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Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-11-027    Date:  JANUARY 2011
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-11-027
Date: JANUARY 2011


Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Integrated Bridge System Synthesis Report


  1. Adams, M., Nicks, J., Stabile, T., Wu, J., Schlatter, W., and Hartmann, J. (2010). Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Integrated Bridge System—Interim Implementation Guide, Report No. FHWA-HRT-11-026, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA.

  2. Geo-Institute, Committee on Shallow Foundations. (1999). Shallow Foundations on Reinforced Soil, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.

  3. Berg, R., Christopher, B., and Samtani, N. (2009). Design of Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced Soil Slopes—Volume 1, Report No. FHWA-NHI-10-024, National Highway Institute, Federal Highway Administration, Arlington VA.

  4. Wu, J.T.H. (1994). Design and Construction of Low Cost Retaining Walls: The Next Generation in Technology, Report No. CTI-UCD-1-94, Colorado Transportation Institute, Denver, CO..

  5. Adams, M.T., Ketchart, K., Ruckman, A., DiMillio, A., Wu, J.T.H., and Satyanarayana, R. (1999). "Reinforced Soil for Bridge Support Application on Low Volume Roads." Presented at the Seventh International Conference on Low-Volume Roads, Transportation Research Record 1652, pp. 150–160.

  6. Koklanaris, M. (2000). "Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Structures Can Carry the Load," Public Roads, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC.

  7. Wu, J.T.H., Lee, K.Z.Z., Helwany, S.B., and Ketchart, K. (2006). Design and Construction Guidelines for GRS Bridge Abutment with a Flexible Facing, Report No. 556, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Washington, DC.

  8. Adams, M.T. (2010). "GRS Technology and the GRS Integrated Bridge System." Presented at Eugene Workshop, Local Technical Assistance Program, Eugene, OR.

  9. Adams, M.T. (1997). "Performance of a Prestrained Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Bridge Pier," Mechanically Stabilized Backfill, Wu, J.T.H (Ed.), pp. 35–53, Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

  10. Wu, J.T.H., Pham, T.Q., and Adams, M.T. (2011). Composite Behavior of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil (GRS) Mass, Draft, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA.

  11. Wu, J.T.H. (2001). Revising the AASHTO Guidelines for Design and Construction of GRS Walls, Report No. CDOT-DTD-R-2001-6, Colorado Department of Transportation, Denver, CO.

  12. Wu, J.T.H., Lee, K.Z.Z., and Pham, T. (2006). "Allowable Bearing Pressure of Bridge Sills on GRS Abutments with Flexible Facing," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 132(7), pp. 836–841, American Society of Civil Engineers.

  13. Adams, M.T. (2008). "The Bridge of Defiance County," Geosynthetics, 26(2), pp 14–16, 18, 20–21, Industrial Fabrics Association International, Roseville, MN.

  14. Wu, J.T.H. and Adams, M.T. (2007). "Myth and Fact on Long-Term Creep of GRS Structures," Geotechnical Special Publication No. 165, Geosynthetics in Reinforcement and Hydraulic Applications, Proceedings, Geo-Denver 2007, American Society of Civil Engineers, Denver, CO.

  15. Ketchart, K. and Wu, J.T.H. (1996). Long-Term Performance Tests of Soil-Geosynthetic Composites, Report No. CDOT-CTI-96-1, Colorado Department of Transportation, Denver, CO.

  16. Wu, J.T.J., Ketchart, K., and Adams, M. (2001). GRS Bridge Piers and Abutments, Report No. FHWA-RD-00-038, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA.

  17. Morrison, K.F., Harrison, F.E., Collin, J.G., Dodds, A., and Amdt, B. (2006). Shored Mechanically Stabilized Earth (SMSE) Wall Systems Design Guidelines, Report No. FHWA-CFL/TD-06-001, Federal Highway Administration, Central Federal Lands Highway Division, Lakewood, CO.

  18. Bell, A.L. (1915). "The Lateral Pressure and Resistance of Clay and Supporting Power of Clay Foundations," Min. Proceeding of Institute of Civil Engineers 199, pp. 233–272.

  19. Samtani, N.C. and Nowatzki, E.A. (2006). Soils and Foundations Reference Manual, Report No. FHWA-NHI-06-088, National Highway Institute, Federal Highway Administration, Arlington, VA.

  20. Adams, M.T., Lillis, C.P., Wu, J.T.H., and Ketchart, K. (2002). "Vegas Mini Pier Experiment and Postulate of Zero Volume Change." Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Geosynthetics, pp. 389–394, Nice, France.

  21. Keller, G.R. and Devin, S. (2003). "Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Bridge Abutments," Transportation Research Board 1819(2), pp. 362–368, Eighth International Conference on Low Volume Roads, Reno, NV..

  22. Warren, K.A., Schlatter, W., Adams, M., Stabile, T., and LeGrand, D. (2011). "Thermal Effects and Deformations Associated with a Large, Single Span Bridge Supported by a GRS Integrated Bridge System." Proceedings, GeoFrontiers 2011, Dallas, TX.

  23. Elton, D.J. and Patawaran, M.A.B. (2005). Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) Reinforcement Tensile Strength from Tests of Geotextile Reinforced Soil, Alabama Highway Research Center, Auburn University, Auburn, AL.

  24. Adams, M.T., Schlatter, W., and Stabile, T. (2007). "Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Integrated Abutments at the Bowman Road Bridge in Defiance County, Ohio." Proceedings, Geo-Denver 2007, American Society of Civil Engineers, Denver, CO.

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