There are a variety of mechanisms, beyond roadway pricing available to generate revenue for transportation projects. These include a broad assortment of fees or taxes levied on defined groups of beneficiaries expected to benefit from the provision of a particular transportation facility or resource. Such strategies can be used to help pay for non-tolled improvements such as transit by leveraging localized benefits ranging from increased land values to a broader tax base. Value capture strategies, however, may also be applied to toll roads to take advantage of the increased property values and other economic benefits produced by such improvements as is the case for the San Joaquin Toll Road in southern California and E-470 outside Denver, Colorado. Most non-pricing revenue sources are derived from state or local programs or private sources. While they are not specifically supported by Federal programs or involve Federal participation, the Center for Innovative Finance Support encourages state and local jurisdictions to look for new revenue sources to address funding shortfalls and is available to provide technical assistance in these areas. In addition, traditional sources of Federal and state revenue, such as motor fuel taxes, are summarized here.
Airport MAX Red Line - Portland, Oregon
The Airport MAX is a 5.5-mile light rail extension to Portland's existing Red Line, connecting Downtown Portland to the Portland International Airport (PDX). As part of a public-private partnership, Bechtel Enterprises funded $28.2 million (23 percent) of the extension's $125.8 million project costs, delivered the extension under a design-build contract, and received an 85-year, rent-free lease to develop the 120-acre mixed-use commercial site near the airport. In addition, the City of Portland funded its portion of project costs (19 percent) by using a form of Tax Increment Financing (TIF).
CATS LYNX Blue Line Extension - Charlotte, North Carolina
The LYNX Blue Line Extension is a $1.16 billion extension of the existing 9.6-mile LYNX Blue Line light rail that opened in the South Corridor of Charlotte, North Carolina, in 2007. The 9.3-mile extension includes 11 new stations and associated parking facilities and will provide service north to the campus of UNC Charlotte. Funding comes from a federal capital investment grant, a TIFIA loan, the state and city, the Charlotte Area Transit System, and donated right-of-way.
CenterPoint Intermodal Center - Joliet - Joliet, Illinois (Metropolitan Chicago region)
CenterPoint Intermodal Center - Joliet is a 3,600-acre facility housing industrial facilities, Class I rail intermodal centers, and yards for container management. CIC - Joliet is located 40 miles southwest of Chicago. Since opening in 2010, it has combined with its neighbor two miles to the south, CenterPoint Intermodal Center - Elwood, home to BNSF Logistics Park. The combined 6,400-acre intermodal facility is the nation's largest inland port. CIC - Joliet is currently home to a Union-Pacific Terminal (shown in the photo), a Class I intermodal facility, and has the capacity to accommodate additional facilities. It is partially financed with a private activity bond allocation.
Chicago O'Hare International Airport Consolidated Rental Car Facility and Airport Transit System Extension - Chicago, Illinois
This project is a multimodal transportation center consisting of a Consolidated Rental Car Facility (CONRAC) with an associated Quick Turn Around facility, an extension to the Airport Transit System (ATS), including the purchase of new ATS vehicles, and a public parking component. The CONRAC will serve as a major access point for O'Hare International Airport and will accommodate rental cars, public parking, bus services, off-airport hotel shuttles, and other commercial shuttles with connectivity to the adjacent O'Hare Metra Rail station and the Chicago Transit Authority O'Hare Blue Line station through use of the ATS.
Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program (CREATE) - Chicago, Illinois
The CREATE project is an innovative collaboration between freight railroads, the State of Illinois DOT, the City of Chicago DOT, Metra, and Amtrak. CREATE is maximizing the use of four train transportation corridors, including three primarily handling freight traffic and one primarily handling passenger traffic. The project involves 70 improvements, including rail, auto, and pedestrian grade separations using new overpasses and underpasses, as well as viaduct improvements, grade crossing safety enhancements, and extensive upgrades of tracks, switches and signal systems.
Crenshaw/LAX Transit Corridor Project - Los Angeles, California
The Crenshaw/LAX Transit Corridor Project is a new 8.5-mile light rail transit line extending from the existing Metro Expo Line south to Aviation/LAX Station along the Metro Green Line, including eight transit stations (with off-street parking), the procurement of up to 28 light rail vehicles, and the construction of a full service maintenance facility. The project is supported by a TIFIA loan backed by local sales tax revenue, as well as other state funds, including those from general obligation bonds, and additional local sales tax revenue.
Chicago Transit Authority 95th Street Terminal Improvement Project - Chicago, Illinois
Chicago Transit Authority 95th Street Terminal Improvement Project at the terminus of Chicago Transit Authority's Red Line consists of a redesign of the existing North Terminal building, surrounding sidewalks, and rail platforms. This project also includes the construction of a new South Terminal building. The existing 95th/Dan Ryan Terminal is a critical intermodal hub connecting downtown commuters to the Far South Side communities and suburbs through bus connections. The project is being delivered under a design-build contract, funded by TIFIA, federal, state, and local funds.
Chicago Transit Authority Blue Line Project - Chicago, Illinois
The Chicago Transit Authority Blue Line Project (Your New Blue improvement program) is a series of modernization projects along a 19-mile section of Chicago Transit Authority's Blue Line O'Hare Branch. It includes track improvements, traction power and signal upgrades, and station renovations to improve service, reliability, and accessibility. The nearly half-billion dollar, four-year program is being funded by a combination of federal, state, and local sources.
Dallas Area Rapid Transit Project Orange Line Extension (Irving-3) - Dallas, Texas
The DART Orange Line is a light rail transit line connecting downtown Dallas with the City of Irving and Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport northwest of Dallas. The 14.5-mile, $1.3 billion project opened in three sections. A TIFIA loan helped finance construction on the project's $397 million third phase (Irving-3).
Denver Union Station - Denver, Colorado
The Denver Union Station project is a public-private development venture located on approximately 50 acres in lower downtown Denver. Redevelopment of the site as an intermodal transit district surrounded by transit-oriented development includes light and commuter rail stations, a regional bus facility, new transit service, and pedestrian improvements. The project is sponsored by a public benefit corporation formed by the City of Denver and its elements have been transferred to the Regional Transportation District as they were completed. The project achieved substantial completion in February 2014. Financing included TIFIA and RRIF loans, federal grants and stimulus funding, and state, regional, and local contributions.
Dulles Corridor Metrorail Project - Northern Virginia
The Dulles Corridor Metrorail Project (Silver Line) is a 23-mile extension of the existing Metrorail system from the Orange Line's East Falls Church Station in Arlington to Route 772 in Loudoun County, including 11 new stations. The extension serves Tysons Corner, Virginia's largest employment center, and the Reston/Herndon area, the region's second largest employment concentration. It also will provide a one-seat ride from Washington Dulles International Airport to downtown Washington, DC. The project is being financed with an FTA New Starts grant, three TIFIA loans as well as other state, county, and airport revenues.
E-470 Tollway - Denver, Colorado
The E-470 is a 47-mile orbital toll road running along the eastern perimeter of the Denver metropolitan region. The tollway was financed entirely by private enterprise and the E-470 Public Highway Authority using an innovative mix of revenue sources including: tolls, vehicle registration fees, a highway expansion impact fee, and private sector contributions ranging from office space, to right-of-way, property assessments, and monetary donations.
Eagle Project - Denver Metro Area, Colorado
The Eagle Project is part of RTD's FasTracks initiative, a voter-approved program to expand rail and bus transit throughout the Denver metropolitan region. The Eagle Project has been procured through a concession agreement between RTD and Denver Transit Partners to design, build, finance, operate, and maintain the project's components - three new commuter rail lines and a maintenance facility - for 34 years.
East Link Extension - Seattle, Washington Metropolitan Area
The $4.031 billion East Link Extension and included I-90 Two-Way Transit and HOV Operations project will provide a new 14.5-mile Light Rail Transit (LRT) line across Lake Washington linking the Eastside communities of Redman and Bellevue with Mercer Island and Downtown Seattle and eight miles of High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes across the I-90 Floating Bridge. This multimodal program will be paid for with an innovative financial plan backed by federal, state, local and private stakeholders.
Eleventh Street Bridge Project - Washington, DC
The Eleventh Street Bridge Project replaced the existing twin bridges that carry I-295 over the Anacostia River in the southeast quadrant of the District of Columbia. Three new bridges were constructed and improvements were made to the interchanges at both ends, including adding missing movements to and from the north onto the Anacostia Freeway (I-295/DC 295). Project funding comprised a mixture of federal, local, and private funds including GARVEE bonds used in combination with tapered match.
Foothill/Eastern and San Joaquin Hills Toll Roads - Orange County, California
The Foothill/Eastern and San Joaquin Hills Toll Roads comprise 51 total miles across four public toll roads providing congestion relief and connectivity within Orange County, California. Development impact fees levied on developers of residential and commercial properties are used to supplement toll revenues for debt service payments.
Heartland Corridor - Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio
Due to the Norfolk Southern's rail network, the Port of Virginia (Newport News) has always had good rail access to the Midwest markets. The Heartland Corridor project makes the most direct rail route to the major markets of Columbus and Chicago accessible to double-stack container trains and shortens trip-times. Extending through Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky and Ohio, the Heartland Corridor consists of a series of five separate intermodal projects designed to improve mobility and increase freight capacity.
Hudson-Bergen Light Rail - Hudson/Bergen Counties, New Jersey
The Hudson-Bergen Light Rail is a light rail transit system encompassing 24 stations. It runs north-south on the Hudson River waterfront in Hudson County, New Jersey for 20.6 miles. A $1.0 billion, 9.5-mile initial operating segment was procured using a 15-year DBOM contract, resulting in significant time savings compared to a traditional multiple design-bid-build approach. The contract was later renegotiated to cover Segments II ($1.2 billion) and III ($100 million) that extended the rail another seven miles, adding eight stations.
I-40 and Radio Road Interchange Project - El Reno, Oklahoma
The I-40 and Radio Road Interchange project is a new interstate interchange in the City of El Reno, 24 miles west of downtown Oklahoma City. Initially advanced and partially funded by Seventy Seven Energy Corp. to improve access to its offices along Radio Road, this $17 million partnership with the private sector was a first for the Oklahoma Department of Transportation.
Interlink (formerly Warwick Intermodal Station) - Warwick, Rhode Island
Interlink, formerly the Warwick Intermodal Station project, is an intermodal project connecting air, rail, bus, automobiles, and rental cars at T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, RI that serves the Providence area and Southern Massachusetts. The project consisted of construction of a new commuter rail station with an enclosed walkway connection to the airport and a consolidated rental car center and parking garage.
King Coal Highway - West Virginia
The King Coal Highway is a planned four-lane highway approximately 95 miles long running through McDowell, Mercer, Mingo, Wyoming, and Wayne Counties, West Virginia along or near currently existing US Route 52. To date, one of eleven sections has been constructed, the 12-mile “Red Jacket” section in Mongo County. It used an innovative partnership among public agencies, the local redevelopment authority, and private coal mining enterprise. A negotiated special agreement that resulted in significant cost savings to the state and an accelerated construction timetable permitted coal mining along the highway corridor in exchange for the private construction of the highway foundation and grading.
Las Vegas Monorail - Las Vegas, Nevada
The Las Vegas Monorail was originally a joint venture between MGM Grand and Bally's Hotel, creating a one-mile system linking the hotels in 1993. Plans for expansion further along the Strip led to the State of Nevada in 1997 passing legislation that enabled a private company to own, operate, and charge a fare as a public monorail system. It expanded the system to 3.9 miles in 2004.
Louisiana TIMED Program - Louisiana (statewide)
The TIMED (Transportation Infrastructure Model for Economic Development) Program was a $5.2 billion transportation infrastructure program designed to increase economic development in Louisiana by investing in transportation improvement projects. The innovative capital program was financed by a 4-cent gas tax and expedited by a partnership with a private program manager.
Miami Intermodal Center - Florida
Located next to the Miami International Airport (MIA), the Miami Intermodal Center is a large ground transportation hub incorporating a Rental Car Center, the Miami Central Station serving local rail transit, commuter rail, Amtrak, and intercity bus transit, major roadway improvements, the MIA Mover and future joint development. Federal, state, and local funding supported this $2 billion program.
NoMa - Gallaudet U Metrorail Station - Washington, DC
The NoMa - Gallaudet U station, formerly known as the New York Avenue station, opened in 2004 as the Washington Metrorail's first infill station. The station was funded through a unique partnership between the District of Columbia, developers and property owners, community leaders, and WMATA. The private sector and local property owners funded $35 million (34 percent) of the $104 million project cost through land donations ($10 million) and the creation of a special assessment district ($25 million).
Northgate Link Extension - Seattle, Washington
The Northgate Link Extension expands Seattle's Sound Transit Link light rail system 4.3 miles north from the existing Capitol Hill and University of Washington Stations that opened in March 2016. The extension runs primarily underground through twin-bored tunnels and features three new stations. The extension is part of the regional mass transit system expansion (Sound Transit 2) approved by voters in 2008 and supported in large part by a dedicated local option sales tax. The project is the first to reach financial close under a TIFIA Master Credit Agreement under which USDOT may make a contingent commitment of future TIFIA credit assistance for a program of related projects secured by a common security pledge.
Portland Streetcar - Portland, Oregon
The Portland Streetcar network is a 14.7-mile modern streetcar network in Downtown Portland, Oregon. Property owners along the proposed alignment agreed to establish a special property tax levy through the formation of a Local Improvement District (LID), funding approximately 13.9 percent ($34.9 million) of the $251.4 million project. In addition, Tax Increment Financing also contributed to 8.2 percent ($21.5 million) of total project costs.
Potomac Yard Metrorail Station - City of Alexandria, Virginia
The City of Alexandria, Virginia negotiated exactions for developer contributions in return for land rezoning, dedicated net new tax revenues, and created two special assessment districts to fund the project costs of a proposed infill station on the Washington Metrorail system. The Potomac Yard station - estimated to begin construction in 2016 and open to service in 2018 - is the cornerstone of the redevelopment plan for the Potomac Yard, a 295-acre former rail yard near the Potomac River.
Regional Connector Transit Corridor Project - Los Angeles, California
The Regional Connector Transit Corridor Project is a 1.9-mile underground light rail connection between the Little Tokyo/Arts District Station to the 7th Street/Metro Center Station in downtown Los Angeles, California. The Regional Connector extends from the Metro Gold Line and will allow passengers to transfer to the Metro Blue, Exposition, Red, and Purple Lines, bypassing Union Station, while providing one-seat ride for travel across Los Angeles County. The project will be delivered as a design-build project. It will be financed through federal, state, and local sources, including a TIFIA loan and an FTA New Starts Full Funding Grant Agreement.
Reno Transportation Rail Access Corridor (ReTRAC) - Reno, Nevada
Traffic congestion and safety concerns brought about the largest public works project ever undertaken in Northern Nevada, the Reno Transportation Rail Access Corridor, or ReTRAC. The project depressed a 2.3-mile stretch of freight rail that ran through downtown, eliminating 10 at-grade street crossings.
Riverwalk Expansion/Wacker Drive Reconstruction Project - Chicago, Illinois
The Riverwalk Expansion, which included the final phases of the Wacker Drive Reconstruction Project, is a pedestrian walkway running six blocks along the Chicago River from State Street to Lake Street. Each block features a distinct theme, facilitating different recreational and transportation activities. A TIFIA loan helped fund most of two of three phases of the Riverwalk, and will be repaid with project-generated revenues, including tour boat, retail leasing, and advertising fees.
Route 3 North - Boston, Massachusetts
Financed using tax-exempt 63-20 debt and leveraging lease payments pledged by the Massachusetts Highway Department, the Route 3 North project involved widening an existing 21-mile highway northwest of Boston from two to three lanes in each direction. The project included the creation of a 30-foot median to accommodate fiber optic line and other utilities, and the replacement of 40 bridges.
Route 28 Corridor Improvements - Northern Virginia
In 1987, property owners in Fairfax and Loudon Counties agreed to establish an additional property tax through the creation of a special assessment. Revenue has been dedicated to major highway improvements along the Route 28 corridor, including widenings and interchange reconstruction.
Route 33 Interchange Project - Easton, Pennsylvania Region
The Route 33 Interchange Project in Palmer Township, Pennsylvania (65 miles north of Philadelphia) involved the construction of a new interchange and associated access improvements to facilitate the mixed-use commercial development of over 600 acres of surrounding land. The interchange was constructed by PennDOT and other infrastructure improvements are being made by a private owner who is selling parcels of land to other third party developers. Tax increment financing provided partial funding for the improvements.
SH 45SW - Austin, Texas
SH 45SW is a four-lane toll road under development by the Central Texas Regional Mobility Authority between the southern end of MoPac Expressway (Loop 1) and FM 1626 southwest of Austin, Texas. The $100 million project uses no federal funds, relying solely on state funds and debt along with contributions from Travis and Hays Counties, through which the road passes.
South Lake Union Streetcar - Seattle, Washington
The South Lake Union Streetcar project is a 2.6-mile modern streetcar connecting the South Lake Union area to Downtown Seattle, Washington. Forming the centerpiece of an innovative funding package, local businesses and property owners along the proposed alignment agreed to establish a special property tax levy through the formation of a Local Improvement District (LID), funding approximately 47 percent ($25 million) of the $53.5 million project.
SR 826/SR 836 Interchange Reconstruction - Miami, Florida
The SR 826/SR 836 Interchange Reconstruction project is the last component of a 20-year, 12-part series of improvements to SR 826 (Palmetto Expressway) - a vital north-south route west of Miami. This project involved the complete reconstruction of the interchange with the tolled SR 836 (Dolphin Expressway) near Miami International Airport, along with reconstruction and modification to nearby frontage roads, ramps, and connecting local streets. Florida DOT paid for the nearly $600 million project with federal funds, Recovery Act stimulus funding, and revenue from the Miami-Dade Expressway Authority, which operates SR 836. The department used a design-build-finance arrangement with a contractor joint venture team delivering the project.
State Street Redevelopment Project - West Lafayette, Indiana
The City of West Lafayette, Indiana and Purdue University are jointly delivering the State Street Redevelopment Project to provide aesthetic and functional improvements to gateways into West Lafayette and Purdue University. The project improves the streetscape, provides pedestrian amenities to enhance community and campus resident cohesiveness, and expands transportation infrastructure to accommodate planned and future growth of West Lafayette and the University. The project is being delivered through an innovative design-build-finance-maintain availability payment P3 backed by tax increment finance district revenue.
Transbay Transit Center - San Francisco, California
The Transbay Transit Center Project will replace the current Transbay Terminal with a new multimodal transportation center and centralize the region's transportation network by accommodating nine transportation systems under one roof, as well as California High Speed Rail and an underground pedestrian connection to the Embarcadero BART/Muni station. The project consists of replacing the outdated Transbay Terminal with a modern transit hub, extending the Caltrain rail line from its current terminus and accommodating future high-speed rail, and redeveloping the area surrounding the Transbay Transit Center.
Westside Purple Line Extension, Section 1 - Los Angeles, California
The Westside Purple Line Extension comprises a three-phase, 8.9 mile extension of the LA Metro's existing Purple Line subway from its current terminus at Wilshire/Western Station to a new western terminus in West Los Angeles near the VA Hospital in Westwood. Section 1 will extend the Purple Line 3.9 miles from Wilshire/Western to Wilshire/La Cienega and includes three stations, procurement of 34 new heavy rail vehicles, and improvements to the existing Division 20 Rail Maintenance and Storage Yard. Section 1 has been procured through a design-build contract, and is financed with federal, state, and local sources, including a TIFIA loan and an FTA New Starts Full Funding Grant Agreement.
Westside Purple Line Extension, Section 2 - Los Angeles, California
The Westside Purple Line Extension involves a three-phase, 8.9-mile extension of the LA Metro's existing Purple Line subway from its current terminus at Wilshire/Western Station to a new western terminus in West Los Angeles near the VA Hospital in Westwood. Section 2 will extend the Purple Line 2.6 miles from the planned Section 1 terminus at Wilshire/La Cienega and continue to Century City, with stations at Wilshire/Rodeo and Century City Constellation. The project includes procurement of 20 new heavy rail vehicles. As with Section 1, Section 2 is being procured through a design-build contract, and is financed with federal, state, and local sources, including a TIFIA loan and an FTA New Starts Full Funding Grant Agreement.