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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-01-164
Date: March 2002

Guidelines for Detection, Analysis, and Treatment of Materials-Related Distress in Concrete Pavements - Volume 2: Guidelines Description and Use

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FHWA Contract DTFH61-96-C-00073
FHWA-RD-01-164

Volume 2: Guidelines Description and Use

Submitted to:

Federal Highway Administration
Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101

Submitted By:
Michigan Tech Transportation Institute
Michigan Technological University
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
1400 Townsend Drive
Houghton, Michigan 49931

and

Applied Pavement Technology
3001 Research Road, Suite C
Champaign, IL 61822

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Guideline I —Field Distress Survey, Sampling, and Sample Handling Procedures for Distressed Concrete Pavements

Introduction

MRD In PCC Pavements

Types of MRD

Development of Advisory Guidelines

Need for Advisory Guidelines
Purpose and Objectives of Guidelines

Field Distress Survey Procedures

Data Collection Procedures

Project Identification and Records Review
Survey Preparation
Shoulder Survey
Project Layout
Pavement Distress Surveys
MRD Characterization

Photo/Video Documentation

Determination of Whether Further Testing is Warranted

Sampling and Handling Procedures for MRD Determination

Sampling Existing PCC Pavement for Diagnosis of MRD

Preparation for Field Sampling and Testing
Obtaining Hardened Concrete from In situ Pavements for MRD Investigations

Handling and Shipping of PCC Field Samples

Shipping of Samples

Summary of Field Procedures

 

Guideline II — Laboratory Testing, Data Analysis, and Interpretation Procedures for Distressed Concrete Pavements

Laboratory Testing

Overview

Recommended Literature

Approach to Laboratory Analysis of Concrete

Procedures for the Analysis of Concrete

Group 1: Core Receipt and Cataloging
Group 2: Visual Inspection
Group 3: Stereo Optical Microscope Examination
Group 4: Staining Tests
Group 5: Petrographic Optical Microscope Examination
Group 6: Scanning Electron Microscope Examination

Group 7: Chemical Tests
Group 8: X-ray Diffraction Analysis

Summary on Laboratory Testing

Data Analysis and Interpretation

Description of the Data Interpretation Flowcharts

Flowchart for Assessing the Likelihood of MRD
Flowchart for Visual Inspection
Flowchart for Analysis of the Paste and Air
Flowchart for Analysis of the Aggregate Structure
Flowchart for Analysis of the Secondary Deposits

Use of the Diagnostic Feature Tables

Summary of Data Analysis and Interpretation

 

Guideline III — Treatment, Rehabilitation, and Prevention of Materials-Related Distress in Concrete Pavements

Treatment and Rehabilitation of MRD-Affected Pavements

Techniques and Materials for Treatment and Rehabilitation

Overview of Treatment Methods
Overview of Rehabilitation Methods

Feasibility of Available Techniques

Freeze-Thaw Deterioration of Aggregate
Freeze-Thaw Deterioration of Cement Paste
Deicer Scaling/Deterioration
Alkali–Silica Reactivity
Alkali–Carbonate Reactivity
Sulfate Attack
Available Treatment Methods for Sulfate Attack
Available Rehabilitation Methods for Sulfate Attack
Selection Guidelines for Sulfate Attack
Corrosion of Embedded Steel

Selection of Preferred Alternative

Overall Pavement Condition
Possible Constraints
Predicted Performance
Life Cycle Cost Analysis

Construction and Maintenance Considerations

Chemical Treatments
Joint and Crack Sealing
Crack Filling
Surface Sealing
Partial-Depth Repairs
Full-Depth Repairs
Slab Replacement
Diamond Grinding
Overlays
Pavement Reconstruction
Pavement Recycling

Summary of Treatment and Rehabilitation Methods

Materials and Mix Design for Prevention of MRD in Concrete Pavements

Constituent Materials Selection for Preventing MRD

Aggregate Selection
Cementitious and Pozzolanic Materials
Admixtures
Water

Considerations in Proportioning and Mix Design for Prevention of MRD in Concrete Pavements

Selection of Concrete Mixture Characteristics
Aggregate Grading

Tests for Hardened Concrete Relating to Durability

AASHTO PTP 34-99: Proposed Standard Method of Test for Restrained Drying Shrinkage
ASTM C 457: Practice for Microscopical Determination of Parameters of the Air-Void System in Hardened Concrete
ASTM C 666: Test Method for Resistance of Concrete to Rapid Freezing and Thawing
ASTM C 672: Test Method for Scaling Resistance of Concrete Surfaces Exposed to Deicing Chemicals
ASTM C 1202: Electrical Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration
ASTM C 642: Test Method for Specific Gravity, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete
Sorptivity Test
Testing Needs

Construction Considerations for Preventing MRD

Ambient and Seasonal Conditions
Batching
Mixing Cycle
Consolidation
Steel Placement
Finishing
Curing

Controlling Specific Types of MRD

Paste Freeze-Thaw Deterioration
Deicer Scaling/Deterioration
Aggregate Freeze-Thaw Deterioration
Alkali–Silica Reaction
Alkali–Carbonate Reactions
External Sulfate Attack
Internal Sulfate Attack
Corrosion of Embedded Steel

Need for Record Keeping

Summary of Treatment, Rehabilitation, and Prevention

Appendix A – Field Data Collection Forms

Appendix B: Laboratory Methods

B.1 Determination of Water-To-Cement Ratio

Introduction

Equipment

Method

B.2 Staining Concrete to Identify Sulfates and ASR

Introduction

Equipment

Staining Techniques

Barium Chloride Potassium Permanganate (BCPP) Stain for Sulfate Minerals
Sodium Cobaltinitrite/Rhodamine B Staining Method for ASR Reaction Products
SHRP Uranyl Acetate Test for ASR Reaction Products
Phenolphthalein Staining Method for Determining Depth and Extent of Carbonation

B.3 Optical Microscopy

Introduction

Equipment

Sample Preparation Equipment
The Stereo Zoom Optical Microscope
The Petrographic Microscope
Automated Optical Microscopes

Methods for Preparing Specimens

Broken Pieces
Grain Mounts
Polished Slabs
Epoxy Impregnation
Thin Sections

B.4 Electron Microscopy

Introduction

Equipment for the Electron Microscope

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Conventional Scanning Electron Microscope (CSEM)
Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM)
Low Vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope (LVSEM)
Purchasing a Scanning Electron Microscope
X-ray Microanalysis

Methods for Preparing SEM/EDS Specimens

Broken Pieces
Polished Slabs
Thin Sections
Specimen Coating

Methods for SEM/EDS Examination

Broken Pieces
Polished Slabs
Thin Sections

B.5 X-ray Diffraction

Introduction

Equipment for X-ray Diffraction

The Powder X-ray Diffractometer
The Debye-Scherrer Camera

Methods for X-ray Diffraction

Powder XRD
Powder Camera

Appendix C: Laboratory Data Collection Forms, Flowcharts, and Diagnostic Tables

C.1 Laboratory Data Collection Forms

C.2 Flowcharts and Diagnostic Tables

Appendix D: References


LIST OF FIGURES

I-1 Guidelines for identification, treatment, and prevention of MRD.
I-2. Flow of field data collection activities.
I-3. General project information form.
I-4. Concrete mixture design information form.
I-5. Concrete fine aggregate information form.
I-6. Concrete coarse aggregate information form.
I-7. Construction information form.
I-8. Modified LTPP distress survey form.
I-9. Modified LTPP distress summary form.
I-10. Survey form for illustrating typical MRD.
I-11. MRD characterization form.
I-12. Distress map symbols for jointed concrete pavements.
I-13. Distress map symbols for CRCP.
I-14. Flow chart for assessing likelihood of MRD.
I-15. Illustration of minimum number of cores for JCP required for MRD evaluation.
I-16. Illustration of minimum number of cores for CRCP required for MRD evaluation.
I-17. Specific core locations for JCP with MRD concentrated at the joints.
I-18. Specific core locations for JCP with MRD not concentrated at joints.
I-19. Specific core locations for CRCP with MRD concentrated at the cracks.
I-20. Specific core locations for CRCP with MRD not concentrated at cracks.
I-21. Typical hardened concrete sampling log sheet.
I-22. Example core identification label.
II-1. Fundamental process for analyzing a concrete MRD sample.
II-2. Group 1: Laboratory log of PCC pavement cores.
II-3. Group 1: Core sampled for laboratory analysis.
II-4. Group 2: General condition of the concrete.
II-5. Group 3: Stereo OM - observations of the concrete.
II-6. Group 3: Stereo OM observations - alterations of the aggregate.
II-7. Group 3: Results of ASTM C 457.
II-8. Group 4: Summary of staining tests.
I-9. Group 5: Petrographic OM - observations of the concrete.
II-10. Group 5: Petrographic OM observations - alterations of the aggregate.
II-11. Group 6: SEM - general conditions.
II-12. Group 6: Summary of scanning electron microscope tests.
II-13. Group 7: Summary of chemical tests.
II-14. Group 8: XRD - analytical conditions and results of qualitative analysis.
II-15. Flowchart for assessing general concrete properties based on visual examination.
II-16. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete paste and air.
II-17. Flowchart for identifying infilling materials in cracks and voids.
II-18. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete aggregates.
III-1. Flowchart for selecting preferred treatment and rehabilitation options.
III-2. Flowchart for the selection of durable aggregates.
III-3. Benefaction techniques for mitigation of aggregate freeze-thaw deterioration.
C-1. Flowchart for assessing general concrete properties based on visual examination.
C-2. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete paste and air.
C-3. Flowchart for identifying infilling materials in cracks and voids.
C-4. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete aggregates.

LIST OF TABLES

I-1. Summary of key MRDs.
I-2. Summary of distress survey components.
I-3. Field survey equipment checklist.
I-4. Distresses to be evaluated during pavement distress surveys.
I-5. Standard photographs to be taken for each project.
II-1. Diagnostic features of corrosion of embedded steel.
II-2. Diagnostic features of paste freeze-thaw damage.
II-3. Diagnostic features of aggregate freeze-thaw deterioration.
II-4. Diagnostic features of sulfate attack.
II-5. Diagnostic features for deicer scaling/deterioration.
II-6. Diagnostic features of ASR.
II-7. Diagnostic features of ACR.
III-1. Selection of feasible alternatives to address freeze-thaw deterioration of aggregate.
III-2. Selection of feasible alternatives to address freeze-thaw deterioration cement paste.
III-3. Selection of feasible alternatives to address deicer scaling/deterioration.
III-4. Selection of feasible alternatives to address ASR.
III-5. Selection of feasible alternatives to address ACR.
III-6. Selection of feasible alternatives to address sulfate attack.
III-7. Selection of feasible alternatives to address corrosion of embedded steel.
III-8. Aggregate characteristics and test methods.
III-9. Recommended air contents for freeze-thaw distress-resistant concrete.
III-10. ASTM C 94: Acceptance criteria for questionable water supplies.
III-11. ASTM C 94: Optional chemical limits for wash water.

III-12. Recommendations for normal weight concrete subject to sulfate attack.
III-13. Chloride ion penetrability based on charge passed.
C-1. Diagnostic features of corrosion of embedded steel.
C-2. Diagnostic features of paste freeze-thaw damage.
C-3. Diagnostic features of aggregate freeze-thaw deterioration.
C-4. Diagnostic features of sulfate attack.
C-5. Diagnostic features of deicer scaling/deterioration.
C-6. Diagnostic features of ASR.
C-7. Diagnostic features of ACR.

 

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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