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REPORT
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
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Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-15-043    Date:  June 2015
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-15-043
Date: June 2015

 

Investigating Improvements to Pedestrian Crossings With An Emphasis on The Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacon

CHAPTER 3. GATHER DATA ON PEDESTRIAN CRASHES

This chapter documents the results of the review and analysis of pedestrian crash databases. The analysis of crash datasets had the following two key objectives:

  • Review specific potential data sources to assess their suitability for safety evaluations that may be conducted in the research.

  • Review the characteristics, circumstances, and contributing factors for crashes at midblock pedestrian crossings.

REVIEW OF CRASH DATABASES

A review of available crash datasets was conducted to assess which datasets were most promising for characterizing the attributes, circumstances, and contributing factors for crashes at midblock pedestrian crossings. National and State databases were considered in this assessment. The following crash databases were reviewed:

  • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS).

  • NHTSA General Estimates System (GES).

  • NHTSA National Motor Vehicle Crash Sampling Survey (NMVCSS).

  • FHWA Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) data for California, Illinois, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, and Washington, as well as similar data for Texas.

The databases were selected for review because of their broad scope (especially the national databases), their reputation for quality, and their accessibility. These databases represent complete national or statewide datasets that are made available to researchers. Other agencies are often reluctant to release complete datasets.

An initial screening of the candidate data sources was performed to assess their suitability for analysis of midblock pedestrian crossings. This screening was conducted primarily with documentation rather than with the actual data, although portions of each dataset were given an initial review. The screening of the crash data sources addressed the following questions:

  • Can crashes involving pedestrians be distinguished from other crashes?

  • Can midblock pedestrian crashes be distinguished from intersection pedestrian crashes?

  • Can crashes involving a pedestrian traveling along the road be distinguished from crashes involving a pedestrian crossing the road (or waiting to cross the road)?

  • Can crashes involving a pedestrian in the traveled way be distinguished from crashes involving a pedestrian on a roadside or shoulder?

  • Can crashes involving a pedestrian in a marked midblock crosswalk be distinguished from other crashes involving pedestrians in the traveled way?

  • Can the type of traffic control device present at a midblock pedestrian crossing be determined?

  • Can vehicle–vehicle crashes at midblock pedestrian crossings be distinguished from other vehicle–vehicle crashes?

The assessments of these questions are presented in table 3 for the national and State databases reviewed.

Table 3 shows that all of the crash datasets reviewed can distinguish pedestrian crashes from other crash types. Also, all of the crash datasets reviewed, except the NMVCSS, can distinguish midblock pedestrian crashes from intersection pedestrian crashes. NMVCSS was dropped from further consideration because of this deficiency.

The table shows that none of the databases distinguish clearly between crashes involving a pedestrian traveling along the road and crashes involving a pedestrian crossing the road. In other words, the available datasets generally lack a data element that clearly identifies the pedestrian action underway prior to the crash. Lack of data at this level of detail generally limits the application of the FHWA Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool unless supplementary data were obtained from the review of hard-copy police crash reports.

Most datasets, other than the Washington State crash data, can distinguish crashes involving a pedestrian in a marked midblock crosswalk from other crashes involving pedestrians in the traveled way. It should be noted that only marked crosswalks at midblock locations are considered midblock crosswalks. There is no implied crosswalk at any midblock location unless markings and/or signs identify the location as a crossing. In the Washington data, midblock pedestrian crashes that occur at a signal, stop sign, or yield sign were presumed to occur at or near a crosswalk.

The table shows that only some crash datasets can identify the type of traffic control present at a midblock pedestrian crossing. Roadway characteristics files do not generally identify the locations of midblock crossings or the types of traffic control present at such crossings. However, in most States, the type of traffic control at a midblock crossing can be inferred from the traffic control information in crash data for crossings at which crashes have occurred.

Finally, the table shows that there are only limited cases in which a vehicle–vehicle collision at a midblock crossing (e.g., a rear-end collision with a vehicle stopped at the crossing) can be clearly distinguished from similar collisions at other midblock locations.

Based on the results shown in table 3, a decision was reached to proceed with analysis of all of the datasets tabulated, with the exception of the NMVCSS dataset.

Table 3. Assessment of screening questions for national and State databases.

Question

National data

State data

FARS
GES
NMVCSS
CA
MN
NC
OH
TX
WA
What is the scope of the dataset?
See note a
See note b
See
note c
See note d
See note e
See note f
See note d
See note d
What years of data were reviewed?
2005 to 2009
2005 to 2009
2005 to 2008
2003 to 2007
2005 to 2008
2005 to 2008
2003 to 2009
2005 to 2008
Can crashes involving pedestrians be distinguished from other crashes?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Can midblock pedestrian crashes be distinguished from intersection pedestrian crashes?
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Can crashes involving a pedestrian traveling along the road be distinguished from crashes involving a pedestrian crossing the road?
Yesg
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Can crashes involving a pedestrian in the traveled way be distinguished from crashes involving a pedestrian on a roadside or shoulder?
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Noh
Can crashes involving a pedestrian in a marked midblock crosswalk be distinguished from other crashes involving a pedestrian in the traveled way?
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Noh
Noh
Can the type of traffic control at a midblock pedestrian crossing be determined?
No
No
Yesi
Yesi
Yesi
No
No
Can vehicle-vehicle crashes at midblock pedestrian crossings be distinguished from other vehicle-vehicle crashes?
No
Noj
Noj
Noj
Yesk
No
Nok

aNationwide data for fatal crashes only.
bBroad-based sample of nationwide crashes of all severity levels from specific primary sampling units.
cA special-purpose sample of crashes of all severity levels whose locations are not identified.
dCrashes on State-maintained highways only for all severity levels.
eIncludes crashes of all severity levels on nearly all roads statewide, including State-maintained and local facilities.
fIncludes crashes of all severity levels the majority of the State-maintained road system; many State-maintained roads in North Carolina are equivalent to county roads or city streets in other States.
gYes, in some, but not in all cases.
hCan be presumed indirectly from traffic control devices present.
iYes, but only in the crash data for locations where crashes occur.
jNo, except to the extent this can be inferred from the location type.
kYes, to some extent.
— Unknown.

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

This section presents a summary of the results of an analysis of several national and State crash databases. The analysis focused on the characteristics, circumstances, and contributing factors for crashes at midblock pedestrian crossings.

NHTSA FARS

The FARS database contains data on all fatal crashes that occur on public roads in the United States. FARS crash data were reviewed for the years 2005 through 2009, inclusive. During this period, 22,892 pedestrian fatalities occurred in the United States, and 73.0 percent of the pedestrian fatalities occurred at midblock locations. The following statistics apply to the pedestrian fatalities that occurred at midblock locations:

  • 1.3 percent occurred at marked midblock crosswalks.

  • 30.7 percent occurred not in, but near, a marked midblock crosswalk.

  • 68.0 percent occurred at locations that were not near marked midblock crosswalks.

Other highlights from the analysis of FARS data include the following:

  • Most midblock pedestrian crashes occur at locations with no traffic control.

  • For midblock crashes that occurred in or near a crosswalk, 18.6 percent were classified as “improper crossing.” However, this FARS pedestrian-related factor may be a bit ambiguous because at least two other categories—“failure to yield/obey” and “dart/run into roadway” —appear to be forms of “improper crossing.”

  • The data show a general increasing trend in crash frequencies with increasing pedestrian age. Particularly notable is the high proportion of fatal pedestrian crashes for pedestrians of age 70 or older at midblock crosswalks.

  • The proportion of male and female pedestrians killed at locations within midblock crosswalks is relatively even. However, for midblock locations near, but not within, crosswalks, and for midblock locations away from crosswalks, more than 70 percent of the victims were male. This suggests greater risk-taking behavior on the part of male pedestrians.

  • FARS data for FHWA’s 13 Pedestrian Safety Focus States and 5 Pedestrian Safety Focus Cities were reviewed for fatal midblock pedestrian crashes. Collectively, the 13 Pedestrian Safety Focus States experience 59 percent of total U.S. fatal pedestrian crashes at or near midblock crossings, while the 5 Pedestrian Safety Focus Cities represent 6 percent of total U.S. fatal pedestrian crashes at or near midblock crossings.

NHTSA GES

In a review of a nationwide sample of crash data for all crash severity levels from GES, the database includes 10,079 crashes involving a pedestrian from 2005 to 2009, inclusive. Nearly half of the pedestrian crashes occurred at midblock locations. However, only 2.5 percent of the midblock pedestrian crashes were explicitly identified as midblock crossing crashes.

Other highlights from the analysis of GES data include the following:

  • The GES data, which include pedestrian crashes of all severity levels, indicate that midblock crossing crashes are typically less severe than pedestrian crashes elsewhere on the midblock roadway.

  • “No control” was the selected traffic control device for 65 percent of midblock crosswalk crashes and 91percent of the pedestrian crashes that occurred elsewhere on the midblock roadway.

  • The GES variable called “pedestrian action” is similar to the FARS “pedestrian-related” factor. For midblock crosswalk crashes, 4.9 percent were classified as “improper crossing,” while a substantial number of other midblock crosswalk crashes were classified in categories closely related to “improper crossing”: dart/run into roadway, inattentive, and “playing, working, sitting, lying, etc., in the roadway.”

  • When crashes for a range of severity levels were included, there was a large proportion of crashes (more than 20 percent) for young pedestrians in the age range from 11 to 20 (i.e., primarily teenagers).

  • As with the FARS data, there was a greater gender balance in pedestrians crossing at midblock pedestrian crosswalks (actually more females than males), but a substantially higher proportion of male pedestrians crossing at non-crosswalk locations.

FHWA HSIS

California

HSIS data for California include crash data only for the State highway system, consisting of approximately 15,520 mi of highways. Data analyzed for this report include the years from 2006 to 2008, inclusive. During the study period, 3,944 pedestrian crashes occurred on the California State highway system. Nearly 70 percent of the pedestrian crashes occurred at midblock locations. Only 2.6 percent of the midblock crashes were classified as occurring at midblock crosswalks.

Other highlights from the analysis of California pedestrian crash data include the following:

  • As observed in the GES data, crash severities appear to be lower for midblock crosswalk crashes than for other pedestrian crashes on the midblock roadway.

  • Approximately 75 percent of pedestrian midblock crashes occurred on an undivided roadway.

  • Most pedestrian crashes, including midblock crosswalk crashes, occurred at locations with no traffic control present.

Minnesota

HSIS data for Minnesota include crash data for nearly all crashes statewide, including those that occurred on both State-maintained and local-agency-maintained road systems. Data analyzed for this report include the years 2003 to 2007, inclusive. During the study period, 8,271 pedestrian crashes occurred in Minnesota. Approximately 29 percent of the pedestrian crashes occurred at midblock locations. Only 3.0 percent of the midblock crashes were classified as occurring at midblock crosswalks.

Other highlights from the analysis of Minnesota pedestrian crash data include the following:

  • In contrast to other States, the proportion of fatal and incapacitating injury crashes is higher for midblock crosswalks than for other midblock locations in Minnesota, but the sample size for midblock crosswalk crashes is so small that this may not be a valid comparison.

  • The data for midblock roadways include a substantial number of pedestrian crashes at either signals or stop signs; these crashes must either have occurred at nonintersection signals or stop signs (i.e., driveways) or the basic intersection versus nonintersection classification of the crashes is incorrect.

North Carolina

HSIS data for North Carolina include crash data for approximately 62,000 mi of the 77,000mi of roadway on the State-maintained highway system. Data analyzed for this report include the years from 2005 to 2008, inclusive. During the study period, 3,847 pedestrian crashes occurred on the North Carolina State highway system. Nearly 85 percent of these pedestrian crashes occurred at midblock locations. Only 2.7 percent of the midblock crashes were classified as occurring at midblock crosswalks.

Ohio

HSIS data for Ohio include crash data only for the State highway system, consisting of approximately 19,500 mi of highways. Data analyzed for this report include the years from 2005 to 2008, inclusive. During the study period, 4,127 pedestrian crashes occurred on the Ohio State highway system. Approximately, 45 percent of these pedestrian crashes occurred at midblock locations. Only 1.2 percent of the midblock crashes were classified as occurring at midblock crosswalks.

Texas

Data for Texas includes crash data for crashes both on and off the State highway system. Data analyzed for this report include the years 2003 to 2009, inclusive. During the study period, 3,134,365 crashes were included in the Texas crash database. Of these, 39,993 (1.3 percent) were pedestrian crashes. Nearly 50 percent of the pedestrian crashes occurred at midblock locations. Only 136 crashes (0.7 percent of the midblock crashes) were classified as occurring at midblock crosswalks.

Washington

HSIS data for Washington include crash data only for the State highway system, consisting of approximately 7,193 mi of highways. Data analyzed for this report include the years from 2005 to 2008, inclusive. During the study period, 1,573 pedestrian crashes occurred on the Washington State highway system. Nearly 40 percent of these pedestrian crashes occurred at midblock locations. Only 5.0 percent of the midblock crashes were classified as occurring at midblock crosswalks.

RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF CRASH DATASETS

This section of the report presents the results of the analysis of all the crash datasets reviewed in the preceding section. In the tables presented in this section, unless otherwise stated, all percentages shown in parentheses are column percentages. Crashes classified as “unknown” for a given data element are not included in the percentages for that data element.

The crashes classified as “midblock crosswalk” crashes involved collisions with a pedestrian at or near a marked midblock crosswalk. Only the FARS dataset formally distinguishes between crashes for pedestrians in a crosswalk or near a crosswalk. The crashes classified as “midblock roadway” crashes involve collisions with a pedestrian removed from (i.e., not near) a crosswalk. The “midblock crosswalk” and “midblock roadway” crashes include only nonintersection crashes (i.e., not at or related to an intersection) that occurred in the traveled way or on the roadway shoulder; crashes that occurred outside the shoulder (i.e., on the roadside or on a sidewalk) have been excluded.

Some datasets show a substantial number of “midblock roadway” crashes that occur at signals or stop signs. Such crashes either represent signalized or stop-controlled driveways on the midblock roadway or the basic intersection vs. nonintersection categorization is incorrect.

The first two datasets analyzed are national datasets, the first a census of fatalities and the second a sample of crashes for all severity levels. The remaining datasets are for either the State highway system or a broader set of roads in individual States.

NHTSA FARS

The FARS database contains data on all fatal crashes that occur on public roads in the United States. These data can be queried on a number of crash, vehicle, and person-level variables that are commonly available in crash reports. Queries of several variables related to pedestrian fatalities such as pedestrian age, gender, and action; time of day and day of week; speed limit; number of lanes crossed; weather, lighting and road surface conditions; and presence of a median are shown in the following tables.

Nationwide FARS Data

Table 4 summarizes nationwide data for fatalities from the FARS dataset. The table shows that of the 198,708 fatalities that occurred in the United States in the years 2005 through 2009, inclusive, 22,892 (12.1 percent) involved pedestrians. Of those pedestrian fatalities, 16,700 (73.0percent) occurred at midblock locations; the remaining 27.0 percent of pedestrian fatalities occurred at intersections. Only 223 (1.3 percent) of the pedestrian fatalities at midblock locations occurred at marked midblock crosswalks. Another 5,129 (30.7 percent) of pedestrian fatalities at midblock locations occurred not in, but near, a marked midblock crosswalk. Thus, 5,352 of pedestrian fatalities at midblock locations occurred in or near a crosswalk. The remaining 11,348(68.0 percent) of pedestrian fatalities at midblock locations occurred at locations that were not near marked midblock crosswalks.

Table 4. Summary of FARS pedestrian fatalities data (2005–2009).

Crashes Number of fatal crashes by year
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Combined
Total fatalities
43,510
42,708
41,259
37,423
33,808
198,708
Pedestrian fatalities
4,892
4,795
4,699
4,414
4,092
22,892
Pedestrian midblock fatalities—in crosswalk
63
48
44
38
30
223
Pedestrian midblock fatalities—near crosswalk
1,373
1,252
860
815
829
5,129
Pedestrian midblock fatalities—total crosswalk
1,436
1,300
904
853
859
5,352
Pedestrian midblock fatalities—no crosswalk
2,240
2,255
2,493
2,323
2,037
11,348
Pedestrian fatalities—
all midblock locations
3,676
3,555
3,397
3,176
2,896
16,700

Table 5 presents nationwide data from FARS for the type of traffic control present at the locations of fatal midblock pedestrian crashes. The table shows clearly that most midblock pedestrian crashes occur at locations with no traffic control. For locations at or near marked midblock crossings, 85 percent of fatal pedestrian crashes occurred at locations with no control, while 15 percent occurred at locations with some positive control. Clearly, “no control” in this database is being interpreted to mean no control other than pavement markings or signing, because such controls must be present at a midblock crossing. Table 5 also illustrates some other classification issues in the data. The fatal pedestrian crashes with a “midblock roadway” location presumably occurred at locations removed from midblock pedestrian crossings and intersections, yet 2.1 percent of the crashes appear to have occurred at signals or at stop signs, including 0.1percent at locations with pedestrian signals. Possibly, these crashes occurred at signalized or stop-controlled driveways; for purposes of this analysis, these might better be classified as intersection crashes.

Table 6 shows nationwide data for a FARS variable called “pedestrian-related factor” that describes the action taken by the pedestrian(s) involved in the crash. For midblock crashes that occurred in or near a crosswalk, 18.6 percent were classified as “improper crossing,” while 8.0percent were classified as “dart/run into roadway,” and 6.5 percent were classified as “failure to yield/obey.” Both of the latter categories appear to be forms of “improper crossing.” Nearly 3percent of midblock crosswalk crashes are classified as “walk, etc., in roadway.” This category is ambiguous, because it could imply improper crossing or it could imply that a pedestrian was walking along the roadway (i.e., traveling in a longitudinal direction) in the traveled way and happened to be struck by a motor vehicle at the location of a midblock crosswalk. The “walk, etc., in roadway” crashes in the “midblock roadway” column clearly imply that the pedestrian was walking along the roadway.

Table 5. FARS midblock pedestrian fatalities by traffic control device (2005–2009).

Traffic control device Number (percent) of fatalities by pedestrian location
Midblock—
in crosswalk
Midblock—
near crosswalk
Midblock—crosswalk total Midblock—
roadway
All midblock locations
No controls
114
(51.3)
4,417
(86.4)
4,531
(84.9)
10,752
(95.0)
15,283
(91.8)
Control (no pedestrian signal)
4
(1.8)
18
(0.4)
22
(0.4)
5
(0.0)
27
(0.2)
Control (with pedestrian signal)
19
(8.5)
42
(0.8)
61
(1.1)
11
(0.1)
72
(0.4)
Control (pedestrian signal unknown)
39
(17.7)
111
(2.2)
150
(2.8)
116
(1.0)
266
(1.6)
Flashing control
4
(1.8)
4
(0.1)
8
(0.1)
1
(0.0)
9
(0.0)
Flashing beacon
1
(0.4)
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
3
(0.0)
4
(0.0)
Flashing signal unknown
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
3
(0.0)
4
(0.0)
Lane signal
0
(0.0)
10
(0.2)
10
(0.2)
1
(0.0)
11
(0.1)
Other signal
3
(1.3)
8
(0.2)
11
(0.2)
8
(0.1)
19
(0.1)
Unknown signal
3
(1.3)
4
(0.1)
7
(0.1)
7
(0.1)
14
(0.1)
Stop sign
7
(3.1)
47
(0.9)
54
(1.0)
93
(0.8)
147
(0.9)
Yield sign
5
(2.2)
1
(0.2)
6
(0.1)
6
(0.1)
12
(0.1)
Other sign
7
(3.1)
408
(8.0)
415
(7.8)
184
(1.6)
599
(3.6)
Unknown sign
3
(1.3)
1
(0.0)
4
(0.1)
11
(0.1)
15
(0.1)
School: other sign
1
(0.4)
1
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
School: unknown type
0
(0.0)
4
(0.1)
4
(0.1)
4
(0.0)
8
(0.0)
Warning sign
12
(5.4)
15
(0.3)
27
(0.5)
59
(0.5)
86
(0.5)
Electronic warning sign
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
11
(0.1)
11
(0.1)
Officer/crossing guard
1
(0.4)
14
(0.3)
15
(0.3)
32
(0.3)
47
(0.3)
RR: Gates
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
4
(0.0)
4
(0.0)
RR: Flash/lights
0
(0.0)
3
(0.1)
3
(0.1)
0
(0.0)
3
(0.0)
Grade crossing, unknown
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
Other
0
(0.0)
3
(0.1)
3
(0.1)
8
(0.1)
11
(0.1)
Unknown
0
17
17
28
45
Total
223
(100.0)
5,129
(100.0)
5,352
(100.0)
11,348
(100.0)
16,700
(100.0)

RR = Railroad.
— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 6. FARS midblock pedestrian fatalities by pedestrian actions (2005–2009).

Pedestrian-related factor Number (percent) of fatalities by pedestrian location
Midblock—
in crosswalk
Midblock—
near crosswalk
Midblock—crosswalk total Midblock—
roadway
All midblock locations
None, not applicable
143
(65.3)
1,767
(35.0)
1,910
(36.3)
2,928
(26.4)
4,838
(29.6)
Not visible
15
(6.8)
519
(10.3)
534
(10.1)
1,109
(10.0)
1,643
(10.0)
Dart/run into roadway
14
(6.4)
408
(8.1)
422
(8.0)
1,249
(11.3)
1,671
(10.2)
Improper crossing
25
(11.4)
954
(18.9)
979
(18.6)
1,785
(16.1)
2,764
(16.9)
Walk, etc., in roadway
6
(2.7)
888
(17.6)
894
(17.0)
2,041
(18.4)
2,935
(17.9)
Interfere driver
0
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
19
(0.2)
21
(0.1)
Blackout
0
(0.0)
7
(0.1)
7
(0.1)
19
(0.2)
26
(0.2)
Emotional
0
(0.0)
5
(0.1)
5
(0.1)
15
(0.1)
20
(0.1)
Mentally challenged
1
(0.5)
5
(0.1)
6
(0.1)
4
(0.0)
10
(0.1)
Construction worker
0
(0.0)
15
(0.3)
15
(0.3)
48
(0.4)
63
(0.4)
Inattentive
1
(0.5)
39
(0.8)
40
(0.8)
70
(0.6)
110
(0.7)
Cane/crutch
0
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
8
(0.1)
10
(0.1)
Previous injury
0
(0.0)
5
(0.1)
5
(0.1)
26
(0.2)
31
(0.2)
Influence drug/alcohol/medicine
4
(1.8)
60
(1.2)
64
(1.2)
243
(2.2)
307
(1.9)
Blind
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
6
(0.1)
7
(0.0)
Other physical
0
(0.0)
4
(0.1)
4
(0.1)
3
(0.0)
7
(0.0)
Dead fetus
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
3
(0.0)
3
(0.0)
Jogging
0
(0.0)
5
(0.1)
5
(0.1)
10
(0.1)
15
(0.1)
On prohibited traffic way
0
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
70
(0.6)
72
(0.4)
Failure to yield/obey
10
(4.6)
333
(6.6)
343
(6.5)
1,368
(12.3)
1,709
(10.4)
On/off moving vehicle
0
(0.0)
9
(0.2)
9
(0.2)
25
(0.2)
34
(0.2)
Non-driver flees
0
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
Weather
0
(0.0)
3
(0.1)
3
(0.1)
1
(0.0)
4
(0.0)
Parked vehicle
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
Other obstruction
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
Emergency
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
6
(0.1)
6
(0.0)
Law enforcement officer
0
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
17
(0.2)
19
(0.1)
Pushed by pedestrian
0
(0.0)
5
(0.1)
5
(0.1)
25
(0.2)
30
(0.2)
Portable electronic device
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
Unknown
4
86
90
249
339
Total
223
(100.0)
5,129
(100.0)
5,352
(100.0)
11,348
(100.0)
16,700
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 7 presents nationwide data for fatal pedestrian crashes at midblock locations by pedestrian age. The table shows a general increasing trend in crash frequencies with increasing pedestrian age. Particularly notable is the high proportion of fatal pedestrian crashes for pedestrians of age 70 or older at midblock crosswalks. There is an unexplained trend in all columns of the table showing that pedestrians in the 61 to 70 age group had a lower proportion of crashes than the age groups on either side.

Table 8 presents nationwide data for fatal pedestrian crashes at midblock locations by pedestrian gender. The table shows a relatively even proportion of male and female pedestrians killed at locations within midblock crosswalks (56 and 44 percent). However, for midblock locations near, but not within crosswalks, and for midblock locations away from crosswalks, more than 70percent of the victims were male. This suggests greater risk-taking behavior on the part of male pedestrians.

Table 9 summarizes the fatal pedestrian crash data by the number of lanes crossed. While interesting, these data are not terribly meaningful without exposure data on the number of lanes crossed by pedestrians who were not killed in crashes. The same is true for table 10, which categorizes fatal pedestrian crashes by the presence of a median, and thus a pedestrian refuge area, on the roadway crossed and table 11, which categorizes crashes by the posted speed limit at the crash location. Table 12 through table 16 present nationwide FARS data for fatal pedestrian crashes at midblock locations classified by weather condition, road surface condition, light condition, hour of the day, and day of the week, respectively.

Table 7. FARS midblock pedestrian fatalities by pedestrian age (2005–2009).

Pedestrian age Number (percent) of fatalities by pedestrian location
Midblock—
in crosswalk
Midblock—
near crosswalk
Midblock—crosswalk total Midblock—
no crosswalk
All midblock locations
0 to 10
7
(3.1)
240
(4.7)
247
(4.6)
500
(4.4)
747
(4.5)
11 to 20
13
(5.8)
421
(8.2)
434
(8.1)
1,109
(9.8)
1,543
(9.2)
21 to 30
14
(6.3)
751
(14.6)
765
(14.3)
1,889
(16.6)
2,654
(15.9)
31 to 40
19
(8.5)
708
(13.8)
727
(13.6)
1,705
(15.0)
2,432
(14.6)
41 to 50
26
(11.7)
1,091
(21.3)
1,117
(20.8)
2,327
(20.6)
3,444
(20.6)
51 to 60
43
(19.3)
801
(15.6)
844
(15.8)
1,657
(14.6)
2,501
(15.0)
61 to 70
29
(13.0)
430
(8.4)
459
(8.6)
842
(7.4)
1,301
(7.8)
70+
72
(32.3)
687
(13.4)
759
(14.2)
1,319
(11.6)
2,078
(12.4)
Total
223
(100.0)
5,129
(100.0)
5,352
(100.0)
11,348
(100.0)
16,700
(100.0)

Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 8. FARS midblock pedestrian fatalities by pedestrian gender (2005–2009).

Pedestrian gender Number (percent) of fatalities by pedestrian gender
Midblock—
in crosswalk
Midblock—
near crosswalk
Midblock—crosswalk total Midblock— no crosswalk All midblock locations
Male
125
(56.1)
3,674
(71.7)
3,799
(71.0)
8,319
(73.4)
12,118
(72.6)
Female
98
(43.9)
1,453
(28.3)
1,551
(29.0)
3,023
(26.6)
4,574
(27.4)
Unknown
0
2
2
6
8
Total
223
(100.0)
5,129
(100.0)
5,352
(100.0)
11,348
(100.0)
16,700
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 9. FARS midblock pedestrian fatalities by number of lanes crossed (2005–2009).

Number of lanes crossed Number (percent) of fatalities by number of lanes crossed
Midblock—
in crosswalk
Midblock—
near crosswalk
Midblock—crosswalk total Midblock—
no crosswalk
All midblock locations
One lane
3
(1.4)
41
(0.8)
44
(0.8)
178
(1.6)
222
(1.4)
Two lanes
131
(60.9)
3,149
(62.3)
3,280
(62.2)
6,591
(59.4)
9,871
(60.3)
Three lanes
15
(7.0)
739
(14.6)
754
(14.3)
1,329
(12.0)
2,083
(12.7)
Four lanes
49
(22.8)
839
(16.6)
888
(16.6)
2,236
(20.1)
3,124
(19.1)
Five lanes
8
(3.7)
121
(2.4)
129
(2.4)
383
(3.4)
512
(3.1)
Six lanes
7
(3.3)
116
(2.3)
123
(2.3)
303
(2.7)
426
(2.6)
Seven or more lanes
2
(0.9)
50
(1.0)
52
(1.0)
87
(0.8)
139
(0.8)
Unknown
8
74
82
241
323
Total
223
(100.0)
5,129
(100.0)
5,352
(100.0)
11,348
(100.0)
16,700
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 10. FARS midblock pedestrian fatalities by presence and type of median
(2005–2009).

Median type Number (percent) of fatalities by median type
Midblock—
in crosswalk
Midblock—
near crosswalk
Midblock—crosswalk total Midblock—
no crosswalk
All midblock locations
Not divided
142
(64.8)
2,716
(53.5)
2,858
(53.9)
5,317
(47.5)
8,157
(49.6)
Median— no barrier
39
(17.8)
1,370
(27.0)
1,409
(26.7)
2,690
(24.0)
4,099
(24.9)
Median— with barrier
17
(7.8)
666
(13.1)
683
(12.9)
1,961
(17.5)
2,644
(16.0)
Not divided—one way traffic
7
(3.2)
67
(1.3)
74
(1.4)
181
(1.6)
255
(1.5)
Not divided—two way left-turn lane
13
(5.9)
233
(4.6)
246
(4.6)
869
(7.8)
1,115
(6.8)
Entrance/exit ramp
1
(0.5)
27
(0.5)
28
(0.5)
176
(1.6)
204
(1.2)
Unknown
4
50
54
154
208
Total
223
(100.0)
5,129
(100.0)
5,352
(100.0)
11,348
(100.0)
16,700
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 11. FARS midblock pedestrian fatalities by posted speed limit (2005–2009).

Posted speed limit (mi/h) Number (percent) of fatalities by posted speed limit
Midblock—
in crosswalk
Midblock—
near crosswalk
Midblock—crosswalk total Midblock—
no crosswalk
All midblock locations
No limit
2
(0.9)
5
(0.1)
7
(0.1)
46
(0.4)
53
(0.3)
5
0
(0.0)
3
(0.1)
3
(0.1)
5
(0.0)
8
(0.0)
10
1
(0.5)
6
(0.1)
7
(0.1)
7
(0.1)
14
(0.1)
15
2
(0.9)
17
(0.3)
19
(0.4)
41
(0.4)
60
(0.4)
20
6
(2.8)
24
(0.5)
30
(0.6)
47
(0.4)
77
(0.5)
25
33
(15.6)
382
(7.8)
415
(8.1)
670
(6.1)
1,085
(6.8)
30
30
(14.2)
482
(9.9)
512
(10.0)
739
(6.7)
1,251
(7.8)
35
74
(34.9)
891
(18.2)
965
(18.9)
1,509
(13.8)
2,474
(15.4)
40
27
(12.7)
597
(12.2)
624
(12.2)
1,070
(9.8)
1,694
(10.6)
45
26
(12.3)
1,018
(20.8)
1,044
(20.6)
1,829
(16.7)
2,873
(18.0)
50
7
(3.3)
225
(4.6)
232
(4.5)
555
(5.1)
787
(4.9)
55
4
(1.9)
766
(15.7)
770
(15.1)
2,045
(18.7)
2,815
(17.5)
60
0
(0.0)
121
(2.5)
121
(2.4)
521
(4.8)
642
(4.0)
65
0
(0.0)
226
(4.6)
226
(4.4)
1,353
(12.4)
1,579
(9.8)
70
0
(0.0)
111
(2.3)
111
(2.2)
440
(4.0)
551
(3.4)
75
0
(0.0)
17
(0.3)
17
(0.3)
71
(0.6)
88
(0.5)
95
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
Unknown
11
238
249
399
648
Total
223
(100.0)
5,129
(100.0)
5,352
(100.0)
11,348
(100.0)
16,700
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 12. Midblock pedestrian fatalities by weather condition (2005–2009).

Weather condition Number (percent) of fatalities by pedestrian location
Midblock—
in crosswalk
Midblock—
near crosswalk
Midblock—crosswalk total Midblock— no crosswalk All midblock locations
Clear/cloudy
205
(92.0)
4,566
(89.3)
4,771
(89.3)
10,144
(90.0)
14,915
(89.8)
Rain/sleet
13
(5.8)
454
(8.9)
467
(8.9)
865
(7.7)
1,332
(8.0)
Snow
4
(1.8)
39
(0.8)
43
(0.8)
95
(0.8)
138
(0.8)
Fog
0
(0.0)
43
(0.8)
43
(0.8)
126
(1.1)
169
(1.0)
Wind
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
10
(0.1)
11
(0.1)
Blow sand
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
Other
1
(0.4)
8
(0.2)
9
(0.2)
31
(0.3)
40
(0.2)
Unknown
0
18
18
75
93
Total
223
(100.0)
5,129
(100.0)
5,352
(100.0)
11,348
(100.0)
16,700
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 13. FARS midblock pedestrian fatalities by road surface condition (2005–2009).

Road surface condition Number (percent) of fatalities by pedestrian location
Midblock—in crosswalk Midblock—
near crosswalk
Midblock—crosswalk total Midblock—
no crosswalk
All midblock locations
Dry
199
(89.3)
4,298
(84.1)
4,497
(84.3)
9,741
(86.4)
14,238
(85.7)
Wet
21
(9.4)
725
(14.2)
746
(14.0)
1,340
(11.9)
2,086
(12.6)
Snowy, icy
3
(1.3)
80
(1.6)
83
(1.6)
173
(1.5)
156
(0.9)
Sand
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
6
(0.1)
6
(0.0)
Water/other
0
(0.0)
9
(0.2)
9
(0.2)
10
(0.1)
19
(0.1)
Unknown
0
17
17
78
95
Total
223
(100.0)
5,129
(100.0)
5,352
(100.0)
11,348
(100.0)
16,700
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 14. FARS midblock pedestrian fatalities by light condition (2005–2009).

Light condition Number (percent) of fatalities by pedestrian location
Midblock—
in crosswalk
Midblock—
near crosswalk
Midblock—crosswalk total Midblock—
no crosswalk
All midblock locations
Daylight
112
(50.2)
1,098
(21.5)
1,210
(22.7)
2,516
(22.3)
3,726
(22.5)
Dusk-dawn
8
(3.7)
218
(4.3)
226
(4.2)
400
(3.6)
626
(3.8)
Dark-street lights
71
(31.8)
1,840
(36.0)
1,983
(37.2)
4,762
(42.3)
6,745
(40.7)
Dark-no street lights
32
(14.3)
1,951
(38.2)
1,911
(35.9)
3,582
(31.8)
5,493
(33.1)
Unknown
0
22
22
88
110
Total
223
(100.0)
5,129
(100.0)
5,352
(100.0)
11,348
(100.0)
16,700
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 15. FARS midblock pedestrian fatalities by hour of day (2005–2009).

Hour of day Number (percent) of fatalities by pedestrian location
Midblock—
in crosswalk
Midblock—
near crosswalk
Midblock—crosswalk total Midblock—
no crosswalk
All midblock locations
12–12:59 a.m.
3
(1.3)
213
(4.2)
216
(4.1)
521
(4.6)
737
(4.4)
1–1:59 a.m.
7
(3.1)
242
(4.8)
249
(4.7)
541
(4.8)
790
(4.8)
2–2:59 a.m.
3
(1.3)
215
(4.2)
218
(4.1)
630
(5.6)
848
(5.1)
3–3:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
168
(3.3)
168
(3.2)
420
(3.7)
588
(3.5)
4–4:59 a.m.
1
(0.4)
144
(2.8)
145
(2.7)
342
(3.0)
487
(2.9)
5–5:59 a.m.
2
(0.9)
167
(3.3)
169
(3.2)
431
(3.8)
600
(3.6)
6–6:59 a.m.
12
(5.4)
220
(4.3)
232
(4.4)
436
(3.9)
668
(4.0)
7–7:59 a.m.
13
(5.9)
111
(2.2)
124
(2.3)
223
(2.0)
347
(2.1)
8–8:59 a.m.
19
(8.5)
81
(1.6)
100
(1.9)
153
(1.4)
253
(1.5)
9–9:59 a.m.
9
(4.0)
73
(1.4)
82
(1.5)
156
(1.4)
238
(1.4)
10–10:59 a.m.
13
(5.8)
77
(1.5)
90
(1.7)
149
(1.3)
239
(1.4)
11–11:59 a.m.
7
(3.1)
83
(1.6)
90
(1.7)
165
(1.5)
255
(1.5)
Noon–12:59 p.m.
6
(2.7)
82
(1.6)
88
(1.7)
207
(1.8)
295
(1.8)
1–1:59 p.m.
2
(0.9)
72
(1.4)
74
(1.4)
208
(1.8)
282
(1.7)
2–2:59 p.m.
7
(3.1)
82
(1.6)
89
(1.7)
224
(2.0)
313
(1.9)
3–3:59 p.m.
7
(3.1)
110
(2.2)
117
(2.2)
242
(2.1)
359
(2.2)
4–4:59 p.m.
11
(4.9)
126
(2.5)
137
(2.6)
274
(2.4)
411
(2.5)
5–5:59 p.m.
20
(9.1)
263
(5.2)
283
(5.3)
521
(4.6)
804
(4.8)
6–6:59 p.m.
20
(9.1)
420
(8.2)
440
(8.3)
848
(7.5)
1,288
(7.8)
7–7:59 p.m.
15
(6.7)
427
(8.4)
442
(8.3)
954
(8.5)
1,396
(8.4)
8–8:59 p.m.
11
(4.9)
503
(9.9)
514
(9.7)
1017
(9.0)
1,531
(9.2)
9–9:59 p.m.
16
(7.3)
515
(10.1)
531
(10.0)
1075
(9.5)
1,606
(9.7)
10–10:59 p.m.
10
(4.5)
401
(7.9)
411
(7.7)
857
(7.6)
1,268
(7.6)
11–11:59 p.m.
9
(4.0)
299
(5.9)
308
(5.8)
682
(6.0)
990
(6.0)
Unknown
0
35
35
72
107
Total
223
(100.0)
5,129
(100.0)
5,352
(100.0)
11,348
(100.0)
16,700
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 16. FARS midblock pedestrian fatalities by day of week (2005–2009).

Day of week Number (percent) of fatalities by pedestrian location
Midblock—
in crosswalk
Midblock—
near crosswalk
Midblock—crosswalk total Midblock—
no crosswalk
All midblock locations
Sunday
33
(14.8)
729
(14.2)
762
(14.2)
1,764
(15.5)
2,526
(15.1)
Monday
25
(11.2)
636
(12.4)
661
(12.4)
1,385
(12.2)
2,046
(12.3)
Tuesday
32
(14.3)
637
(12.4)
669
(12.5)
1,414
(12.5)
2,083
(12.5)
Wednesday
35
(15.7)
676
(13.2)
711
(13.3)
1,487
(13.1)
2,198
(13.2)
Thursday
33
(14.8)
658
(12.8)
691
(12.9)
1,406
(12.4)
2,097
(12.6)
Friday
36
(16.2)
827
(16.1)
863
(16.1)
1,821
(16.0)
2,684
(16.0)
Saturday
29
(13.0)
966
(18.9)
995
(18.6)
2,071
(18.3)
3,066
(18.3)
Total
223
(100.0)
5,129
(100.0)
5,352
(100.0)
11,348
(100.0)
16,700
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

FARS Data by State

Table 17 presents the frequencies of fatal pedestrian crashes at midblock locations by State. Clearly the fatal crash frequencies are strongly influenced by State population; however, the extent of walking activity and the pedestrian age distribution also likely have an important role. For example, Florida has the highest frequency of fatal pedestrian crashes at midblock crosswalk locations in the United States and nearly as high a frequency of total midblock crashes as California, the most populous State.

The data in table 17 also suggest inconsistencies in the classification of midblock “in crosswalk” versus “near crosswalk” crashes, because the frequency of crashes in midblock crosswalks in many States is so small.

Table 17. FARS midblock pedestrian fatalities by State (2005–2009).

State

Number (percent) of fatalities by pedestrian location

Midblock—
in crosswalk
Midblock—
near crosswalk
Midblock—crosswalk total Midblock—
no crosswalk
All midblock locations
Alabama
1
146
147
156
303
Alaska
0
14
14
10
24
Arizona
9
36
45
440
485
Arkansas
0
30
30
116
146
California
53
241
294
2,016
2,310
Colorado
3
25
28
147
175
Connecticut
2
2
4
120
124
Delaware
1
9
10
58
68
District of Columbia
0
34
34
6
40
Florida
7
1,262
1,269
691
1,960
Georgia
26
450
476
173
649
Hawaii
8
20
28
41
69
Idaho
0
29
29
10
39
Illinois
2
94
96
372
468
Indiana
0
196
196
19
215
Iowa
1
5
6
73
79
Kansas
1
52
53
25
78
Kentucky
0
33
33
170
203
Louisiana
1
39
40
384
424
Maine
1
17
18
17
35
Maryland
4
377
381
42
423
Massachusetts
16
65
81
121
202
Michigan
2
3
5
492
497
Minnesota
1
42
43
57
100
Mississippi
0
7
7
264
271
Missouri
1
151
152
163
315
Montana
0
22
22
20
42
Nebraska
1
17
18
8
26
Nevada
10
84
94
95
189
New Hampshire
2
14
16
8
24
New Jersey
4
92
96
303
399
New Mexico
4
81
85
119
204
New York
9
289
298
438
736
North Carolina
2
49
51
688
739
North Dakota
1
10
11
11
22
Ohio
7
343
350
24
374
Oklahoma
3
8
11
198
209
Oregon
8
68
76
85
161
Pennsylvania
10
238
248
279
527
Rhode Island
1
14
15
25
40
South Carolina
1
45
46
460
506
South Dakota
0
9
9
23
32
Tennessee
1
70
71
180
251
Texas
7
80
87
1,603
1,690
Utah
4
25
29
45
74
Vermont
0
0
0
5
5
Virginia
2
43
45
232
277
Washington
3
97
100
96
196
West Virginia
0
22
22
66
88
Wisconsin
3
25
28
139
167
Wyoming
0
5
5
15
20
Total
223
5,129
5,352
11,348
16,700

FARS Data for FHWA Pedestrian Safety Focus States and Cities

Table 18 summarizes the FARS data for fatal midblock pedestrian crashes in FHWA’s 13 Pedestrian Safety Focus States and 5 Pedestrian Safety Focus Cities, because they were designated during the period reported (2005–2009). Collectively, the 13 Pedestrian Safety Focus States experience 59 percent of the total U.S. fatal pedestrian crashes at or near midblock crossings, while the 5 Pedestrian Safety Focus Cities represent 6 percent of total U.S. fatal pedestrian crashes at or near midblock crossings.

Table 18. FARS midblock pedestrian fatalities for FHWA pedestrian safety focus States and cities (2005–2009).

State/city

Number of fatalities by pedestrian location

Midblock—
in crosswalk
Midblock—
near crosswalk
Midblock—crosswalk total
Midblock—
no crosswalk
All midblock locations

Focus States

Arizona
9
36
45
440
485
California
53
241
294
2,016
2,310
Florida
7
1,262
1,269
691
1,960
Georgia
26
450
476
173
649
Hawaii
8
20
28
41
69
Illinois
2
94
96
372
468
Nevada
10
84
94
95
189
New Jersey
4
92
96
303
399
New Mexico
4
81
85
119
204
New York
9
289
298
438
736
North Carolina
2
49
51
688
739
Pennsylvania
10
238
248
279
527
Texas
7
80
87
1,603
1,690

Focus Cities

Chicago, IL
1
40
41
119
160
Los Angeles, CA
7
51
58
212
270
New York, NY
3
130
133
135
268
Phoenix, AZ
6
24
30
146
176
Washington, DC
0
39
39
15
54

NHTSA GES

GES is a database of a statistical sample of crashes from across the United States. These data are gathered in established primary sampling units (i.e., selected geographic areas) throughout the United States. The crash frequencies available in the GES database are shown in this section. The crash frequencies have not been inflated by sampling weights.

Table 19 summarizes the nationwide sample of crash data for all crash severity levels from GES. The database includes 680,316 crashes in the period from 2005 through 2009, inclusive. Of these crashes, 10,079 (1.5 percent) involved a pedestrian. Nearly half of the pedestrian crashes (46.7percent) occurred at midblock locations, while the rest occurred at intersections. Only 127(2.5 percent) of the 4,707 midblock pedestrian crashes were explicitly identified as midblock crossing crashes.

Because GES includes pedestrian crashes of all severity levels, table 20 presents the distribution of midblock pedestrian crashes by crash severity level. The table shows that midblock crossing crashes are typically less severe than pedestrian crashes elsewhere on the midblock roadway.

Table 21 presents GES data for pedestrian crashes by the type of traffic control device present. There was no control present for 65 percent of midblock crosswalk crashes and 91percent of pedestrian crashes elsewhere on the midblock roadway. As in the FARS data, a small percentage of “midblock roadway” crashes are shown as having traffic signals, stop signs, or yield signs present. This may represent traffic control at driveways.

Table 19. Summary of GES pedestrian crash data (2005–2009).

Crashes

Number of crashes by year

2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Combined
Total crashes
137,884
141,412
152,727
137,303
110,990
680,316
Pedestrian crashes
1,778
2,007
2,356
2,160
1,778
10,079
Pedestrian midblock crashes
796
892
1,186
1,015
818
4,707
Midblock roadway crashes
780
896
1,153
987
791
4,580
Pedestrian midblock crossing crashes
16
23
33
28
27
127

Table 20. GES midblock pedestrian crashes by injury severity (2005–2008).

Injury severity

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Fatal
5
(3.9)
342
(7.5)
347
(7.4)
Incapacitating injury
35
(27.6)
1,475
(32.3)
1,510
(32.1)
Nonincapacitating injury
78
(61.4)
2,451
(53.6)
2,529
(53.8)
Possible injury
7
(5.5)
237
(5.2)
244
(5.2)
Injury, severity unknown
1
(0.8)
44
(1.0)
45
(1.0)
Property damage only
1
(0.8)
22
(0.5)
23
(0.5)
Unknown
0
9
9
Total
127
(100.0)
4,580
(100.0)
4,707
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 21. GES midblock pedestrian crashes by traffic control device (2005–2009).

Traffic control device

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
No controls
78
(65.0)
4,016
(90.7)
4,094
(90.0)
Traffic signal
6
(5.0)
140
(3.2)
146
(3.2)
Flashing signal/beacon
3
(2.5)
5
(0.1)
8
(0.2)
Other signal
6
(5.0)
0
(0.0)
6
(0.1)
Unknown signal
1
(0.8)
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
Stop sign
10
(8.3)
71
(1.6)
81
(1.8)
Yield sign
1
(0.8)
3
(0.1)
4
(0.1)
School zone sign
0
(0.0)
11
(0.2)
11
(0.2)
Other sign
3
(2.5)
10
(0.2)
13
(0.3)
Unknown sign
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
Advisory speed sign
5
(4.2)
84
(1.9)
89
(2.0)
Warning sign for construction
0
(0.0)
10
(0.2)
10
(0.2)
Officer/crossing guard
1
(0.8)
36
(0.8)
37
(0.8)
Active device at RR crossing
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
Traffic control present—no details
3
(2.5)
4
(0.1)
7
(0.2)
Other
3
(2.5)
38
(0.9)
41
(0.9)
Unknown
7
150
157
Total
127
(100.0)
4,580
(100.0)
4,707
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 22 shows data for the GES variable called “pedestrian action,” which is similar to the FARS “pedestrian-related” factor. For midblock crosswalk crashes, 4.9 percent were classified as “improper crossing,” while a substantial number of other midblock crosswalk crashes were classified in categories closely related to “improper crossing”: dart/run into roadway, 13.1percent; inattentive, 2.5 percent; and “playing, working, sitting, lying, etc., in the roadway,” 0.8 percent. The categories related to “improper crossing” taken together constitute 21.3 percent of midblock crosswalk crashes.

Table 22. GES midblock pedestrian crashes by pedestrian action (2005–2009).

Pedestrian action

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
No action
87
(71.3)
697
(15.8)
784
(17.3)
Dart/run into roadway
16
(13.1)
1,265
(28.7)
1,281
(28.3)
Improper crossing
6
(4.9)
1,222
(27.8)
1,228
(27.1)
Inattentive
3
(2.5)
33
(0.8)
36
(0.8)
Jogging
0
(0.0)
14
(0.3)
14
(0.3)
Pushing a vehicle
0
(0.0)
10
(0.2)
10
(0.2)
Walking with traffic
0
(0.0)
244
(5.5)
244
(5.4)
Walking against traffic
0
(0.0)
71
(1.6)
71
(1.6)
Playing, working, sitting, lying, etc, in roadway
1
(0.8)
508
(11.5)
509
(11.2)
Other
9
(7.4)
339
(7.7)
348
(7.7)
Unknown
5
177
182
Total
127
(100.0)
4,580
(100.0)
4,707
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 23 presents the distribution of midblock pedestrian crashes by pedestrian age. When crashes for a range of severity levels are included, there is a large proportion of crashes (more than 20 percent) for young pedestrians in the age range from 11 to 20 (i.e., primarily teenagers). In addition, as with the FARS data, there are relatively fewer crashes in the pedestrian age group from age 61 to 70 than in the age ranges on either side.

Table 23. GES midblock pedestrian crashes by pedestrian age (2005–2009).

Pedestrian age

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian age

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
0 to 10
9
(7.1)
788
(17.2)
797
(16.9)
11 to 20
27
(21.3)
964
(21.0)
991
(21.1)
21 to 30
15
(11.8)
709
(15.5)
724
(15.4)
31 to 40
11
(8.7)
510
(11.1)
521
(11.1)
41 to 50
17
(13.4)
656
(14.3)
673
(14.3)
51 to 60
18
(14.2)
433
(9.5)
451
(9.6)
61 to 70
11
(8.7)
187
(4.1)
198
(4.2)
70+
19
(15.0)
333
(7.3)
352
(7.5)
All
127
(100.0)
4,580
(100.0)
4,707
(100.0)

Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 24 presents the distribution of midblock pedestrian crashes in the GES data by pedestrian gender. As with the FARS data, there is a more even balance in pedestrian gender at midblock crossings (actually more females than males), but a substantially higher proportion of male pedestrians involved at noncrosswalk locations.

Table 24. GES midblock pedestrian crashes by pedestrian gender (2005–2009).

Pedestrian gender

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian gender

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Male
58
(46.4)
2,908
(63.6)
2,966
(63.1)
Female
67
(53.6)
1,664
(36.4)
1,731
(36.9)
Unknown
2
8
10
Total
127
(100.0)
4,580
(100.0)
4,707
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 25 summarizes the GES pedestrian crash data by the number of lanes crossed. While interesting, these data are not very meaningful without exposure data on the number of lanes crossed by pedestrians who were not killed in crashes. The same is true for table 26, which categorizes pedestrian crashes by the presence of a median, and thus a pedestrian refuge area, on the roadway crossed and table 27, which categorizes crashes by the posted speed limit at the crash location.

Table 25. GES midblock pedestrian crashes by number of travel lanes crossed (2005–2009).

Number of travel lanes crossed

Number (percent) of crashes by number of travel lanes crossed

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
One
9
(11.1)
208
(6.0)
217
(6.1)
Two
43
(53.1)
1,926
(55.9)
1,969
(55.8)
Three
6
(7.4)
436
(12.6)
442
(12.5)
Four
17
(21.0)
501
(14.5)
518
(14.7)
Five
5
(6.2)
302
(8.7)
307
(8.7)
Six
0
(0.0)
44
(1.3)
44
(1.2)
Seven or more
1
(1.2)
36
(1.0)
37
(1.0)
Unknown
46
1,127
1,173
Total
127
(100.0)
4,580
(100.0)
4,707
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 26. GES midblock pedestrian crashes by presence of median (2005–2009).

Presence of median

Number (percent) of crashes by presence of median

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Not physically divided (center two-way left turn lane)
3
(2.8)
236
(6.4)
239
(6.3)
Not physically divided (two way traffic)
80
(75.5)
2,390
(64.5)
2,470
(64.8)
Divided trafficway (median strip, barrier, etc)
22
(20.8)
864
(23.3)
886
(23.2)
One way traffic
1
(0.9)
216
(5.8)
217
(5.7)
Unknown
21
874
895
Total
127
(100.0)
4,580
(100.0)
4,707
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 27. GES midblock pedestrian crashes by posted speed limit (2005–2009).

Posted speed limit (mi/h)

Number (percent) of crashes by posted speed limit

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
No limit
33
(31.1)
125
(3.4)
158
(4.2)
5
0
(0.0)
11
(0.3)
11
(0.3)
10
1
(0.9)
18
(0.5)
19
(0.5)
15
5
(4.7)
75
(2.0)
80
(2.1)
20
5
(4.7)
92
(2.5)
97
(2.6)
25
22
(20.8)
918
(25.0)
940
(24.8)
30
13
(12.3)
553
(15.0)
566
(15.0)
35
21
(19.8)
863
(23.5)
884
(23.4)
40
2
(1.9)
318
(8.6)
320
(8.5)
45
3
(2.8)
371
(10.1)
374
(9.9)
50
0
(0.0)
60
(1.6)
60
(1.6)
55
1
(0.9)
122
(3.3)
123
(3.3)
60
0
(0.0)
75
(2.0)
75
(2.0)
65
0
(0.0)
50
(1.4)
50
(1.3)
70
0
(0.0)
24
(0.7)
24
(0.6)
75
0
(0.0)
3
(0.1)
3
(0.1)
Unknown
21
902
923
Total
127
(100.0)
4,580
(100.0)
4,707
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 28 through table 31 present GES data for pedestrian crashes at midblock locations classified by weather condition, road surface condition, hour of the day, and light condition.

Table 28. GES midblock pedestrian crashes by weather condition (2005–2009).

Weather condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Clear/cloudy
111
(87.4)
4,077
(90.5)
4,188
(90.4)
Rain/sleet
14
(11.0)
354
(7.9)
368
(7.9)
Snow
0
(0.0)
47
(1.0)
47
(1.0)
Fog
0
(0.0)
8
(0.2)
8
(0.2)
Rain and fog
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
Other
2
(1.6)
18
(0.4)
20
(0.4)
Unknown
0
75
75
Total
127
(100.0)
4,580
(100.0)
4,707
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 29. GES midblock pedestrian crashes by road surface condition (2005–2009).

Road surface condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Dry
104
(81.9)
3,880
(86.1)
3,984
(86.0)
Wet
20
(15.7)
551
(12.2)
571
(12.3)
Snowy, icy
3
(2.4)
72
(1.6)
75
(1.6)
Other
0
(0.0)
3
(0.1)
3
(0.1)
Unknown
0
74
74
Total
127
(100.0)
4,580
(100.0)
4,707
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 30. GES midblock pedestrian crashes by hour of day (2005–2009).

Hour of day

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
12–12:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
133
(2.9)
133
(2.9)
1–1:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
91
(2.0)
91
(2.0)
2–2:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
108
(2.4)
108
(2.3)
3–3:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
78
(1.7)
78
(1.7)
4—4:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
41
(0.9)
41
(0.9)
5–5:59 a.m.
1
(0.8)
55
(1.2)
56
(1.2)
6–6:59 a.m.
2
(1.6)
94
(2.1)
96
(2.1)
7–7:59 a.m.
8
(6.3)
173
(3.8)
181
(3.9)
8–8:59 a.m.
10
(7.9)
122
(2.7)
132
(2.8)
9–9:59 a.m.
2
(1.6)
117
(2.6)
119
(2.6)
10–10:59 a.m.
12
(9.5)
111
(2.4)
123
(2.6)
11–11:59 a.m.
7
(5.6)
138
(3.0)
145
(3.1)
Noon–12:59 p.m.
5
(4.0)
169
(3.7)
174
(3.7)
1–1:59 p.m.
4
(3.2)
179
(3.9)
183
(3.9)
2–2:59 p.m.
13
(10.3)
236
(5.2)
249
(5.3)
3–3:59 p.m.
9
(7.1)
295
(6.5)
304
(6.5)
4–4:59 p.m.
11
(8.7)
335
(7.4)
346
(7.4)
5–5:59 p.m.
6
(4.8)
384
(8.5)
390
(8.4)
6–6:59 p.m.
6
(4.8)
402
(8.9)
408
(8.8)
7–7:59 p.m.
14
(11.1)
345
(7.6)
359
(7.7)
8–8:59 p.m.
5
(4.0)
281
(6.2)
286
(6.1)
9–9:59 p.m.
4
(3.2)
291
(6.4)
295
(6.3)
10–10:59 p.m.
5
(4.0)
218
(4.8)
223
(4.8)
11–11:59 pm
2
(1.6)
137
(3.0)
139
(3.0)
Unknown
1
47
48
Total
127
(100.0)
4,580
(100.0)
4,707
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 31. GES midblock pedestrian crashes by light condition (2005–2009).

Light condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Daylight
90
(71.4)
2,429
(53.5)
2,519
(54.0)
Dusk-dawn
2
(1.6)
186
(4.1)
188
(4.0)
Dark-street lights
27
(21.4)
1,252
(27.6)
1,279
(27.4)
Dark-no street lights
7
(5.6)
670
(14.8)
677
(14.5)
Unknown
1
43
44
Total
127
(100.0)
4,580
(100.0)
4,707
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

California

HSIS data for California include crash data only for the State highway system, consisting of approximately 15,520 mi of highways. While some city streets and many small town “main streets” and suburban arterials are State highways, many of the areas with the highest concentrations of pedestrians in California are away from the State highway system. Data analyzed for this report include the years from 2006 to 2008, inclusive. Earlier years of data were not used because of changes in the coding of a key variable.

Table 32 shows that, during the study period, 526,898 crashes occurred on the California State highway system. Of these, 3,944 (0.7 percent) were pedestrian crashes. Nearly 70 percent of the pedestrian crashes occurred at midblock locations. Only 76 crashes (2.6 percent of the midblock crashes) were classified as occurring at midblock crosswalks.

Table 32. Summary of pedestrian crash data for California State highways (2006–2008).

Crashes

Number of crashes by year

2006
2007
2008
Combined
Total crashes
189,089
180,122
157,687
526,898
Pedestrian crashes
1,426
1,263
1,255
3,944
Pedestrian midblock crashes
1,057
932
917
2,906
Pedestrian midblock roadway crashes
768
637
650
2,055
Pedestrian midblock crossing crashes
20
24
32
76

Table 33 shows the relative frequencies of California crashes by midblock crosswalks and other midblock roadway locations.

Table 33. Midblock pedestrian crashes on California State highways by pedestrian location (2006–2008).

Years

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
2006
20
(2.5)
768
(97.5)
788
2007
24
(3.6)
637
(96.4)
661
2008
32
(4.7)
650
(95.3)
682
Total
76
(3.6)
2,055
(96.4)
2,131

Percentages in this table are row percentages.

Table 34 classifies midblock pedestrian crashes in California by crash severity level. As observed in the GES data, crash severities appear to be lower for midblock crosswalk crashes than for other pedestrian crashes on the midblock roadway.

Table 34. Midblock pedestrian crashes on California State highways by injury severity (2006–2008).

Injury severity

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Fatal
1
(1.3)
517
(25.2)
518
(24.3)
Severe injury
15
(19.7)
447
(21.8)
462
(21.7)
Other visible injury
23
(30.3)
566
(27.5)
589
(27.6)
Complaint/pain
33
(43.4)
406
(19.8)
439
(20.6)
Property damage only
4
(5.3)
119
(5.8)
123
(5.8)
Total
76
(100.0)
2,055
(100.0)
2,131
(100.0)

Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 35 classifies midblock pedestrian crashes by whether they occurred on a divided or undivided roadway. Approximately 75 percent of pedestrian midblock crashes occurred on an undivided roadway.

Table 35. Midblock pedestrian crashes on California State highways by presence of median (2006–2008).

Presence of median

Number (percent) of crashes by presence of median

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Undivided
56
(73.7)
1,551
(76.2)
1,607
(76.1)
Divided
20
(26.3)
484
(23.8)
504
(23.9)
Unknown
0
20
20
Total
76
(100.0)
2,055
(100.0)
2,131
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 36 classifies midblock pedestrian crashes in California by whether traffic control devices were present and functioning. Most pedestrian crashes, including midblock crosswalk crashes, occurred at locations with no controls present. Presumably, this refers to traffic signals or stop signs, because clearly, crosswalk markings (by definition) and signing were present at marked crosswalks.

Table 36. Midblock pedestrian crashes on California State highways by traffic control device operating (2006–2008).

Traffic control device operating

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Control functioning
32
(42.1)
305
(14.8)
337
(15.8)
Control not functioning
1
(1.3)
7
(0.3)
8
(0.4)
Controls obscured
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
No controls present
43
(56.6)
1,742
(84.9)
1,785
(83.8)
Total
76
(100.0)
2,055
(100.0)
2,131
(100.0)

Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 37 through table 43 present California data for pedestrian crashes at midblock locations classified by collision factors (contributing circumstances), weather condition, vehicle type at fault, road surface condition, light condition, hour of the day, and day of the week.

Table 37. Midblock pedestrian crashes on California State highways by collision factor (2006–2008).

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Collision factor
Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Driving/bicycling under influence
1
(1.4)
119
(6.1)
120
(6.0)
Impeding traffic
0
(0.0)
7
(0.4)
7
(0.3)
Unsafe speed
2
(2.8)
379
(19.5)
381
(18.9)
Following too closely
0
(0.0)
3
(0.2)
3
(0.1)
Wrong side of road
0
(0.0)
11
(0.6)
11
(0.5)
Improper passing
0
(0.0)
10
(0.5)
10
(0.5)
Unsafe lane change
0
(0.0)
17
(0.9)
17
(0.8)
Improper turning
3
(4.2)
210
(10.8)
213
(10.6)
Auto right of way
1
(1.4)
7
(0.4)
8
(0.4)
Pedestrian right of way
52
(73.2)
35
(1.8)
87
(4.3)
Pedestrian violation
11
(15.5)
1,011
(52.1)
1,022
(50.8)
Traffic signals and signs
0
(0.0)
2
(0.1)
2
(0.1)
Hazardous parking
0
(0.0)
8
(0.4)
8
(0.4)
Brakes
0
(0.0)
1
(0.1)
1
(0.0)
Other equipment
0
(0.0)
5
(0.3)
5
(0.2)
Other hazard violations
0
(0.0)
13
(0.7)
13
(0.6)
Other than driver (or pedestrian)
0
(0.0)
48
(2.5)
48
(2.4)
Unsafe start/brake
1
1.4
48
(2.5)
49
(2.4)
Other improper driving
0
(0.0)
5
(0.3)
5
(0.2)
Pedestrian/other under influence
0
(0.0)
1
(0.1)
1
(0.0)
Unknown
5
115
120
Total
76
(100.0)
2,055
(100.0)
2,131
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 38. Midblock pedestrian crashes on California State highways by weather condition (2006–2008).

Weather condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Clear
62
(81.6)
1,608
(78.6)
1,670
(78.7)
Cloudy
12
(15.8)
325
(15.9)
337
(15.9)
Raining
2
(2.6)
70
(3.4)
72
(3.4)
Snowing
0
(0.0)
19
(0.9)
19
(0.9)
Fog
0
(0.0)
21
(1.0)
21
(1.0)
Other
0
(0.0)
2
(0.1)
2
(0.1)
Unknown
0
10
10
Total
76
(100.0)
2,055
(100.0)
2,131
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 39. Midblock pedestrian crashes on California State highways by vehicle type at fault (2006–2008).

Vehicle type at fault

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway

Combined

Not applicable
11
(14.5)
228
(11.1)
239
(11.2)
Passenger car/station wagon
46
(60.5)
536
(26.1)
582
(27.3)
Passenger car w/trailer
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
Motorcycle
0
(0.0)
12
(0.6)
12
(0.6)
Pickup/panel truck
9
(11.8)
146
(7.1)
155
(7.3)
Pickup/panel truck w/trailer
0
(0.0)
7
(0.3)
7
(0.3)
Truck/truck tractor
0
(0.0)
21
(1.0)
21
(1.0)
Truck tractor w/1 trailer
0
(0.0)
42
(2.0)
42
(2.0)
Other bus
0
(0.0)
4
(0.2)
4
(0.2)
Emergency vehicle
0
(0.0)
3
(0.1)
3
(0.1)
Highway construction equipment
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
Bicycle
0
(0.0)
3
(0.1)
3
(0.1)
Other motor vehicle
0
(0.0)
4
(0.2)
4
(0.2)
Other non-motor vehicle
10
(13.2)
1,047
(50.9)
1,057
(49.6)
Total
76
(100.0)
2,055
(100.0)
2,131
(100.0)

Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 40. Midblock pedestrian crashes on California State highways by road surface condition (2006–2008).

Road surface condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Dry
68
(89.5)
1,805
(88.2)
1,873
(88.2)
Wet
8
(10.5)
175
(8.5)
183
(8.6)
Snowy, icy
0
(0.0)
63
(3.1)
63
(3.0)
Slippery/muddy
0
(0.0)
4
(0.2)
4
(0.2)
Unknown
0
8
8
Total
76
(100.0)
2,055
(100.0)
2,131
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 41. Midblock pedestrian crashes on California State highways by light condition (2006–2008).

Light condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Daylight
40
(52.6)
675
(33.0)
715
(33.7)
Dusk-dawn
3
(3.9)
62
(3.0)
65
(3.1)
Dark-street lights
23
(30.3)
622
(30.4)
645
(30.4)
Dark-no street lights
7
(9.2)
672
(32.8)
679
(32.0)
Dark-light not functioning
3
(3.9)
15
(0.7)
18
(0.8)
Unknown
0
9
9
Total
76
(100.0)
2,055
(100.0)
2,131
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 42. Midblock pedestrian crashes on California State highways by hour of day (2006‑2008).

Hour of day

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
12–12:59 a.m.
1
(1.3)
88
(4.3)
89
(4.2)
1–1:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
94
(4.6)
94
(4.4)
2–2:59 a.m.
1
(1.3)
112
(5.5)
113
(5.3)
3–3:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
87
(4.2)
87
(4.1)
4–4:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
59
(2.9)
59
(2.8)
5–5:59 a.m.
1
(1.3)
64
(3.1)
65
(3.1)
6–6:59 a.m.
2
(2.6)
45
(2.2)
47
(2.2)
7–7:59 a.m.
4
(5.3)
50
(2.4)
54
(2.5)
8–8:59 a.m.
5
(6.6)
34
(1.7)
39
(1.8)
9–9:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
56
(2.7)
56
(2.6)
10–10:59 a.m.
1
(1.3)
43
(2.1)
44
(2.1)
11–11:59 a.m.
4
(5.3)
38
(1.9)
42
(2.0)
Noon–12:59 p.m.
0
(0.0)
60
(2.9)
60
(2.8)
1–1:59 p.m.
2
(2.6)
66
(3.2)
68
(3.2)
2–2:59 p.m.
7
(9.2)
69
(3.4)
76
(3.6)
3–3:59 p.m.
7
(9.2)
85
(4.1)
92
(4.3)
4–4:59 p.m.
3
(3.9)
90
(4.4)
93
(4.4)
5–5:59 p.m.
8
(10.5)
91
(4.4)
99
(4.7)
6–6:59 p.m.
11
(14.5)
133
(6.5)
144
(6.8)
7–7:59 pm
5
(6.6)
132
(6.4)
137
(6.4)
8–8:59 p.m.
5
(6.6)
146
(7.1)
151
(7.1)
9–9:59 p.m.
2
(2.6)
147
(7.2)
149
(7.0)
10–10:59 p.m.
5
(6.6)
146
(7.1)
151
(7.1)
11–11:59 p.m.
2
(2.6)
118
(5.7)
120
(5.6)
Unknown
0
2
2
Total
76
(100.0)
2,055
(100.0)
2,131
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 43. Midblock pedestrian crashes on California State highways by day of the week (2006–2008).

Day of week

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Sunday
9
(11.8)
295
(14.4)
304
(14.3)
Monday
9
(11.8)
267
(13.0)
276
(13.0)
Tuesday
18
(23.7)
266
(12.9)
284
(13.3)
Wednesday
10
(13.2)
237
(11.5)
247
(11.6)
Thursday
12
(15.8)
332
(16.2)
344
(16.1)
Friday
10
(13.2)
349
(17.0)
359
(16.8)
Saturday
8
(10.5)
309
(15.0)
317
(14.9)
Total
76
(100.0)
2,055
(100.0)
2,131
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Minnesota

HSIS data for Minnesota include crash data for nearly all crashes statewide, including those that occurred on both State-maintained and local-agency-maintained road systems. Data analyzed for this report include the years 2003 to 2007, inclusive.

Table 44 shows that, during the study period, 406,786 crashes occurred in Minnesota. Of these, 8,271 (2.0 percent) were pedestrian crashes. Approximately 29 percent of these pedestrian crashes occurred at midblock locations. Only 71 pedestrian crashes (3.0 percent of all midblock pedestrian crashes) are classified as occurring at midblock crosswalks.

Table 45 shows the relative frequency of Minnesota crashes by midblock crosswalk and other midblock roadway locations.

Table 46 classifies midblock pedestrian crashes in Minnesota by crash severity level. In contrast to other States, the proportion of fatal and incapacitating injury crashes is higher for midblock crosswalks than for other midblock locations in Minnesota, but the sample size for midblock crosswalk crashes is so low that this may not be a valid comparison.

Table 44. Summary of pedestrian crash data for Minnesota State highways (2003–2007).

Crashes

Number of crashes by year

2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
Combined
Total crashes
79,825
86,719
85,447
77,243
77,552
406,786
Pedestrian crashes
1,125
1,500
1,844
1,909
1,893
8,271
Pedestrian midblock crashes
377
459
520
492
541
2,389
Pedestrian midblock roadway crashes
277
318
337
313
353
1,598
Pedestrian midblock crossing crashes
14
13
20
11
13
71

Table 45. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Minnesota State highways by pedestrian location (2003–2007).

Year

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
2003
14
(4.8)
277
(95.2)
291
2004
13
(3.9)
318
(96.1)
331
2005
20
(5.6)
337
(94.4)
357
2006
11
(3.4)
313
(96.6)
324
2007
13
(3.5)
353
(96.5)
366
Total
71
(4.3)
1,598
(95.7)
1,669

Percentages in this table are row percentages.

Table 46. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Minnesota State highways by injury severity (2003–2007).

Injury severity

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Fatal
0
(0.0)
14
(0.9)
14
(0.8)
Incapacitating injury
5
(7.0)
55
(3.5)
60
(3.6)
Non-incapacitating injury
8
(11.3)
192
(12.1)
200
(12.0)
Possible injury
15
(21.1)
367
(23.0)
382
(23.0)
Property damage only
43
(60.6)
965
(60.6)
1008
(60.6)
Injury unknown
0
5
5
Total
71
(100.0)
1,598
(100.0)
1,669
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 47 classifies midblock pedestrian crashes in Minnesota by the type of traffic control device. The data for midblock roadways in table 45 include a substantial number of pedestrian crashes at either signals or stop signs; these crashes must either have occurred at nonintersection signals or stop signs (i.e., driveways) or the basic intersection versus nonintersection classification of the crashes is incorrect. Table 48 through table 52 present Minnesota data for pedestrian crashes at midblock locations classified by weather condition, road surface condition, light condition, hour of the day, and day of the week.

Table 47. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Minnesota State highways by traffic control device operating (2003–2007).

Traffic control device operating

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Traffic signals
8
11.3
253
(16.0)
261
(15.8)
Overhead flashers
2
2.8
1
(0.1)
3
(0.2)
Stop sign—all approaches
0
(0.0)
25
(1.6)
25
(1.5)
Stop sign—other
14
19.7
201
(12.7)
215
(13.0)
Yield sign
1
1.4
21
(1.3)
22
(1.3)
Officer, flagman, or school patrol
0
(0.0)
2
(0.1)
2
(0.1)
School bus stop arm
0
(0.0)
3
(0.2)
3
(0.2)
School zone sign
0
(0.0)
3
(0.2)
3
(0.2)
No passing zone
1
1.4
8
(0.5)
9
(0.5)
Railroad crossing—flashing lights
0
(0.0)
2
(0.1)
2
(0.1)
Railroad crossing—overhead flashers and gates
0
(0.0)
2
(0.1)
2
(0.1)
Other
4
5.6
9
(0.6)
13
(0.8)
Not applicable
41
57.7
1056
(66.6)
1097
(66.2)
Unknown
0
12
12
Total
71
(100.0)
1,598
(100.0)
1,669
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 48. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Minnesota State highways by weather condition (2003–2007).

Weather condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Clear
38
(53.5)
796
(50.2)
834
(50.4)
Cloudy
19
(26.8)
483
(30.5)
502
(30.3)
Raining
2
(2.8)
31
(2.0)
33
(2.0)
Snowing
10
(14.1)
168
(10.6)
178
(10.7)
Sleet/hail/freezing rain
0
(0.0)
67
(4.2)
67
(4.0)
Fog/smog/dust
0
(0.0)
7
(0.4)
7
(0.4)
Blowing sand/dust/snow
2
(2.8)
24
(1.5)
26
(1.6)
Severe crosswinds
0
(0.0)
3
(0.2)
3
(0.2)
Other
0
(0.0)
6
(0.4)
6
(0.4)
Unknown
0
13
13
Total
71
(100.0)
1,598
(100.0)
1,669
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 49. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Minnesota State highways by road surface condition (2003–2007).

Road surface condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Dry
26
(36.6)
740
(46.6)
766
(46.2)
Wet
6
(8.5)
197
(12.4)
203
(12.2)
Snow
12
(16.9)
185
(11.7)
197
(11.9)
Slush
2
(2.8)
54
(3.4)
56
(3.4)
Ice/packed snow
23
(32.4)
391
(24.6)
414
(25.0)
Debris
1
(1.4)
0
(0.0)
1
(0.1)
Other
1
(1.4)
20
(1.3)
21
(1.3)
Unknown
0
11
11
Total
71
(100.0)
1,598
(100.0)
1,669
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 50. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Minnesota State highways by light condition (2003–2007).

Light condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Daylight
37
(52.1)
944
(59.4)
981
(59.1)
Dusk-dawn
4
(5.6)
93
(5.8)
97
(5.8)
Dark-street lights on
22
(31.0)
386
(24.3)
408
(24.6)
Dark-no street lights
7
(9.9)
153
(9.6)
160
(9.6)
Dark-unknown lighting
1
(1.4)
13
(0.8)
14
(0.8)
Other
0
(0.0)
2
(0.1)
2
(0.1)
Unknown
0
7
7
Total
71
(100.0)
1,598
(100.0)
1,669
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 51. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Minnesota State highways by hour of day
(2003–2007).

Hour of day

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
12–12:59 a.m.
2
(2.8)
27
(1.7)
29
(1.7)
1–1:59 a.m.
1
(1.4)
17
(1.1)
18
(1.1)
2–2:59 a.m.
1
(1.4)
32
(2.0)
33
(2.0)
3–3:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
12
(0.8)
12
(0.7)
4–4:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
10
(0.6)
10
(0.6)
5–5:59 a.m.
1
(1.4)
15
(0.9)
16
(1.0)
6–6:59 a.m.
1
(1.4)
44
(2.8)
45
(2.7)
7–7:59 a.m.
3
(4.2)
98
(6.1)
101
(6.1)
8–8:59 a.m.
3
(4.2)
92
(5.8)
95
(5.7)
9–9:59 a.m.
2
(2.8)
75
(4.7)
77
(4.6)
10–10:59 a.m.
2
(2.8)
70
(4.4)
72
(4.3)
11–11:59 a.m.
3
(4.2)
75
(4.7)
78
(4.7)
Noon–12:59 p.m.
4
(5.6)
81
(5.1)
85
(5.1)
1–1:59 p.m.
5
(7.0)
74
(4.6)
79
(4.7)
2–2:59 p.m.
2
(2.8)
113
(7.1)
115
(6.9)
3–3:59 p.m.
5
(7.0)
148
(9.3)
153
(9.2)
4–4:59 p.m.
7
(9.9)
118
(7.4)
125
(7.5)
5–5:59 p.m.
12
(16.9)
147
(9.2)
159
(9.5)
6–6:59 p.m.
0
(0.0)
95
(6.0)
95
(5.7)
7–7:59 p.m.
4
(5.6)
68
(4.3)
72
(4.3)
8–8:59 p.m.
2
(2.8)
61
(3.8)
63
(3.8)
9–9:59 p.m.
5
(7.0)
49
(3.1)
54
(3.2)
10–10:59 p.m.
6
(8.5)
52
(3.3)
58
(3.5)
11–11:59 p.m.
0
(0.0)
21
(1.3)
21
(1.3)
Unknown
0
4
4
Total
71
(100.0)
1,598
(100.0)
1,669
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 52. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Minnesota State highways by day of the week (2003–2007).

Day of week

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Sunday
7
(9.9)
190
(11.9)
197
(11.8)
Monday
6
(8.5)
228
(14.3)
234
(14.0)
Tuesday
9
(12.7)
239
(15.0)
248
(14.9)
Wednesday
12
(16.9)
257
(16.1)
269
(16.1)
Thursday
9
(12.7)
230
(14.4)
239
(14.3)
Friday
16
(22.5)
244
(15.3)
260
(15.6)
Saturday
12
(16.9)
210
(13.1)
222
(13.3)
Total
71
(100.0)
1,598
(100.0)
1,669
(100.0)

Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

North Carolina

HSIS data for North Carolina include crash data for approximately 62,000 mi of the 77,000mi of roadway on the State-maintained highway system. The State-maintained road system in North Carolina is much larger than the State-maintained road systems of most other States and includes many roads that would be county roads in other States. The available data cover approximately two-thirds of the total public road mileage in the State. Data analyzed for this report include the years from 2005 to 2008, inclusive.

Table 53 shows that, during the study period, 579,654 crashes occurred in North Carolina. Of these, 3,847 (0.7 percent) were pedestrian crashes. Nearly 85 percent of these pedestrian crashes occurred at midblock locations. Only 86 crashes (2.7 percent of the midblock crashes) were classified as occurring at midblock crosswalks.

Table 53. Summary of pedestrian crash data for North Carolina State highways
(2005–2008).

Crashes

Number of crashes by year

2005
2006
2007
2008
Combined
Total crashes
136,842
146,333
149,964
146,515
579,654
Pedestrian crashes
888
994
975
990
3,847
Pedestrian midblock crashes
750
837
824
828
3,239
Pedestrian midblock roadway crashes
630
682
662
665
2,639
Pedestrian midblock crossing crashes
15
27
22
22
86

Table 54 shows the relative frequencies of North Carolina crashes by midblock crosswalk and other midblock roadway locations.

Table 54. Midblock pedestrian crashes on North Carolina State highways by pedestrian location (2005–2008).

Years

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
2005
15
(2.3)
630
(97.7)
645
2006
27
(3.8)
682
(96.2)
709
2007
22
(3.2)
662
(96.8)
684
2008
22
(3.2)
665
(96.8)
687
Total
86
(3.2)
2,639
(96.8)
2,725

Percentages in this table are row percentages.

Table 55 classifies midblock pedestrian crashes in North Carolina by crash severity level.
Table 56 classifies midblock pedestrian crashes in North Carolina by the pedestrian action prior to the crash. Table 57 presents similar data for contributing factors, many of which are related to pedestrian actions.

Table 55. Midblock pedestrian crashes on North Carolina State highways by injury severity (2005–2008).

Injury severity

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Fatal
2
(2.4)
12
(0.5)
14
(0.5)
Incapacitating injury
2
(2.4)
15
(0.6)
17
(0.6)
Non-incapacitating injury
4
(4.8)
176
(6.8)
180
(6.7)
Possible injury
17
(20.5)
589
(22.7)
606
(22.6)
Property damage only
58
(69.9)
1806
(69.5)
1864
(69.5)
Injury unknown
3
41
44
Total
86
(100.0)
2,639
(100.0)
2,725
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 56. Midblock pedestrian crashes on North Carolina State highways by pedestrian action (2005–2008).

Collision factor

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Entering or crossing specified location
41
(48.2)
685
(26.0)
726
(26.7)
Walking, riding, running with traffic
8
(9.4)
591
(22.4)
599
(22.0)
Walking, riding, running against traffic
6
(7.1)
357
(13.6)
363
(13.4)
Working
13
(15.3)
84
(3.2)
97
(3.6)
Pushing vehicle
2
(2.4)
37
(1.4)
39
(1.4)
Approaching or leaving vehicle
1
(1.2)
105
(4.0)
106
(3.9)
Playing
2
(2.4)
25
(0.9)
27
(1.0)
Standing
3
(3.5)
290
(11.0)
293
(10.8)
Other
9
(10.6)
459
(17.4)
468
(17.2)
Unknown
1
6
7
Total
86
(100.0)
2,639
(100.0)
2,725
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 57. Midblock pedestrian crashes on North Carolina State highways by contributing factor (2005–2008).

Contributing factor

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Coming from behind parked vehicle
1
(1.3)
41
(1.6)
42
(1.6)
Darting
10
(12.5)
461
(18.1)
471
(18.0)
Lying and/or illegally in roadway
1
(1.3)
382
(15.0)
383
(14.6)
Failure to yield right of way
6
(7.5)
348
(13.7)
354
(13.5)
Not visible (dark clothing)
6
(7.5)
306
(12.0)
312
(11.9)
Inattentive
2
(2.5)
74
(2.9)
76
(2.9)
Failure to obey traffic signs, signals
2
(2.5)
23
(0.9)
25
(1.0)
Wrong side of road
3
(3.8)
125
(4.9)
128
(4.9)
Other
5
(6.3)
156
(6.1)
161
(6.1)
None
44
(55.0)
626
(24.6)
670
(25.6)
Unknown
6
97
103
Total
86
(100.0)
2,639
(100.0)
2,725
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 58 through table 62 present North Carolina data for pedestrian crashes at midblock locations classified by weather condition, road surface condition, light condition, hour of the day, and day of week.

Table 58. Midblock pedestrian crashes on North Carolina State highways by weather condition (2005–2008).

Weather condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Clear
60
(69.8)
1824
(69.1)
1884
(69.1)
Cloudy
13
(15.1)
501
(19.0)
514
(18.9)
Raining
11
(12.8)
220
(8.3)
231
(8.5)
Snowing
1
(1.2)
30
(1.1)
31
(1.1)
Fog, smog, smoke
0
(0.0)
31
(1.2)
31
(1.1)
Sleet or hail
0
(0.0)
32
(1.2)
32
(1.2)
Severe crosswinds
1
(1.2)
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
Blowing sand, dirt, snow
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
Unknown
0
0
0
Total
86
(100.0)
2,639
(100.0)
2,725
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 59. Midblock pedestrian crashes on North Carolina State highways by road surface condition (2005–2008).

Road surface condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Dry
66
(76.7)
2,100
(79.8)
2,166
(79.7)
Wet
20
(23.3)
459
(17.4)
479
(17.6)
Water (standing, moving)
0
(0.0)
10
(0.4)
10
(0.4)
Ice
0
(0.0)
26
(1.0)
26
(1.0)
Snow
0
(0.0)
23
(0.9)
23
(0.8)
Slush
0
(0.0)
11
(0.4)
11
(0.4)
Sand, mud, dirt, gravel
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
Fuel, oil
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
Unknown
0
8
8
Total
86
(100.0)
2,639
(100.0)
2,725
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 60. Midblock pedestrian crashes on North Carolina State highways by light condition (2005–2008).

Light condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Daylight
58
(67.4)
1,884
(71.4)
1,942
(71.3)
Dusk-dawn
7
(8.2)
130
(4.9)
137
(5.0)
Dark-street lights on
17
(19.8)
387
(14.7)
404
(14.8)
Dark-no street lights
4
(4.7)
231
(8.8)
235
(8.6)
Dark-unknown lighting
0
(0.0)
5
(0.2)
5
(0.2)
Other
0
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
Unknown
0
1
1
Total
86
(100.0)
2,639
(100.0)
2,725
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 61. Midblock pedestrian crashes on North Carolina State highways by day of the week (2005–2008).

Day of week

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Sunday
4
(4.7)
151
(5.7)
155
(5.7)
Monday
20
(23.3)
382
(14.5)
402
(14.8)
Tuesday
11
(12.8)
412
(15.6)
423
(15.5)
Wednesday
10
(11.6)
434
(16.4)
444
(16.3)
Thursday
20
(23.3)
490
(18.6)
510
(18.7)
Friday
16
(18.6)
514
(19.5)
530
(19.4)
Saturday
5
(5.8)
256
(9.7)
261
(9.6)
Total
86
(100.0)
2,639
(100.0)
2,725
(100.0)

Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 62. Midblock pedestrian crashes on North Carolina State highways by hour of day (2005–2008).

Hour of day

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
12–12:59 a.m.
2
(2.3)
21
(0.8)
23
(0.8)
1–1:59 a.m.
1
(1.2)
14
(0.5)
15
(0.6)
2–2:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
27
(1.0)
27
(1.0)
3–3:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
16
(0.6)
16
(0.6)
4–4:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
17
(0.6)
17
(0.6)
5–5:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
22
(0.8)
22
(0.8)
6–6:59 a.m.
2
(2.3)
87
(3.3)
89
(3.3)
7–7:59 a.m.
6
(7.0)
176
(6.7)
182
(6.7)
8–8:59 a.m.
12
(14.0)
164
(6.2)
176
(6.5)
9–9:59 a.m.
3
(3.5)
131
(5.0)
134
(4.9)
10–10:59 a.m.
5
(5.8)
123
(4.7)
128
(4.7)
11–11:59 a.m.
3
(3.5)
161
(6.1)
164
(6.0)
Noon–12:59 p.m.
6
(7.0)
186
(7.0)
192
(7.0)
1–1:59 p.m.
4
(4.7)
203
(7.7)
207
(7.6)
2–2:59 p.m.
8
(9.3)
190
(7.2)
198
(7.3)
3–3:59 p.m.
5
(5.8)
228
(8.6)
233
(8.6)
4–4:59 p.m.
7
(8.1)
226
(8.6)
233
(8.6)
5–5:59 p.m.
4
(4.7)
208
(7.9)
212
(7.8)
6–6:59 p.m.
8
(9.3)
162
(6.1)
170
(6.2)
7–7:59 p.m.
3
(3.5)
99
(3.8)
102
(3.7)
8–8:59 p.m.
3
(3.5)
64
(2.4)
67
(2.5)
9–9:59 p.m.
2
(2.3)
51
(1.9)
53
(1.9)
10–10:59 p.m.
0
(0.0)
35
(1.3)
35
(1.3)
11–11:59 p.m.
2
(2.3)
28
(1.1)
30
(1.1)
Total
86
2,639
2,725

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Ohio

HSIS data for Ohio include crash data only for the State highway system, consisting of approximately 19,500 mi of highways. While some city streets and many small town “main streets” and suburban arterials are State highways, many areas with the highest concentrations of pedestrians in Ohio are not on the State highway system. Data analyzed for this report include the years from 2005 to 2008, inclusive.

Table 63 shows that during the study period, 699,595 crashes occurred on the Ohio State highway system. Of these, 4,127 (0.6 percent) were pedestrian crashes. Approximately 45percent of the pedestrian crashes occurred at midblock locations. Only 22 crashes (1.2 percent of the midblock crashes) were classified as occurring at midblock crosswalks.

Table 63. Summary of pedestrian crash data for Ohio State highways (2005–2009).

Crashes

Number of crashes by year

2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Combined
Total crashes
143,134
144,821
145,810
128,625
137,205
699,595
Pedestrian crashes
705
831
820
873
898
4,127
Pedestrian midblock crashes
334
368
358
378
400
1,838
Pedestrian midblock roadway crashes
102
147
129
123
129
630
Pedestrian midblock crossing crashes
4
1
7
3
7
22

Table 64 shows the relative frequencies of Ohio crashes by midblock crosswalk and other midblock roadway locations. Table 65 classifies midblock pedestrian crashes in Ohio by crash severity level.

Table 64. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Ohio State highways by pedestrian location (2005–2009).

Year

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
2005
4
(3.8)
102
(96.2)
106
2006
1
(0.1)
147
(99.9)
148
2007
7
(5.1)
129
(94.9)
136
2008
3
(2.4)
123
(97.6)
126
2009
7
(5.2)
129
(94.8)
136
Total
22
(3.4)
630
(96.6)
652

Percentages in this table are row percentages.

Table 65. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Ohio State highways by injury severity
(2005–2009).

Injury severity

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Fatal
0
(0.0)
75
(11.9)
75
(11.5)
Incapacitating injury
1
(4.5)
168
(26.7)
169
(25.9)
Non-incapacitating injury
14
(63.7)
213
(33.8)
227
(34.9)
Possible injury
7
(31.8)
123
(19.5)
130
(19.9)
Property damage only
0
(0.0)
51
(8.1)
51
7.8)
Total
22
(100.0)
630
(100.0)
652
(100.0)

Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 66 classified midblock pedestrian crashes in Ohio by the traffic control devices present. The table for Ohio differs markedly from the tables for other States because pavement markings are included as one of the traffic control devices that may be present.

Table 66. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Ohio State highways by traffic control device (2005–2009).

Traffic control device

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
No controls
10
(45.5)
251
(46.7)
261
(46.6)
Traffic signal
4
(18.2)
15
(2.8)
19
(3.4)
Traffic flashers
0
(0.0)
1
(0.2)
1
(0.2)
Construction barricades
0
(0.0)
3
(0.6)
3
(0.5)
Police officer
0
(0.0)
2
(0.4)
2
(0.4)
Pavement markings
2
(9.1)
231
(42.9)
233
(41.6)
Crosswalk lines
5
(22.7)
17
(3.2)
22
(3.9)
Walk/don’t walk signal
1
(4.5)
12
(2.2)
13
(2.3)
Other
0
(0.0)
6
(1.1)
6
(1.1)
Unknown
0
92
92
Total
22
(100.0)
630
(100.0)
652
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 67 classifies midblock pedestrian crashes in Ohio by pedestrian action that contributed to the crash. Table 68 through table 74 present Ohio data for pedestrian crashes at midblock locations by number of lanes crossed, presence of a median, weather condition, road surface condition, light condition, hour of the day, and day of the week.

Table 67. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Ohio State highways by pedestrian action
(2005–2009).

Collision factor

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
None
10
(71.5)
63
(11.5)
73
(13.0)
Operating defective equipment
0
(0.0)
1
(0.2)
1
(0.2)
Improper crossing
2
(14.3)
238
(43.5)
240
(42.8)
Darting
1
(7.1)
76
(13.9)
77
(13.8)
Lying and/or illegally in roadway
0
(0.0)
54
(9.9)
54
(9.6)
Failure to yield
0
(0.0)
28
(4.9)
28
(4.8)
Not visible (dark clothing)
0
(0.0)
23
(4.2)
23
(4.1)
Inattentive
0
(0.0)
22
(4.0)
22
(3.9)
Failure to obey traffic signs, signals, etc.
0
(0.0)
5
(0.9)
5
(0.9)
Wrong side of the road
0
(0.0)
13
(2.4)
13
(2.3)
Other
1
(7.1)
25
(4.6)
26
(4.6)
Unknown
8
82
90
Total
22
(100.0)
630
(100.0)
652
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 68. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Ohio State highways by number of lanes crossed (2005–2009).

Number of lanes

Number (percent) of crashes by number of lanes crossed

Midblock Crosswalk
Midblock Roadway
Combined
2
4
(18.2)
211
(33.5)
215
(33.0)
3
0
(0.0)
16
(2.5)
16
(2.5)
4
17
(77.3)
342
(54.3)
359
(55.1)
5
0
(0.0)
3
(0.5)
3
(0.5)
6
1
(4.5)
45
(7.1)
46
(7.1)
7
0
(0.0)
1
(0.2)
1
(0.2)
8
0
(0.0)
11
(1.7)
11
(1.7)
9
0
(0.0)
1
(0.2)
1
(0.2)
Unknown
0
0
0
Total
22
(100.0)
630
(100.0)
652
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 69. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Ohio State highways by presence of median (2005–2009).

Presence of median

Number (percent) of crashes by presence of median

Midblock Crosswalk
Midblock Roadway
Combined
Divided
1
(4.5)
101
(16.0)
102
(15.6)
Undivided
21
(95.5)
529
(84.0)
550
(84.4)
Total
22
(100.0)
630
(100.0)
652
(100.0)

Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 70. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Ohio State highways by weather condition (2005–2009).

Weather condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock Crosswalk
Midblock Roadway
Combined
Clear
19
(86.4)
531
(85.0)
550
(85.0)
Cloudy
2
(9.1)
69
(11.0)
71
(11.0)
Raining
0
(0.0)
12
(1.9)
12
(1.9)
Snowing
0
(0.0)
2
(0.3)
2
(0.3)
Sleet or hail
1
(4.5)
11
(1.8)
12
(1.9)
Unknown
0
5
5
Total
22
(100.0)
630
(100.0)
652
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 71. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Ohio State highways by road surface condition (2005–2009).

Road surface condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Dry
17
(77.3)
488
(78.0)
505
(77.9)
Wet
4
(18.2)
118
(18.8)
122
(18.8)
Water
1
(4.5)
12
(1.9)
13
(2.0)
Snowy, icy
0
(0.0)
8
(1.3)
8
(1.3)
Unknown
0
7
7
Total
22
(100.0)
630
(100.0)
652
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 72. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Ohio State highways by light condition (2005–2009).

Light condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Daylight
16
(72.7)
297
(47.7)
313
(48.5)
Dusk-dawn
2
(9.1)
26
(4.1)
28
(4.4)
Dark-street lights on
4
(18.2)
193
(31.0)
197
(30.5)
Dark-no street lights
0
(0.0)
107
(17.2)
107
(16.6)
Unknown
0
7
7
Total
22
(100.0)
630
(100.0)
652
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 73. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Ohio State highways by day of the week (2005–2009).

Day of week

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Sunday
1
(4.5)
76
(12.1)
77
(11.8)
Monday
5
(22.7)
75
(11.9)
80
(12.3)
Tuesday
3
(13.6)
102
(16.2)
105
(16.1)
Wednesday
3
(13.6)
91
(14.4)
94
(14.4)
Thursday
5
(22.7)
95
(15.1)
100
(15.3)
Friday
3
(13.6)
103
(16.3)
106
(16.3)
Saturday
2
(9.1)
88
(14.0)
90
(13.8)
Total
22
(100.0)
630
(100.0)
652
(100.0)

Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 74. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Ohio State highways by hour of the day (2005–2009).

Hour of day

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
12–12:59 a.m.
2
(9.1)
15
(2.4)
17
(2.6)
1–1:59 a.m.
1
(4.5)
25
(4.0)
26
(4.0)
2–2:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
30
(4.8)
30
(4.6)
3–3:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
12
(1.9)
12
(1.8)
4–4:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
3
(0.5)
3
(0.5)
5–5:59 a.m.
1
(4.5)
9
(1.4)
10
(1.5)
6–6:59 a.m.
2
(9.1)
15
(2.4)
17
(2.6)
7–7:59 a.m.
1
(4.5)
20
(3.2)
21
(3.2)
8–8:59 a.m.
3
(13.6)
11
(1.7)
14
(2.1)
9–9:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
10
(1.6)
10
(1.5)
10–10:59 a.m.
3
(13.6)
16
(2.5)
19
(2.9)
11–11:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
21
(3.3)
21
(3.2)
Noon–12:59 p.m.
2
(9.1)
19
(3.0)
21
(3.2)
1–1:59 p.m.
0
(0.0)
22
(3.5)
22
(3.4)
2–2:59 p.m.
2
(9.1)
43
(6.8)
45
(6.9)
3–3:59 p.m.
2
(9.1)
45
(7.1)
47
(7.2)
4–4:59 p.m.
0
(0.0)
43
(6.8)
43
(6.6)
5–5:59 p.m.
1
(4.5)
50
(7.9)
51
(7.8)
6–6:59 p.m.
2
(9.1)
49
(7.8)
51
(7.8)
7–7:59 p.m.
0
(0.0)
48
(7.6)
48
(7.4)
8–8:59 p.m.
0
(0.0)
37
(5.9)
37
(5.7)
9–9:59 p.m.
0
(0.0)
37
(5.9)
37
(5.7)
10–10:59 p.m.
0
(0.0)
27
(4.3)
27
(4.1)
11–11:59 p.m.
0
(0.0)
23
(3.7)
23
(3.5)
Unknown
0
0
0
Total
22
(100.0)
630
(100.0)
652
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Texas

Data for Texas include crash data submitted to the department that can include both on-State and off-State roadways. Data analyzed for this report include the years from 2003 to 2009, inclusive.

Table 75 shows that during the study period, 3,134,365 crashes occurred on the Texas roadway system. Of these, 39,993 (1.3 percent) were pedestrian crashes. Nearly 50 percent of the pedestrian crashes occurred at non-intersection locations (defined as midblock locations for this report). Only 136 crashes (0.7 percent of the midblock crashes) were classified as occurring at midblock crosswalks.

Table 76 shows the relative frequencies of Texas crashes by midblock crosswalk and other midblock roadway locations. Table 77 classifies midblock pedestrian crashes in Texas by crash severity level.

Table 75. Summary of pedestrian crash data for Texas roadways (2003–2009).

Crashes

Number of crashes by year

2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Combined
Total crashes
459,725
447,037
463,830
437,290
458,289
439,527
428,667
3,134,365
Pedestrian crashes
5,998
5,444
5,620
5,146
5,751
6,244
5,790
39,993
Pedestrian midblock crashesa
3,042
2,741
2,803
2,392
2,662
2,850
2,493
18,983
Pedestrian midblock roadway crashesb
3,042
2,741
2,803
2,354
2,628
2,811
2,468
18,847
Pedestrian midblock crossing crashes
0
0
0
38
34
39
25
136

aCrashes at nonintersection and in-roadway along with pedestrian as the code for harmful event, person type, or vehicle unit description.
bMidblock roadway crashes not coded with “crosswalk” as the traffic control device present.

Table 76. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Texas roadways by pedestrian location
(2003–2009).

Year

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
2003
0
(0.0)
3,042
(100.0)
3,042
2004
0
(0.0)
2,741
(100.0)
2,741
2005
0
(0.0)
2,803
(100.0)
2,803
2006
38
(1.6)
2,354
(98.4)
2,392
2007
34
(1.3)
2,628
(98.7)
2,662
2008
39
(1.4)
2,811
(98.6)
2,850
2009
25
(1.0)
2,468
(99.0)
2,493
Total
136
(0.7)
18,847
(99.3)
18,983

Percentages in this table are row percentages.

Table 77. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Texas roadways by injury severity (2003–2009).

Injury severity

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Incapacitating injury
29
(21.5)
4,111
(22.0)
4,140
(22.0)
Non-incapacitating injury
48
(35.6)
6,799
(36.3)
6,847
(36.3)
Possible injury
48
(35.6)
4,875
(26.1)
4,923
(26.1)
Fatal
6
(4.4)
2,192
(11.7)
2,198
(11.7)
Not injured
4
(3.0)
734
(3.9)
738
(3.9)
Unknown
1
136
137
Total
136
(100.0)
18,847
(100.0)
18,983
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 78 presents a classification of midblock pedestrian crashes in Texas by the traffic control devices present. Table 79 through table 83 present Texas data for pedestrian crashes at midblock locations by weather condition, road surface condition, light condition, hour of the day, and day of the week.

Table 78. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Texas roadways by traffic control device
(2003–2009).

Traffic control device

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
No control or inoperative
0
(0.0)
3,770
(21.0)
3,770
(20.9)
None
0
(0.0)
5,696
(31.8)
5,696
(31.5)
Inoperative
0
(0.0)
7
(0.0)
7
(0.0)
Officer
0
(0.0)
52
(0.3)
52
(0.3)
Flagman
0
(0.0)
45
(0.3)
45
(0.2)
Signal light
0
(0.0)
648
(3.6)
648
(3.6)
Flashing red light
0
(0.0)
21
(0.1)
21
(0.1)
Flashing yellow light
0
(0.0)
10
(0.1)
10
(0.1)
Stop sign
0
(0.0)
262
(1.5)
262
(1.4)
Yield sign
0
(0.0)
54
(0.3)
54
(0.3)
Warning sign
0
(0.0)
85
(0.5)
85
(0.5)
Center stripe/divider
0
(0.0)
5,609
(31.3)
5,609
(31.0)
No passing zone
0
(0.0)
356
(2.0)
356
(2.0)
RR gate/signal
0
(0.0)
8
(0.0)
8
(0.0)
School zone
0
(0.0)
62
(0.3)
62
(0.3)
Crosswalk
136
(100.0)
0
(0.0)
136
(0.8)
Bike lane
0
(0.0)
5
(0.0)
5
(0.0)
Other
0
(0.0)
1,145
(6.4)
1,145
(6.3)
Officer or flagman
0
(0.0)
76
(0.4)
76
(0.4)
Turn marks
0
(0.0)
29
(0.2)
29
(0.2)
Blank
0
907
907
Total
136
(100.0)
18,847
(100.0)
18,983
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 79. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Texas roadways by weather condition
(2003–2009).

Weather condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Clear/cloudy
122
(92.4)
17,466
(94.2)
17,588
(94.2)
Rain
10
(7.6)
872
(4.7)
882
(4.7)
Sleet/hail
0
(0.0)
20
(0.1)
20
(0.1)
Snow
0
(0.0)
15
(0.1)
15
(0.1)
Fog
0
(0.0)
86
(0.5)
86
(0.5)
Blowing sand/snow
0
(0.0)
8
(0.0)
7
(0.0)
Severe crosswinds
0
(0.0)
14
(0.1)
14
(0.1)
Blowing dust
0
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
2
(0.0)
Other
0
(0.0)
52
(0.3)
52
(0.3)
Blank
4
281
285
Unknown
0
32
32
Total
136
(100.0)
18,847
(100.0)
18,983
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 80. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Texas roadways by road surface condition
(2003–2009).

Road surface condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Dry
119
(89.5)
17,073
(91.2)
17,192
(91.2)
Wet
13
(9.8)
1,505
(8.0)
1,518
(8.1)
Standing water
0
(0.0)
8
(0.0)
8
(0.0)
Snowy/icy
0
(0.0)
20
(0.1)
20
(0.1)
Slush
0
(0.0)
3
(0.0)
3
(0.0)
Ice
1
(0.8)
31
(0.2)
32
(0.2)
Muddy
0
(0.0)
4
(0.0)
4
(0.0)
Snow
0
(0.0)
7
(0.0)
7
(0.0)
Sand (mud, dirt)
0
(0.0)
26
(0.1)
26
(0.1)
Other
0
(0.0)
36
(0.2)
36
(0.2)
Unknown
0
33
33
Blank
3
101
104
Total
136
(100.0)
18,847
(100.0)
18,983
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 81. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Texas roadways by light condition (2003–2009).

Light condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Daylight
100
(75.2)
9,364
(50.7)
9,464
(50.9)
Dawn
2
(1.5)
191
(1.0)
193
(1.0)
Dark (not lighted)
5
(3.8)
3,893
(21.1)
3,898
(21.0)
Dark (lighted)
26
(19.5)
4,419
(23.9)
4,445
(23.9)
Dusk
0
(0.0)
411
(2.2)
411
(2.2)
Dark (unknown lighting)
0
(0.0)
168
(0.9)
168
(0.9)
Other
0
(0.0)
8
(0.0)
8
(0.0)
Unknown
0
27
27
Blank
3
366
369
Total
136
(100.0)
18,847
(100.0)
18,983
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 82. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Texas roadways by hour of day (2003–2009).

Hour of day

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
12–12:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
20
(0.1)
20
(0.1)
1–1:59 a.m.
1
(0.7)
496
(2.6)
497
(2.6)
2–2:59 a.m.
2
(1.5)
638
(3.4)
640
(3.4)
3–3:59 a.m.
0
(0.0)
288
(1.5)
288
(1.5)
4–4:59 a.m.
1
(0.7)
203
(1.1)
204
(1.1)
5–5:59 a.m.
3
(2.2)
260
(1.4)
263
(1.4)
6–6:59 a.m.
3
(2.2)
449
(2.4)
452
(2.4)
7–7:59 a.m.
16
(11.8)
653
(3.5)
669
(3.5)
8–8:59 a.m.
13
(9.6)
407
(2.2)
420
(2.2)
9–9:59 a.m.
9
(6.6)
358
(1.9)
367
(1.9)
10–10:59 a.m.
4
(2.9)
423
(2.3)
427
(2.9)
11–11:59 a.m.
6
(4.4)
516
(2.7)
522
(2.8)
Noon–12:59 p.m.
7
(5.1)
1,194
(6.4)
1,201
(6.3)
1–1:59 p.m.
1
(0.7)
623
(3.3)
624
(3.3)
2–2:59 p.m.
13
(9.6)
793
(4.2)
806
(4.3)
3–3:59 p.m.
8
(5.9)
1,179
(6.3)
1,187
(6.3)
4–4:59 p.m.
11
(8.1)
1,252
(6.7)
1,263
(6.7)
5–5:59 p.m.
12
(8.8)
1,400
(7.5)
1,412
(7.5)
6–6:59 p.m.
7
(5.1)
1,680
(8.9)
1,687
(8.9)
7–7:59 p.m.
9
(6.6)
1,539
(8.2)
1,548
(8.2)
8–8:59 p.m.
3
(2.2)
1,388
(7.4)
1,391
(7.4)
9–9:59 p.m.
3
(2.2)
1,330
(7.1)
1,333
(7.0)
10–10:59 p.m.
3
(2.2)
988
(5.3)
991
(5.2)
11–11:59 p.m.
1
(0.7)
707
(3.8)
708
(3.7)
Unknown
0
63
63
Total
136
(100.0)
18,847
(100.0)
18,983
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 83. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Texas roadway by day of week (2003–2009).

Weekday

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Sunday
13
(9.6)
2,814
(14.9)
2,827
(14.9)
Monday
29
(21.3)
2,370
(12.6)
2,399
(12.6)
Tuesday
21
(15.4)
2,317
(12.3)
2,338
(12.3)
Wednesday
25
(18.4)
2,344
(12.4)
2,369
(12.5)
Thursday
22
(16.2)
2,493
(13.2)
2,515
(13.2)
Friday
18
(13.2)
3,150
(16.7)
3,168
(16.7)
Saturday
8
(5.9)
3,359
(17.8)
3,367
(17.7)
Total
136
(100.0)
18,847
(100.0)
18,983
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Washington

HSIS data for Washington include crash data only for the state highway system, consisting of approximately 7,193 mi of highways. While some city streets and many small town “main streets” and suburban arterials are State highways, many areas with the highest concentrations of pedestrians in Washington are not on the State highway system. Data analyzed for this report include the years from 2005 to 2008, inclusive.

Table 84 shows that during the study period, 188,992 crashes occurred on the Washington State highway system. Of these, 1,573 (0.8 percent) were pedestrian crashes. Nearly 40 percent of the pedestrian crashes occurred at midblock locations. Only 29 crashes (5.0 percent of the midblock crashes) were classified as occurring at midblock crosswalks.

Table 84. Summary of pedestrian crash data for Washington State highways (2005–2008).

Crashes

Number of crashes by year

2005
2006
2007
2008
Combined
Total crashes
48,023
48,985
47,732
44,252
188,992
Pedestrian crashes
359
400
410
404
1,573
Pedestrian midblock crashes
159
161
147
152
619
Pedestrian midblock roadway crashes
150
155
141
144
590
Pedestrian midblock crossing crashes
9
6
6
8
29

Table 85 shows the relative frequencies of Washington crashes by midblock crosswalk and other midblock roadway locations.

Table 85. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Washington State highways by pedestrian location (2005–2008).

Year

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
2005
9
(4.2)
150
(95.8)
159
2006
6
(0.8)
155
(99.2)
161
2007
6
(5.3)
141
(94.7)
147
2008
8
(2.6)
144
(97.4)
152
Total
29
(3.7)
590
(96.3)
619

Percentages in this table are row percentages.

Table 86 classifies midblock pedestrian crashes in Washington by crash severity level. Table 87 classified midblock pedestrian crashes in Washington by contributing factors, many of which are related to pedestrian actions.

Table 88 through table 92 present Washington data for pedestrian crashes at midblock locations by presence of median, road surface condition, light condition, hour of the day, and day of the week.

Table 86. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Washington State highways by injury severity (2005–2008).

Injury severity

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Fatal
0
(0.0)
71
(12.1)
71
(11.5)
Incapacitating injury
4
(13.8)
148
(25.2)
152
(24.6)
Non-incapacitating injury
10
(34.5)
189
(32.1)
199
(32.3)
Possible injury
12
(41.4)
139
(23.6)
151
(24.5)
Property damage only
3
(10.3)
41
(7.0)
44
(7.1)
Injury unknown
0
2
2
Total
29
(100.0)
590
(100.0)
619
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 87. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Washington State highways by contributing factor (2005–2008).

Contributing factor

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Under the influence of alcohol or drugs
0
(0.0)
39
(6.8)
39
(6.5)
Speeding
0
(0.0)
44
(7.7)
44
(7.3)
Pedestrian did not yield to vehicle
0
(0.0)
2
(0.3)
2
(0.3)
Improper passing
1
(3.4)
3
(0.5)
4
(0.7)
Following too closely
0
(0.0)
4
(0.7)
4
(0.7)
Failing to signal
0
(0.0)
1
(0.2)
1
(0.2)
Apparently asleep, ill, or fatigued
0
(0.0)
4
(0.7)
4
(0.7)
Operating defective equipment
0
(0.0)
7
(1.2)
7
(1.2)
Improper U-turn
0
(0.0)
2
(0.3)
2
(0.3)
Motorist did not yield to pedestrian
16
(55.3)
89
(15.6)
105
(17.4)
Inattention
1
(3.4)
13
(2.3)
14
(2.3)
Improper backing
0
(0.0)
7
(1.2)
7
(1.2)
Disregard flagger/officer
0
(0.0)
8
(1.4)
8
(1.3)
Failure to use crosswalk
0
(0.0)
1
(0.2)
1
(0.2)
Other
2
(6.9)
97
(16.9)
99
(16.4)
None
9
(31.0)
252
(44.0)
261
(43.3)
Unknown
0
17
17
Total
29
(100.0)
590
(100.0)
619
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 88. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Washington State highways by presence of median (2005–2008).

Presence of median

Number (percent) of crashes by presence of median

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Divided
5
(19.2)
183
(33.5)
188
(32.9)
Undivided
21
(80.8)
363
(66.5)
384
(67.1)
Unknown
3
44
47
Total
29
(100.0)
590
(100.0)
619
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 89. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Washington State highways by road surface condition (2005–2008).

Road surface condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Dry
21
(72.4)
412
(70.5)
433
(70.6)
Wet
7
(24.1)
135
(23.1)
142
(23.2)
Snow/slush
1
(3.4)
22
(3.8)
23
(3.8)
Ice
0
(0.0)
12
(2.1)
12
(2.0)
Sand/mud/dirt
0
(0.0)
1
(0.2)
1
(0.2)
Other
0
(0.0)
2
(0.3)
2
(0.3)
Unknown
0
6
6
Total
29
(100.0)
590
(100.0)
619
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 90. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Washington State highways by light condition (2005–2008).

Light condition

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Daylight
19
(65.6)
266
(45.5)
285
(46.4)
Dusk-dawn
2
(6.9)
23
(3.9)
25
(4.0)
Dark-street lights on
6
(20.7)
176
(30.0)
182
(29.6)
Dark-no street lights
2
(6.8)
120
(20.4)
122
(19.8)
Other
0
(0.0)
1
(0.2)
1
(0.2)
Unknown
0
4
4
Total
29
(100.0)
590
(100.0)
619
(100.0)

— Indicates count not included in calculation of percentage.
Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 91. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Washington State highways by day of the week (2005–2008).

Day of week

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
Sunday
0
(0.0)
78
(13.2)
78
(12.6)
Monday
4
(13.8)
79
(13.4)
83
(13.4)
Tuesday
5
(17.2)
67
(11.4)
72
(11.6)
Wednesday
5
(17.2)
77
(13.1)
82
(13.2)
Thursday
7
(24.1)
81
(13.7)
88
(14.2)
Friday
5
(17.2)
105
(17.8)
110
(17.8)
Saturday
3
(10.3)
103
(17.5)
106
(17.1)
Total
29
(100.0)
590
(100.0)
619
(100.0)

Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

Table 92. Midblock pedestrian crashes on Washington State highways by hour of the day (2005–2008).

Hour of day

Number (percent) of crashes by pedestrian location

Midblock crosswalk
Midblock roadway
Combined
12–12:59 am
0
(0.0)
22
(3.7)
22
(3.6)
1–1:59 am
1
(3.4)
18
(3.1)
19
(3.1)
2–2:59 am
0
(0.0)
22
(3.7)
22
(3.6)
3–3:59 am
1
(3.4)
8
(1.4)
9
(1.5)
4–4:59 am
0
(0.0)
13
(2.2)
13
(2.1)
5–5:59 am
0
(0.0)
13
(2.2)
13
(2.1)
6–6:59 am
1
(3.4)
13
(2.2)
14
(2.3)
7–7:59 am
1
(3.4)
16
(2.7)
17
(2.7)
8–8:59 am
1
(3.4)
18
(3.1)
19
(3.1)
9–9:59 am
0
(0.0)
17
(2.9)
17
(2.7)
10–10:59 am
0
(0.0)
11
(1.9)
11
(1.8)
11–11:59 am
2
(6.9)
23
(3.9)
25
(4.0)
Noon–12:59 pm
1
(3.4)
26
(4.4)
27
(4.4)
1–1:59 pm
2
(6.9)
21
(3.6)
23
(3.7)
2–2:59 pm
2
(6.9)
33
(5.6)
35
(5.7)
3–3:59 pm
4
(13.8)
30
(5.1)
34
(5.5)
4–4:59 pm
3
(10.3)
25
(4.2)
28
(4.5)
5–5:59 pm
5
(17.2)
51
(8.6)
56
(9.0)
6–6:59 pm
1
(3.4)
39
(6.6)
40
(6.5)
7–7:59 pm
3
(10.3)
38
(6.4)
41
(6.6)
8–8:59 pm
1
(3.4)
32
(5.4)
33
(5.3)
9–9:59 pm
0
(0.0)
32
(5.4)
32
(5.2)
10–10:59 pm
0
(0.0)
49
(8.3)
49
(7.9)
11–11:59 pm
0
(0.0)
20
(3.4)
20
(3.2)
Total
29
(100.0)
590
(100.0)
619
(100.0)

Column percentages may not appear to add to 100 percent due to rounding.

 

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