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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-06-95
Date: May 2006

Coordinated Freeway and Arterial Operations Handbook

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FOREWORD

Transportation agencies are realizing the importance of managing and operating transportation facilities to make the most of their existing capacity. Many agencies are successfully using traffic management strategies to operate freeways and arterials more efficiently. However, not many agencies are operating freeways and adjacent arterials together in a coordinated manner that treats these roadways as an interconnected traffic operations corridor rather than separate entities.

The purpose of the Coordinated Freeway and Arterial Operations Handbook is to provide direction, guidance, and recommendations on how to proactively and comprehensively coordinate freeway and adjacent arterial street operations together as a single, interconnected corridor. Agencies that make this shift from an agency perspective to systemwide perspective not only optimize traffic conditions on the overall corridor but on their own facilities as well.

The intended target audiences for this report are transportation professionals involved in the management, planning, engineering, design, and operations of traffic on freeway and arterial facilities. This includes managers, supervisors, planners, engineers, designers, and traffic operations staff.

Toni Wilbur
Director, Office of Operations Research and Development

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72)

1. Report No.

FHWA-HRT-06-095

2. Government Accession No.

3. Recipient's Catalog No.

4. Title and Subtitle

Coordinated Freeway And Arterial Operations Handbook

5. Report Date

May 2006

6. Performing Organization Code

7. Authors

Thomas Urbanik, David Humphreys, Brian Smith, and Steve Levine

8. Performing Organization Report No.

9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)
1710 SAIC Drive
M/S T1-12-3
McLean, VA 22102

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

11.   Contract or Grant No.

DTFH61-01-C-00180

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Operations Research and Development
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Final Report
June 2002-May 2006

14. Sponsoring Agency Code

15. Supplementary Notes

Mr. James Colyar, Contracting Officer's Task Manager

16. Abstract

Managing and operating freeways and adjacent arterials in a proactive and comprehensive manner, from a system user's perspective, is a major step toward operating all modes of the transportation system at maximum efficiency. The focus of this guide is on operating freeways and adjacent arterials together in a coordinated manner that treats these roadways not as separate entities, but as an interconnected traffic operations corridor.

The purpose of this document is to provide direction, guidance, and recommendations for transportation managers, engineers, and planners on how to proactively and comprehensively coordinate freeway and arterial street operations.

17. Key Words

arterial operations, freeway operations, regional operations, corridor operations, corridor management, traffic operations corridor

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public from: The National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

19. Security Classif. (of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classif. (of this page)

Unclassified

21. No of Pages

152

22. Price


SI* (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors


TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. 1. Introduction.
    1. 1.1 Purpose.
    2. 1.2 The Underlying Problem.
    3. 1.3 The Challenge of Coordinated Operations.
    4. 1.4 What is Coordinated Freeways and Arterials Operations?
      1. 1.4.1 The Need for CFA Operations.
      2. 1.4.2 Creating a Coordinated Operations Mindset
      3. 1.4.3 When To Implement CFA Operations.
    5. 1.5 Benefits of CFA Operations.
    6. 1.6 Document Organization.

  2. 2. Planning for Coordinated Operation of Traffic on Freeways and Arterials.
    1. 2.1 Purpose.
    2. 2.2 Introduction.
    3. 2.3 Regional-Level Planning and Coordination.
      1. 2.3.1 Developing a Regional Corridor Traffic Management Plan.
    4. 2.4 Corridor-Level Planning and Coordination.
      1. 2.4.1 Getting Started.
      2. 2.4.2 Decisionmaking.
      3. 2.4.3 Implementation.
      4. 2.4.4 Continuous Improvement
    5. 2.5 Summary.

  3. 3. A Framework For Coordinated Operations in a Corridor.
    1. 3.1 Purpose.
    2. 3.2 Introduction.
    3. 3.3 Step 1: Problem Identification.
    4. 3.4 Step 2: Institutional Considerations.
      1. 3.4.1 Identify Corridor Stakeholders.
      2. 3.4.2 Corridor Champions.
    5. 3.5 Step 3: Goals, Objectives, and Performance Measures.
    6. 3.6 Step 4: Corridor Concept of Operations.
    7. 3.7 Step 5: Corridor Scenarios and Operations Strategies.
      1. 3.7.1 Traveler Information.
      2. 3.7.2 Traffic Management and Control
      3. 3.7.3 Shared Information and Resources.
    8. 3.8 Step 6: Evaluation and Selection of Strategies.
    9. 3.9 Step 7: Corridor Implementation Plan.
    10. 3.10 Step 8: Design and Development
    11. 3.11 Step 9: Deployment
    12. 3.12 Step 10: Operations and Maintenance.
    13. 3.13 Step 11: Continuous Improvement
    14. 3.14 Summary.

  4. 4. Applying CFA Operations to Four Opportunity Areas.
    1. 4.1 Purpose.
    2. 4.2 Introduction.
    3. 4.3 Traffic Incident Management
      1. 4.3.1 Problem Identification.
      2. 4.3.2 Institutional Considerations.
      3. 4.3.3 Goals, Objectives, and Performance Measures.
      4. 4.3.4 Corridor Concept of Operations.
      5. 4.3.5 Corridor Scenarios and Operations Strategies.
      6. 4.3.6 Evaluation and Selection of Strategies.
      7. 4.3.7 Corridor Implementation Plan.
      8. 4.3.8 Design and Development
      9. 4.3.9 Deployment
      10. 4.3.10 Operations and Maintenance.
      11. 4.3.11 Continuous Improvement
    4. 4.4 Work Zone Management
      1. 4.4.1 Problem Identification.
      2. 4.4.2 Institutional Considerations.
      3. 4.4.3 Goals, Objectives, and Performance Measures.
      4. 4.4.4 Corridor Concept of Operations.
      5. 4.4.5 Corridor Scenarios and Operations Strategies.
      6. 4.4.6 Evaluation and Selection of Strategies.
      7. 4.4.7 Corridor Implementation Plan.
      8. 4.4.8 Design and Development
      9. 4.4.9 Deployment
      10. 4.4.10 Operations and Maintenance.
      11. 4.4.11 Continuous Improvement
    5. 4.5 Planned Special Events Management
      1. 4.5.1 Problem Identification.
      2. 4.5.2 Institutional Considerations.
      3. 4.5.3 Goals, Objectives, and Performance Measures.
      4. 4.5.4 Corridor Concept of Operations.
      5. 4.5.5 Corridor Scenarios and Operations Strategies.
      6. 4.5.6 Evaluation and Selection of Strategies.
      7. 4.5.7 Corridor Implementation Plan.
      8. 4.5.8 Design and Development
      9. 4.5.9 Deployment
      10. 4.5.10 Operations and Maintenance.
      11. 4.5.11 Continuous Improvement
    6. 4.6 Day-To-Day or Recurring Operations.
      1. 4.6.1 Problem Identification.
      2. 4.6.2 Institutional Considerations.
      3. 4.6.3 Goals, Objectives, and Performance Measures.
      4. 4.6.4 Corridor Concept of Operations.
      5. 4.6.5 Refinement of Scenarios and Improvement Strategies.
      6. 4.6.6 Evaluation and Selection of Strategies.
      7. 4.6.7 Corridor Implementation Plan.
      8. 4.6.8 Design and Development
      9. 4.6.9 Implementation.
      10. 4.6.10 Operations and Maintenance.
      11. 4.6.11 Continuous Improvement
    7. 4.7 Summary.

  5. 5. Supporting Technologies and ITS Elements.
    1. 5.1 Purpose.
    2. 5.2 Introduction.
    3. 5.3 Information Sharing.
    4. 5.4 Technology and ITS Elements.
      1. 5.4.1 Traffic Data Collection Systems.
      2. 5.4.2 Traffic Control Systems.
      3. 5.4.3 Information Dissemination Systems.
      4. 5.4.4 Communications Networks and Systems.
      5. 5.4.5 Data Analysis Systems.
      6. 5.4.6 ITS Architecture and Standards.
    5. 5.5 Summary.

  6. 6. Examples of CFA Operations.
    1. 6.1 Example 1: Developing Incident Management Route Diversion Strategies in Northern Virginia
      1. 6.1.1 Problem Identification.
      2. 6.1.2 Institutional Considerations.
      3. 6.1.3 Goals, Objectives, and Performance Measures.
      4. 6.1.4 Corridor Concept of Operations.
      5. 6.1.5 Corridor Scenarios and Operations Strategies.
      6. 6.1.6 Evaluation and Selection of Strategies.
      7. 6.1.7 Corridor Implementation Plan.
      8. 6.1.8 Design and Development
      9. 6.1.9 Deployment
      10. 6.1.10 Operations and Maintenance.
      11. 6.1.11 Continuous Improvement
      12. 6.1.12 Example Summary.
    2. 6.2 Example 2: Leveraging ITS Technologies to Enhance CFA Operations.
      1. 6.2.1 Major Incident Without Leveraging ITS Technologies.
      2. 6.2.2 Major Incident With Leveraging ITS Technologies.
    3. 6.3 Summary.

  7. Appendix: ITS Technology Inventory, Needs Assessment, and Integration.

  8. References

LIST OF FIGURES

  1. Figure 1. Chart. Increase in congestion in the past 20 years in the largest U.S. cities.
  2. Figure 2. Chart. Sources of traffic congestion.
  3. Figure 3. Chart. Relationship between regional and local functions.
  4. Figure 4. Chart. Elements of regional collaboration and coordination.
  5. Figure 5. Chart. Example of integrating regional and local processes.
  6. Figure 6. Chart. The coordinated freeway and arterial (CFA) operations framework.
  7. Figure 7. Chart. Questions addressed by a concept of operations document.
  8. Figure 8. Photo. Sample DMS message.
  9. Figure 9. Photo. Uncoordinated arterial signals can cause reduced effectiveness of ramp metering on freeways.
  10. Figure 10. Photo. Dynamic lane assignment on an arterial.
  11. Figure 11. Photo. A freeway TMC collects and shares information from many sources.
  12. Figure 12. Chart. Example of development of corridor operations plans.
  13. Figure 13. Chart. Example of development of corridor operations procedures.
  14. Figure 14. Chart. Example of identifying field equipment responsibilities.
  15. Figure 15. Photo. Traffic signal maintenance crew at work.
  16. Figure 16. Chart. Example of operations plans and procedures for incident management scenarios.
  17. Figure 17. Chart. Integration of planned special event management phases.
  18. Figure 18. Chart. Stakeholders who may be involved in planned special events.
  19. Figure 19. Chart. Traveler interface with technology systems.
  20. Figure 20. Drawing. Map of project area.
  21. Figure 21. Chart. Off-peak strategy alternatives.
  22. Figure 22. Chart. Peak strategy alternatives.
  23. Figure 23. Chart. A major urban area situated along a navigable river with multiple east-west bridge crossings.

LIST OF TABLES

  1. Table 1. Characteristics of a coordinated operations mindset.
  2. Table 2. Benefits of CFA operations.
  3. Table 3. Overview of document chapters.
  4. Table 4. Candidate stakeholder organizations or agencies.
  5. Table 5. Example of goals and objectives for corridor operations.
  6. Table 6. Developing detailed corridor operations scenarios.
  7. Table 7. Example objectives for work zones.
  8. Table 8. Example operations strategies for work zones.
  9. Table 9. Example corridor operations plan for freeway work zone.
  10. Table 10. Example strategies for mitigating special event congestion.
  11. Table 11 Special event operations plan checklist
  12. Table 12. Example objectives for day-to-day operations.
  13. Table 13. Example objectives for day-to-day operations.
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