After a P3 agreement is signed, the public agency must manage the contract to ensure that it achieves the performance standards established in the agreement. The performance monitoring and oversight phase will require building a strong set of skills within the sponsoring agency due to the need to maintain these oversight responsibilities in-house.
FHWA has released guidance describing Federal-aid stewardship and oversight practices for P3 projects. Differences in the procurement, construction and financing of P3s vis-à-vis traditional Federal-aid projects raise important issues for FHWA stewardship. The guidance describes FHWA activities when a state DOT - or a local public agency for which the state DOT is responsible - allocates to a private partner the long-term obligation for some combination of designing, financing, constructing, operating, and maintaining a highway project.