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Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-17-096     Date:  October 2017
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-17-096
Date: October 2017

 

Field Testing of an Ultra-High Performance Concrete Overlay

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FOREWORD

Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) is an advanced construction material that can positively influence the future of the highway infrastructure. Since 2001, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has been at the forefront of developing UHPC-based solutions for pressing challenges. One problem facing many bridge owners is the urgent need for effective and durable rehabilitation solutions for deteriorated highway bridge decks. An emerging solution to this problem is thin, bonded UHPC overlays which have durability and mechanical properties that exceed those of conventional overlay solutions. This report documents the first deployment of a UHPC overlay in the United States and the field testing used to validate its installation and initial performance. The information presented provides foundational knowledge to bridge owners and designer consultants interested in using this innovative solution for preserving our Nation’s highway bridges.

Cheryl Allen Richter, P.E., Ph.D.
Director, Office of Infrastructure
Research and Development

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers’ names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

 

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.

FHWA-HRT-17-096

2. Government Accession No. 3 Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

Field Testing of an Ultra-High Performance Concrete Overlay

5. Report Date

October 2017

6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)

Zachary B. Haber, Jose F. Munoz, and Benjamin A. Graybeal

8. Performing Organization Report No.

 

9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Office of Infrastructure Research & Development
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

11. Contract or Grant No.
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Infrastructure Research & Development
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Final Report: April 2016–May 2017

14. Sponsoring Agency Code

HRDI-40

15. Supplementary Notes

The document content was prepared by Zachary Haber of Genex Systems, LLC, under laboratory support contract DTFH61-16-D-00033, and Jose F. Munoz of SES Group and Associates, LLC under laboratory support contract DTFH61-13-D-00007.

16. Abstract

Bridge decks are commonly rehabilitated using overlays depending on the cause of deck deterioration, available budget, and desired service life of the rehabilitated structure. One emerging solution for bridge deck rehabilitation is thin, bonded ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) overlays. As an overlay material, UHPC can provide both structural strengthening and protection from ingress of contaminates using a 1-in (25 mm) to 2-in (51 mm) layer of material. The first U.S. deployment of UHPC as a bridge deck overlay was completed in May 2016 on a reinforced concrete slab bridge located in Brandon. A few months after installing the UHPC overlay, a field inspection of the bridge identified some locations along the deck where delamination may have occurred. To address this concern, a field study was conducted in November 2016 to evaluate the bond between the UHPC overlay and the substrate concrete bridge deck. Researchers from the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA) Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC) synthesized photographic evidence, conducted a field inspection of the bridge deck surface using a chain drag, and conducted physical testing of the UHPC-concrete interface bond using the direct tension bond pull-off test. Tested samples were taken back to TFHRC and the UHPC-concrete interface subsequently analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pull-off test data indicated that the UHPC overlay and the existing concrete bridge deck was intact, which was confirmed by SEM analysis.

17. Key Words

Ultra-high performance concrete, overlay, delamination, bond, scarification, hydrodemolition

18. Distribution Statement

No Restrictions. This document is available through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.
http://www.ntis.gov

19. Security Classification
(of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classification
(of this page)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

57

22. Price

N/A

Form DOT F 1700.7 Reproduction of completed page authorized

SI* (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 2. BACKGROUND AND PREVIOUS RESEARCH

CHAPTER 3. DETAILS OF THE LAPORTE ROAD BRIDGE

CHAPTER 4. EVALUATION METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

CHAPTER 6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Pie Chart. Concrete bridge deck condition rating based on 2016 NBI data
Figure 2. Pie Chart. Anticipated service life of bridge deck overlays as reported by 43 transportation agencies
Figure 3. Illustration. Existing concrete bridge deck with a UHPC overlay and potential locations of delamination
Figure 4. Photo. Nonthixotropic formulation
Figure 5. Photo. Thixotropic formulation
Figure 6. Graph. Comparison of the direct tension behavior of thixotropic and nonthixotropic UHPC
Figure 7. Illustration. Direct tension test method for UHPC
Figure 8. Graph. Comparison of the direct tension bond strength of thixotropic (Thix) and nonthixotropic (Non-Thix) UHPC formulations
Figure 9. Illustration. ASTM C1583—Direct tension bond pull-off test method
Figure 10. Photo. Chillon Viaduct: Parallel post-tensioned box girder structures
Figure 11. Illustration. Chillon Viaduct Details: Typical section of a single post-tensioned box girder
Figure 12. Photo. Arial view of the Chillon Viaduct UHPC overlay construction project
Figure 13. Photo. Placement of UHPC in the Chillon Viaduct project
Figure 14. Photo. Laporte Road bridge
Figure 15. Illustration. Typical section showing the UHPC overlay looking eastbound
Figure 16. Photo. Distressed region observed on the westbound lane over the pier 1 prior to installing the UHPC overlay
Figure 17. Photo. Distressed region observed on the westbound lane near west abutment prior to installing the UHPC overla.
Figure 18. Photo. Deck surface after scarification
Figure 19. Photo. Placement of the UHPC overlay on the westbound lane
Figure 20. Photo. Curing of the overlay on the westbound lane
Figure 21. Photo. Completed overlay after deck milling looking eastbound
Figure 22. Illustration. Schematic of observations, inspection findings, and test locations on the western side of the bridge
Figure 23. Illustration. Schematic of observations, inspection findings, and test locations on the eastern side of the bridge
Figure 24. Illustration. Direct tension pull-off bond test based on ASTM C1583
Figure 25. Photos. Failure modes associated with the direct tension pull-off bond test; photos taken from previous projects
Figure 26. Photo. In-situ bond testing on the Laporte Road bridge
Figure 27. Photo. Preparation of the bond test location on the Laporte Road bridge
Figure 28. Photo. Two test samples after failure in the substrate concrete
Figure 29. Illustration. Example of segmentation process on Quantitative map with 10-μm-wide bands used to study the distribution of porosity, aggregate, and unhydrated cement particles of the UHPC-concrete interface.
Figure 30. Photo. Test disc removed from samples from G1 and G2 locations
Figure 31. Photos. Specimen G2-9 after testing
Figure 32. Photo. Core location for specimen G2-9
Figure 33. Electron Microscope Image. General map of the UHPC-concrete interface for specimen G2-8
Figure 34. Electron Microscope Image. BSE image of a void between the UHPC overlay and the substrate concrete
Figure 35. Electron Microscope Image. BSE image of poor consolidation or debris accumulation at the interface
Figure 36. Graph. Overall distribution at the interface as a function of distance from the concrete surface of specimen G2-8 phases
Figure 37. Photos. Specimen G3-13 after testing
Figure 38. Photo. Core location for specimen G3-13
Figure 39. Electron Microscope Image. General map of the UHPC-concrete interface for specimen G3-14
Figure 40. Graph. Overall distribution at the interface as a function of distance from the concrete surface of specimen G3-14 phases
Figure 41. Photos. Specimen B7-11 after testing
Figure 42. Photo. Core location for specimen B7-11
Figure 43. Electron Microscope Image. General map of the UHPC-concrete interface for specimen B7-12
Figure 44. Graph. Overall distribution at the interface as a function of distance from the concrete surface of the specimen B7-12 phases

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. FHWA Condition ratings–1995
Table 2. Typical properties of field-cast UHPC
Table 3. Approximate cost ranges of bridge deck overlay solutions
Table 4. Summary of findings from the chain drag and test location details
Table 5. Summary of results from bond testing

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

AAR alkali-aggregate reactivity  
AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials  
ABC accelerated bridge construction  
ADT average daily traffic  
ASTM American Society of Testing and Materials  
BSE backscatter electron  
CAD computer-aided drafting  
CSH calcium silicate hydrated  
FEA finite-element analysis  
FHWA Federal Highway Administration  
HPC high-performance concrete  
LMC latex-modified concrete  
NBI National Bridge Inventory  
PBE prefabricated bridge element  
RC reinforced concrete  
SCM supplementary cementitious materials  
SEM scanning electron microscope  
TFHRC Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center  
UHPC ultra-high performance concrete  

 

 

 

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Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center | 6300 Georgetown Pike | McLean, VA | 22101