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Non-Road Pricing Revenue: Sources and Tools

Transit-Oriented Development

FTA describes transit-oriented development (TOD) as compact, mixed-use development near transit facilities and high-quality walking environments. A Transit Cooperative Research Program study concludes that the typical TOD leverages transit infrastructure to promote economic development and smart growth, and to cater to shifting market demands and lifestyle preferences. TOD is about creating sustainable communities where people of all ages and incomes have transportation and housing choices, increasing location efficiency where people can walk, bike and take transit. In addition, TOD boosts transit ridership and reduces automobile congestion, providing value for both the public and private sectors, while creating a sense of community and place. Below are examples of public agencies that have implemented TOD projects and/or programs. For more information view the FHWA Center for Innovative Finance Support Transit-Oriented Development Resources webpage.


  1. Joint Development - Joint development is a form of TOD that is project specific and takes place on or adjacent to transit-agency land. Joint development projects involve the direct participation of a public entity, often a transit agency, in revenue streams and sometimes ownership. 1 The public agency typically takes on direct financial risk for a commercial development as part of a joint development agreement. The most common joint development arrangements are air-rights development, ground leases, station interface or connection-fee programs, cost sharing arrangements, and incentive agreements. The links below provide examples of joint development projects and programs.


1. Transit Cooperative Research Program, Transit-Oriented Development in the United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects, Report 102 [Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, 2004], 8.

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