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Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations

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Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-16-023    Date:  March 2016
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-16-023
Date: March 2016


Introduction of Cooperative Vehicle-To-Infrastructure Systems to Improve Speed Harmonization

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Cooperative vehicle-highway systems coordinate vehicle communications and remote traffic microwave sensors to increase overall system performance and sustainability. One strategy of cooperative vehicle-highway systems is speed harmonization, which dynamically adjusts vehicle speed recommendations in order to reduce speed differentials. This report describes a preliminary experiment of vehicle-to-infrastructure-based speed harmonization in which speed guidance is communicated directly to vehicles. This report reviews a set of micro-simulation experiments and a limited number of prototype field runs, including site selection, setup, and analysis. This report will be of interest to researchers concerned with implementation and utility of early cooperative vehicle-highway system deployments.

Paul Pisano
Acting Director, Office of Operations
Research and Development


This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers’ names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

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Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.


2. Government Accession No. 3 Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

Introduction of Cooperative Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Systems to Improve Speed Harmonization

5. Report Date

March 2016

6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)

David Hale, Thomas Phillips, Kelli Raboy, Jiaqi Ma, Patrick Su, Xiao-Yun Lu, Hesham Rakha, and Daniel J. Dailey

8. Performing Organization Report No.


9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Leidos, Inc.
11251 Roger Bacon Drive
Reston, VA 20190

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

11. Contract or Grant No.


12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Operations Research and Development
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Research Report

14. Sponsoring Agency Code


15. Supplementary Notes

The Contracting Officer’s Representative was Joe Bared, HRDO-20.

16. Abstract

This project executed a preliminary experiment of vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I)-based speed harmonization
in which speed guidance was communicated directly to vehicles. This experiment involved a set of micro-simulation experiments and a limited number of prototype field runs. The simulation experiments produced mixed results in terms of system-wide benefits. The field runs demonstrated that connected and automated vehicles can successfully implement V2I-based speed harmonization and significantly reduce speed oscillations in their vicinity but do not have a significant impact on aggregate average speeds or travel times.

17. Key Words

Research, Connected vehicles, Automated vehicles, Speed harmonization, Field testing, Simulation

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

19. Security Classification
(of this report)


20. Security Classification
(of this page)


21. No. of Pages


22. Price


Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized

SI* (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Abbreviations
ACC adaptive cruise control
CO2 carbon dioxide
CO carbon monoxide
CMTS connected mobile traffic sensing
CAV connected and automated vehicle
HC hydrocarbons
LHS Latin hypercube sampling
LTM log transformation method
MOE measures of effectiveness
NOx nitrogen oxides
OEM original equipment manufacturer
OD origin-destination
PSD power spectral density
PDF probability density function
RMSE root mean square error
RTMS remote traffic microwave sensor
TD total delay
TNOS total number of stops
TTD total travel distance
TTT total travel time
TFHRC Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center
V2I vehicle-to-infrastructure




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Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center | 6300 Georgetown Pike | McLean, VA | 22101