchers recognize the relationship between the weight of a truck's load and wear on a roadway, many questions on the nature and influence of dynamic loading and the interaction between the vehicle and pavements and bridges remain.
Optimal Procedures for Quality Assurance Specifications
This manual is a comprehensive guide for highway agencies to use in developing new or modifying existing acceptance plans and quality assurance specifications. It provides necessary instruction and illustrative examples to lead agencies through the entire process of acceptance plan development.
Pavement Smoothness Index Relationships
This report reveals that nearly all State highway agencies use smoothness specifications to ensure that hot-mix asphalt and portland cement concrete pavements are built to high levels of smoothness. Not only is an initially smooth pavement generally indicative of quality workmanship, but it also has been shown to last longer than a pavement built with a rougher level.
Performance of Coarse-Graded Mixes at WesTrack-Premature Rutting
This report discusses the work of a forensic team assembled to study the early failures of and make recommendations for revising the Superpave® procedures.
Library and www.ntis.gov, PB99-157984
Performance of Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements, Volume V: Maintenance and Repair of CRC Pavements
This report is one of a series prepared as part of a national pooled fund study administered by the Federal Highway Administration to update the state of the art of the design, construction, maintenance, and rehabilitation of continuously reinforced concrete (CRC) pavements. This report, the fifth in the series, presents results on CRC pavement distress and procedures for repair of CRC pavements. Since the most troublesome problems with CRC pavements are punchout distresses and distresses associated with steel rupture, this report emphasizes repairs of these distresses.
Performance of CRC Pavements, Volume VI: CRC Pavement Design, Construction, and Performance
This report is part of a series prepared in a study sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration. The study was aimed at updating the state of the art of the design, construction, maintenance, and rehabilitation of continuously reinforced concrete pavements.
Portable Changeable Message Sign Handbook
This handbook presents basic guidelines for using portable changeable message signs, traffic control devices capable of displaying a variety of messages to inform motorists of unusual driving conditions. It illustrates the principles of proper portable changeable message sign use.
Portland Cement Concrete Rheology and Workability, Final Report
This report describes methods used to determine the workability of freshly mixed portland cement concrete with slumps of less than 51 millimeters (2 inches). They include two moving-object methods, one free-orifice method, and a vibrating-slope method. The report also outlines modifications to these techniques and equipment to permit the measurement of rheological properties at two or more shear rates.
Prediction of Chloride Penetration in Concrete
This report's objective was to identify or develop a test for predicting chloride penetration in concrete to be used for evaluating new mixes, accepting or rejecting new concrete according to specifications, and evaluating in-place concrete. The test was intended to supplement or replace the use of AASHTO T27-93, "Electrical Indication of Concrete's Ability to Resist Chloride."
Library and www.ntis.gov, PB2002-100056
Preliminary Evaluation and Analysis of LTPP Faulting Data, Final Report
This report presents recommendations for improving the design and construction of new and rehabilitated pavements to make them last longer, a major goal of the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) study. As part of the condition monitoring of LTPP test sections, joint and crack faulting data are collected regularly at each jointed concrete pavement test site.
Preliminary Evaluation of LTPP Continuously Reinforced Concrete (CRC) Pavement Test Sections
This report presents an analysis of data from the Long-Term Pavement Performance GPS-5 test sections. It identifies factors that influence long-term crack spacing in continuously reinforced concrete pavements and determine the effects of crack spacing on pavement performance. In addition, data from the 85 test sections from the GPS-5 experiment were analyzed.
Library and www.ntis.gov, PB99-162778
Road Simulator Study of Heavy-Vehicle Wheel Forces
This report investigates the effects of vehicle and road characteristics on dynamic forces applied by heavy vehicles in pavement. The three main areas analyzed are development of equipment necessary for the testing program, performance of the tests, and analysis of the test results.
Study of LTPP Distress Data Variability, Volume I
This report is Volume I of a two-volume set that documents the results of a study to evaluate and quantify the variability of pavement distress data collected in the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program. Analyses were performed on both manual and film-derived distress data. General trends of the distress data were first investigated, followed by statistical analyses of repeatability and detection of variability sources.
PDC Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, PB01-00588
Study of LTPP Distress Data Variability, Volume II: Appendices A to C
This report is Volume II of a two-volume set that documents the results of a study to evaluate and quantify the variability of pavement distress data collected in the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program. Analyses were performed on both manual and film-derived distress data. General trends of the distress data were first investigated, followed by statistical analyses of repeatability and detection of variability sources. This volume presents the appendices.
PDC Email: email@example.com, PB01-02373
Study of LTPP Laboratory Resilient Modulus Test Data and Response Characteristics
This report documents the first comprehensive review and evaluation of the resilient modulus test data measured on pavement materials and soils recovered from the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program test sections. A total of 2,014 resilient modulus tests have passed all quality control checks and are included in the LTPP database with a Level E data status. By October 2000, 1,639 resilient modulus tests still needed to be performed. In some cases, the missing tests may have been performed but failed to achieve a Level E status (had not passed all quality control checks) in the LTPP database. These test results, however, have not been evaluated in detail.
Superpave Mixture Design Guide
This mixture design guide for Superpave® was prepared by the forensic team to meet the asphalt community's needs. It includes observations on mixture design compaction level determination, performance-graded binder selection, and aggregate selection. It also includes extensive discussion of the mixture design process and a summary of laboratory performance tests for assessing mixture resistance to rutting.
Temperature Predictions and Adjustment Factors for Asphalt Pavement
This report presents the results of an analysis of the deflections and backcalculated asphalt moduli response to pavement temperature. The study used deflection and temperature data from 40 asphalt pavement sites monitored in the seasonal monitoring program of the Long-Term Pavement Performance program.
The Effects of Higher Strength and Associated Concrete Properties on Pavement Performance
This report presents recommendations for portland cement concrete properties and materials characteristics found in higher-strength jointed plain concrete pavements. It focuses on improved long-term performance, determined by joint spalling and faulting, and transverse slab cracking.
Transport Properties and Durability of Concrete: Literature Review and Research Plan
This report reviews the state of the art for measuring transport properties in the laboratory and field, and discusses links between transport properties and models for various deterioration processes relevant to highway concretes. The increased emphasis on life-cycle cost analysis for building projects requires that new attention be focused on the service life and durability of concrete structures.
Abstract online: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/pub_secondary.cfm?id=289
Understanding the Performance of Modified Asphalt Binders in Mixtures: Evaluation of Moisture Sensitivity
This report documents the effects of polymer-modified asphalt binders on moisture sensitivity. The objective of this report is to determine if asphalt binder performance is captured by the Superpave® asphalt binder specification developed under the 1987-1993 Strategic Highway Research Program. It emphasizes evaluation of the performance of mixtures containing polymer-modified asphalt binders with identical Superpave performance grades but varied chemistries.
Understanding the Performance of Modified Asphalt Binders in Mixtures: High-Temperature Characterization
This report's objective is to determine if asphalt binder performance is captured by the Superpave® asphalt binder specification developed under the 1987-1993 Strategic Highway Research Program. It emphasizes evaluation of the performance of mixtures containing polymer-modified asphalt binders with identical Superpave performance grades, but varied chemistries. Although identical performance grades were desired, the high-temperature performance grades of the polymer-modified asphalt binders ranged from 71 to 77.
Understanding the Performance of Modified Asphalt Binders in Mixtures: Low-Temperature Properties
This report documents the effects of polymer-modified asphalt binders on the low-temperature cracking resistance of asphalt mixtures. It emphasizes evaluation of the performance of mixtures containing polymer-modified asphalt binders with identical Superpave® performance grades, but varied modification chemistries.
Understanding the Performance of Modified Asphalt Binders in Mixtures: Permanent Deformation Using a Mixture With Diabase Aggregate
This report documents the effects of polymer-modified asphalt binders on the rutting resistance of a mixture with diabase aggregate. For the materials tested in this study, good correlations were found between asphalt binder properties and aboratory mixture rutting resistance. This indicates that the current Superpave® asphalt binder specification and testing protocols are valid. The Federal Highway Administration will test additional mixtures to verify these findings. This report will be of interest to highway personnel who use polymer-modified asphalt binders and Superpave.
Validation of the Superpave Asphalt Binder Fatigue Cracking Parameter, G*sin (delta), Using an Accelerated Loading Facility
This report present information about an accelerated loading facility (ALF) used to validate the Superpave® asphalt binder parameter for fatigue cracking, G*sin (delta). The ALF is a full-scale pavement testing machine that applies one-half of a single rear truck axle load. The speed of the ALF and the applied load were constant in this study.
PDC Email: firstname.lastname@example.org