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Best Practices in Enforcement on Managed Lane Facilities Webinar

March 28, 2017



Webinar Recording:

Welcome Slide

Welcome to Best Practices in Enforcement on Managed Lanes Facilities


  • Via Computer - No action needed
  • Via Telephone - Mute computer speakers, call (866) 863-9293 passcode: 93625572

Presentations by:

Closed captioning is available at:

  • You will be notified of the availability of the recording and PowerPoint presentation from this seminar.

Presentation 1: Managing Enforcement and the Customer Experience

Presented by Cris Sanders
Director of Tolling Operations


  • State Road and Tollway Authority (SRTA) Overview
  • Tolling Operations
  • I-75 South Metro Express Lanes
  • I-85 Express Lanes
  • Enforcement
  • Customer Experience


SRTA is a state-level independent authority created by the Georgia General Assembly to:

  • Operate Georgia toll facilities
  • Serve as a State transportation financing arm
    • Manage ~ $1.3B in transportation bonds
    • Issue & service toll revenue financed debt
    • Administer GTIB (Georgia Transportation Infrastructure Bank)Program

SRTA is governed by a five-member Board

SRTA Tolling Operations

  • Quality Assurance and Training
  • Customer Service
  • Operations
  • Toll Operations Command Center

Registered Lane

I-75 South Metro Express Lanes
Toll Exempt Tolled Prohibited
  • Over-the-road buses
  • Emergency vehicles
  • Single driver
  • Carpools
  • Motorcycles
  • Alternative Fuel Vehicles
  • Vehicles with more than 6 wheels
I-85 Express Lanes
Toll Exempt Tolled Prohibited
  • Motorcycles
  • Alternative Fuel Vehicles
  • Over-the-road buses
  • 3 or more person carpools
  • Emergency vehicles
  • Single driver
  • 2 Person carpools
  • Vehicles with more than 6 wheels

I-75 South Metro Express Lanes

  • 12 miles of newly constructed roadway
  • Lanes extends between SR 155/ McDonough Road and SR 138/ Stockbridge Highway
  • Express Lanes were constructed within the median of the existing roadways
  • Lanes are reversible, allowing traffic to travel northbound in the morning and southbound in the evening
  • Traffic flow will be adjusted to support special events such as NASCAR races and spring break travel

area map

I-75 South Metro Express Lanes

  • Groundbreaking October 6, 2014
  • Construction took approximately two years
  • Lanes were opened to traffic January 2017
  • Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) is responsible for reversing lanes
  • SRTA is responsible for setting tolls

traffic lanes

I-85 Express Lanes Overview

  • 15.5 miles
  • 1 lane in each direction
  • Painted, rumble-striped buffer; no physical barriers
  • 66 active toll points, ½ mile apart
  • Dynamically priced
  • Lanes operate 24/7
  • Registered lane, even for toll- exempt vehicles
  • 2 axles; no more than 6 wheels
  • 6C transponder technology


I-85 Express Lanes

Logo Interstate George 85

  • $182M original project budget
  • Won federal grant -$110M
  • Express Lanes $60M
  • Opened October 1, 2011
  • 1st Pricing Demand Management Strategy Project in GA
  • HOV2+-HOT3+ Conversion

High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV)
High Occupancy Toll (HOT)

cars on highway

I-85 Express Lanes

"Invisible Barrier" solution

  • Overhead tolling system detects vehicle entry/exit
  • Gantry spacing deters dodging into the Express Lanes
  • Gantry to gantry monitoring detects entry/exit violations
  • Automatic toll violation notices
  • Indirectly enforces double white line weaving

"Invisible Barrier" graphic

Text of "Invisible Barrier" graphic

  • Toll Paying Gantry (Exit)
  • Confirmation Gangries
  • Violation Enforcement Camera
  • Toll Paying Gantry (Entry)
  • Entry/Exit weaving zone with skip lines
  • Double white line separation



  • Using the Express Lanes without a Peach Pass transponder
  • Occupancy (vehicle does not meet 3+ requirement to ride free) - Automatic License Plate Recognition (ALPR)
  • Addressing crossing the solid, double white line - Gantry Controlled Access


  • SRTA toll violation = $25 + toll amount
  • May also be issued citation by law enforcement

Lane markings

Vehicle Occupancy Enforcement

  • Qualifying carpoolers self-declare HOV status by telephone, smart phones, or online account.
  • Tolling Back Office transmits list of "Toll-Exempt" vehicles to a mobile Automatic License Plate Recognition (ALPR ) system onboard police cars
  • ALPR scans license plate and notifies officer to check occupancy for vehicles registered with SRTA in the 3+ non-toll mode
  • The ALPR reads license plate of passing vehicles and notify officers to check occupancy of only "Toll Exempt" vehicles
    • Full list updated daily
    • Incremental updates every 5-10 minutes throughout the day
  • Officer's on board computer system sends "stop/citation" information back to SRTA


Customer Experience

Toll Mode Options

  • There are 2 Modes of a Peach Pass
    • Toll: when there are <3 occupants in a vehicle
    • Non-toll: when there are 3+ occupants
  • Toll Mode Duration Options
    • 4 hours
    • 1 day
    • Weekdays
    • Indefinite
  • Change between Modes
    • 15 minutes before using Express Lanes
    • Call, online, in person, Mobile App.
    • Automated confirmation

*Toll Mode Change Options apply only for the I-85 Express Lanes

Customer Experience

Violation Processing

  • DWL Violations: Entering or exiting Express Lane by crossing the solid, double white line
    • No Double penalties
    • Fine and Fee reductions
  • Unregistered Use: Using the Express Lanes without a Peach Pass
    • Violator to Customer
    • Fine and Fee reductions
  • Occupancy: Occupancy (vehicle does not meet the appropriate number of occupants for toll-free access)
    • Declaration status validation

Customer Experience

Payment Options

  • Pay N Go
    • Payment card purchased at one of our retail partners location to pay violations
  • Online
    • Notification provided when customers access their accounts online
  • Interactive Voice Response (IVR system)
  • Payment Plans
    • Violations with 10 or more transactions

Thank You!

Presentation 2: Best Practices in Enforcement on Managed Lanes Facilities

March 28, 2017

Joseph Averkamp
FHWA Webinar

Logo - Conduent


  • High Occupancy Vehicle and High Occupancy Toll Lanes are a key tool used in Managed Lane Systems
  • Most systems rely on people honestly declaring if they are qualified to be in the lane
    • Switchable Tag for HOT
    • Entering Lane for HOV
  • Enforcement by Human Roadside Observers is challenging

Conduent Vehicle Passenger Detection SystemTM... So Far

  • Conduent has developed and tested an Automated Vehicle Occupancy Detection System
    • Conduent Vehicle Passenger Detection System™
  • Conduent has conducted a series of pilots to assess the system
    • Halifax Harbour Bridges
    • 495 Express Lanes Northern Virginia
    • Colorado DOT I25
    • CalTrans I5 in Orange County
    • SANDAG I15
    • Jougne, France
    • LA Metro I110

detection system

detection system

Primary Focus Of Pilots

  • What level of automated accuracy can be achieved?
  • What is the Violation Rate on the roadway being evaluated?
  • How well can human enforcement perform?
  • What level of automated accuracy can be achieved? ~95%
  • What is the Violation Rate on the roadway being evaluated? Varies from 11% to 28% depending on the roadway
  • How well can human enforcement perform? High volume roadways are challenging and pulling vehicles over can create a Safety and Congestion issue

Focused Discussion:

Caltrans Trial : I-5 in Irvine, CA Testing HOV2 Lane, Three Month Trial
Rear Seat Image Capture Equipment Front Seat Image Capture Equipment

Front Seat Image Capture Equipment

Front Seat Image Capture Equipment

Rear Seat Image Capture Equipment

Rear Seat Image Capture Equipment

Conduent VPDS Produces High Quality Images For Manual Image Review

captured images

Note: Images Redacted for Privacy

Single Occupant Vehicle Rate Accuracy: Human versus Machine

Conduent VPDS accuracy as compared to Human Roadside Observers

  Average Vehicle Count For A Three Hour Period XVPDS SOV Rate Accuracy Roadside Observer SOV Rate Accuracy
Mornings 6am-9am
Jan 27, 28, 29
Tues, Wed, Thurs
1774 95.0% 35.7%
Evenings 3pm-6pm
Jan 27, 28, 29
Tues, Wed, Thurs
2250 95.3% 35.6%

Statistics from the CalTrans Trial

Statistic Measure Comments
Period of Analysis January 27,28,29: 6 am-9
am, 3 pm - 6 pm
Total Vehicles Reviewed 12,073  
Violation Rate 11.65% 17.4% adjusted down for LEVs
Total Violations 1,406 11.65% out of 12,073
Number of Hours During Analysis Period 18 3 days for 6 hours each day
Number of Vehicles Seen Per Hour 671 This represents 11 vehicles per minute or one vehicle every 5.4 seconds
Violators Per Hour 78 This is the average number of Violators passing this location each hour.

The Roadside Observers see a Vehicle every 5.4 seconds -- Don't Look Away!

Vehicle Occupancy Detection Concept of Operations!

flow chart of Occupancy Detection network

Concept of Operations For High Occupancy Toll Lanes

VPDS flow chart

Text of flow chart

  • All Vehicles Captured by VPDS
    • Input from Toll Collection System
      • Switchable Tag Setting
      • Lane Rules
    • Automated Output from Conduent VPDS
      • HOV Score
      • Images
        • Manual Image Review of Declared Violators
          • Accuracy of Declared Violators After Manual Image Review = ~99%

Economics: The Technology May Work But What About the Business Case?

  • Consider a "typical" Toll Lane
    • 10,000 vehicles per day
    • Violation Rate of 10%-- in studies, Violation Rate was 11% -28%
    • Yields 1,000 violations per day
    • 250 Commuting Days a year - 5 days X 50 weeks
    • This yields 250,000 Violations or Toll Adjustments Per Year
  • Finances
    • $10 Toll Charge X 250,000 Toll Adjustments = $2.5 million per year in "found" revenue on one lane
      • Supported with Manual Review and Correspondence Management

Lessons Learned

  • Good news! Most people in the HOV/HOT lanes are qualified to be there: 72%-89%
    • Conversely, 11%-28% of the vehicles are not qualified
  • Revenue may be important but...
    • Safety and Congestion: Stops by enforcement officers lead to Congestion and Safety concerns
    • Equity: Equity on the road is important-----if a select percentage don't adhere to the rules, others may follow if there is no visible means of enforcement
    • Improving Flow: Reducing non-qualified vehicles may help restore free flow: an 11% to 28% violation rate is the difference between Service Level E or F and Service Level A or B
  • Perfection cannot be the enemy of the good
    • 95% accuracy is not good enough for completely automated enforcement, but it is a good start. When augmented by manual review, the number of mis-categorized vehicles can be reduced to ~1%
  • For the naked human eye, identifying HOV/HOT violators at highway speeds is very challenging.

© 2017 Conduent Business Services, LLC. All rights reserved. Conduent and Conduent Agile Stararetrademarks of Conduent Business Services, LLC in the United States and/or other countries.

Presentation 3: 95 Express Incident Management and Enforcement Lessons Learned

Sunguide Transportation Management Center
Florida Department of Transportation - District 6

Logo - FDOTLogo - Sunguide

March 28, 2017

Javier Rodriguez, P.E., FDOT District Six, TSM&O Program Engineer


  • Project Overview
  • Incident Management Resources
  • Enforcement
  • Lessons Learned

Project Overview

  • Phase 1 Completion
    • Northbound - Dec 2008
    • Southbound - Jan 2010
  • Phase 2 Completion
    • Oct 2016
  • HOV to HOT Conversion
    • 1 HOV Lane to 2 Express Lanes
  • Congestion-Priced Tolling
  • Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
  • Ramp Signaling

Map area Fort Lauderdale

Incident Management Resources

  • Major Elements
    • Dedicated TMC Express Lane Operators
    • Road Ranger Service Patrol
      • Added flatbed wrecker
      • Added heavy duty wrecker
    • Incident Response Vehicle & Operators
    • Law Enforcement
  • Quick Clearance Procedures


  • Electronic Toll Enforcement
  • Florida Highway Patrol Support
    • Enforcement
      • Toll Violation
      • Speeding
      • HOV
      • Improper Lane Change (Lane Diving)
      • Hard Closures
    • Incident Management
      • Relocation of Incidents
      • Crash Investigation
      • Express Lanes (EL) & Local Lanes (LL)

Officer approaching vehicle

Lessons Learned

  • Operations

    • Provide Full Width Shoulders
    • Separate EL from LL
    • Provide Means of Physically Closing Facility
    • Operational Changes should be made ‘Quickly'
      • Adequate Supporting Staff & Resources
      • Evaluate & Adjust as Necessary
      • Mitigate Bad Driver Behavior

Camera images

Lessons Learned

  • Incident Management
    • Dedicated Resources
      • Specially Trained & Equipped
    • Multi-Agency Partnerships
      • FHP Hireback Program
      • Traffic Incident Management (TIM) Team
      • Table Top Exercises
      • Coordination Meetings
    • Quick Clearance Procedures
      • Dedicated Strategic Staging Areas

Lessons Learned

  • Closing Facility
    • Posting "CLOSED" - 87% Violations
    • Hard Closures
    • Post-Incident Pricing
    • Regulatory Lane Status Signs
      • Color DMS
      • Allows for white text on black background
      • Enforceable per MUTCD
    • Automated Gate System

Automated Gate System

Lessons Learned

  • Driver Awareness
    • Lane Diving (Moving Violation)
    • Toll Violation

road warning sign

Before and After signage improvements

Lessons Learned

  • Express Lane Markers
    • Lane Diving
    • Type and Installation
    • Spacing
    • Maintenance

Lane differences

Lessons Learned

  • Roadway Design
    • Reduced Shoulder Width
    • Median Emergency Stopping Sites
      • February 2017 - February 2018

SR 9/I-95 Emergency Stopping Sites

"Buzzed Driving is Drunk Driving"

Thank you,
Javier Rodriguez, P.E., FDOT District Six, TSM&O Program Engineer

Presentation 4: Carma Mobility Solutions

Extending mobility freedom to everyone


logo - Carma

  CarmaCar CarmaZoom CarmaCar Commute
  Carshare where people really live and work High-occupancy commute carshare Peer-to-peer commute carpool
  CarmaCar CarmaZoom CarmaCar Commute
USP: San Francisco's original carshare service (2002); non-profit; 400 cars. World first high-occupancy carshare service introduced 2015 World's leading commute carpool solution since 2007.
Competition: Z
= 95% US
Market Share


Closest business is Bridj.

(Only new entrants focus on the commute; Waze in Israel)
  • Aggressive pod expansion
  • Introduction of corporate carshare
  • Close government partnerships
  • Data-driven momentum
  • Roll-out of new app, hardware
  • 3-minute sign-up and approval
  • Extends utilization to off-peak hours
  • Extends utilization to new areas
  • Ideal employment campus solution
  • Far less costly than a new shuttle
  • Valet service, simple reservations
  • 3-minute sign-up and approval
  • Market leader
  • 250+ APIs, being used globally
  • Government partnerships
  • Toll rebates for verified carpools
  • Community management expertise
  • Employer partnerships
Vision: High-occupancy in our fleet of cars; then high-occupancy in every car.

PPP Partnerships

In partnership with local governments and transportation agencies


  • Texas Department of Transportation, Central Texas Regional Mobility Authority; Bay Area Toll Authority; Contra Costa Transportation Authority, Caltrans


  • Washington State DOT; Northern Virginia Regional Council; US Dept of Defense; Metropolitan Transportation Commission; and Federal Highway Administration


  • City and County of San Francisco; City of Berkeley; and University of California and Metropolitan Transportation Commission


  • San Francisco Metropolitan Transportation Authority

logo collage

Carpool Incentives

Incentives website

Real-time SOV / HOV travel alerts

Real-time availability at parking lots

Real-time alerts on rider / driver availability at roadside pick-up zones

Real-time incentive confirmations

real-time alerts

Parking Discounts

Incentives advertisement

Shift from cars-per-lot to people-per-lot

Near-field occupancy detection at fixed locations

World's first iBeacon implementation for transportation


Managed Lane Discounts

carma managed lane discounts

Interoperable with any tolling network via back-end reconciliation

Real-time toll discounts with optional in-car alerts for verified carpools

Toll sharing amongst vehicle occupants

verified occupants diagram

Tolling Enforcement vs Verification

Dominated by legacy roadside systems provided by giant vendors

Highway Patrol Support Systems Switchable Transponders Video Analytics (Geometric) Infrared In Car Sensors Mobile Verification
3M, Kapsch Trafficcom, Transcore, Siemens, IBM, Schneider Electric Sirit, Transcore, Kapsch TrafficCom, Telematic Wireless Xerox (VPDS), Cubic (NextCity) Siemens, Vehicle Occupancy Detection Corporation (Dtect) Delphi, Siemens Carma
detection devices transponder video image image capture infrared devices mobile device

"The Wildcard is Smartphone Tolling"
-Mark Cantelli, Xerox, VP, State Government Transportation

  • Invulnerable to weather conditions, sun reflections, vehicle geometry, window tint, posture, skin color, travel speed
  • No roadside infrastructural investment required
  • High reliability, accessibility and scalability

Carma Occupancy

Automated Occupancy Verification Using Mobile Technology

Ambient Occupancy Detection

  • Beacon technology or embedded in Toll Tag
  • Near Field Communications for detection upon vehicle entry / exit

Occupant Devices

  • Smartphone, with Carma app installed
  • Optional Beacon for occupants without a smartphone

Continuous Monitoring of Coordinated Proximity

  • Occupancy verified throughout a trip
  • Patent-pending (US 20110059693)
  • Enabling non-PII travel pattern analysis

Occupancy API

  • Toll Authority queries web-API for verified occupancy at any time and location in network.

In-App Occupancy Display

  • Verified occupancy status can be inspected in the app, but no user interaction required at any time.

Offline Reconciliation

  • Smartphones without data connection report occupancy once reconnected to data.

Mobile phone occupancy and settings

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