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REPORT
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
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Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-16-007    Date:  January 2016
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-16-007
Date: January 2016

 

Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP) Program Protocols, Version 1

Long-Term Bridge Performance Program Logo

Bridge Construction Records
LTBP Protocol #: PRE-ED-BD-002


1.

Data Collected

 
1.1 Data and information related to the original construction of the structure, including details as well as material specifications and shop drawings.  

2.

Onsite Equipment and Personnel Requirements

 
2.1 Equipment:  
2.1.1 Computer.  
2.1.2 Scanner.  
2.2 Personnel: PRE-PL-LO-005, Personnel Qualifications.  

3.

Methodology

 
3.1 Work with the bridge owner to identify and obtain construction records, shop drawings, State material specifications, and other details for the following:  
3.1.1 Bridge as a whole (data collection table items 8–10).  
3.1.2 Reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete girders (data collection table items 11–19).  
3.1.3 Steel girders (data collection table items 20–27).  
3.1.4 Deck (data collection table items 28–38).  
3.1.5 Substructure: abutments, piers, wingwalls, and footings (data collection table items 39–89).  
3.2 If the bridge information exists only in paper form, scan that information into an electronic format so it can be stored in the Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP) Bridge Portal.  
3.3 Extract the following information from the documents from section 3.1:  
3.3.1 Construction type.  
3.3.2 Contract type.  
3.3.3 Actual concrete strengths, curing times, and curing methods for reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete bridge members.  
3.3.4 Coating and welding information for steel bridge members.  
3.3.5 Pile driving information (if applicable).  
3.4 Ambient temperatures and wind speeds during construction (if available).  
3.5 Storing data, documents, and images:  
3.5.1 FLD-DS-LS-001, Data, Document, and Image Storage—Local, for local storage.  
3.5.2 FLD-DS-RS-001, Data, Document, and Image Storage—Remote, for remote storage.  
3.6 Reporting: Transfer all metadata, data, documents, and images to Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and/or upload all metadata, data, documents, and images into the LTBP Bridge Portal.  

4.

Data Collection Table

 
4.1 Table:  
# Field Name Data Type Accuracy Unit Field Description Row Color
1 State Text     State Code, e.g., Virginia = VA Green
2 NBI structure number Text     Item 8, structure number, from NBI Coding Guide Green
3 Structure name Text     Descriptive name for the bridge, e.g., Route 15 SB over I–66 Green
4 Protocol name Text     Title of the protocol Green
5 Protocol version Text Month and year   Month and year the protocol version was published; e.g., May 2015 Green
6 Personnel performing data collection activities Text     First name(s) Last name(s) Green
7 Date data collected Text Exact date   mm/dd/yyyy Green
Whole Bridge Pink
8 Type of construction Predefined list Text   Select all that apply:
  • Conventional construction.
  • Accelerated bridge construction (ABC) using bridge slide.
  • ABC using self-propelled modular transporters.
  • ABC using geosynthetic reinforced soil walls/abutments.
Yellow
9 Type of contract Predefined list Text   Select all that apply:
  • Design-bid-build.
  • Design-build.
  • Public-private partnership.
  • Construction manager/general contractor (CM/GC).
Yellow
10 Construction documents BLOB     Upload all documents supplying information on construction of the bridge Yellow
Reinforced Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Girders Pink
11 State concrete specification used for girder concrete Text     Name and year of State material specification used for the bridge Yellow
12 Girder curing type Predefined list     Ambient air
Steam
High temperature
Moist cure
Unknown
Yellow
13 Girder curing time Number 0.25 hours Time from first curing application to end of curing Yellow
14 Ambient air temperature at placement of girder concrete Number 1 ºF   Yellow
15 Ambient wind speed at placement of girder concrete Number 2 mph   Yellow
16 Actual girder concrete compressive strength at 28 days Number 50 psi   Yellow
17 For pretensioned girders, actual concrete compressive strength at detensioning Number 50 psi   Yellow
18 For pretensioned girders, age at detensioning Number 1 hours   Yellow
19 Comments Text       Orange
Steel Girders Pink
20 Type of welding used Predefined list     Shielded metal arc welding
Submerged arc welding
Flux core arc welding
Gas metal arc welding
Narrow gap improved electroslag welding
Unknown welding
No welding
Yellow
21 Location of welding Predefined list     Shop
Bridge site
Unknown
No welding
Yellow
22 Protective system used Predefined list     Select all that apply:
  • One-coat paint/coating system.
  • Two-coat paint/coating system.
  • Three-coat paint/coating system.
  • Galvanized.
  • Weathering steel.
  • Unknown.
Yellow
23 Location of paint/coating system application Predefined list     Select all that apply:
  • Shop.
  • Field.
  • No paint used.
  • Unknown.
Yellow
24 Type of primer Predefined list     Organic zinc
Inorganic zinc
Other
No primer used
Unknown
Yellow
25 Type of paint/coating for second coat Text       Yellow
26 Type of paint/coating for third coat Text       Yellow
27 Comments Text       Orange
Specific Deck Information Pink
28 Type of deck construction List     Cast-in-place concrete
Precast concrete partial-depth panels
Precast concrete full-depth panels
Pretopped girder with precast concrete deck
Yellow
29 Sequence of deck pours BLOB     Upload document, diagram, or write the sequence used for cast-in-place concrete decks. Yellow
30 State concrete specification used for deck Text     Name and year of State material specification used for the bridge Yellow
31 Deck curing type Predefined list     Select all that apply:
  • Ambient air.
  • Steam.
  • High temperature.
  • Moist cure.
  • Curing compound.
  • Sprinkler with burlap.
  • Plastic sheets.
  • Wet burlap.
  • Unknown.
Yellow
32 Deck curing time Number 3 hours Time from first curing application to end of curing Yellow
33 Ambient air temperature at placement of deck concrete Number 1 ºF   Yellow
34 Ambient wind speed at placement of deck concrete Number 2 mph   Yellow
35 Actual deck concrete compressive strength at 28 days Number 50 psi   Yellow
36 Type of formwork used for deck Predefined list     Removable plywood forms
Stay-in-place wood forms
Stay-in-place metal forms
Prestressed concrete subdeck panels
None
Yellow
37 Type of sealer applied at time of deck construction Predefined list     None
Silane
Siloxane
Other
Unknown
Yellow
38 Comments Text       Orange
Abutments Pink
39 Abutment unique element identifier Text       Blue
40 Pile placement method Predefined list     Driven pile
Jetted pile
Excavated drilled shaft
No piles/drilled shafts
Unknown foundation
Yellow

41
Pile driving data—maximum blow count Number 1     Yellow
42 Pile driving data—minimum blow count Number 1     Yellow
43 Pile driving data—average blow count Number 1     Yellow
44 Pile driving data—maximum cutoff length Number 1     Yellow
45 Pile driving data—minimum cutoff length Number 1     Yellow
46 Pile driving data—average cutoff length Number 1     Yellow
47 State concrete specification used for abutment Text       Yellow
48 Abutment curing type Predefined list     Name and year of State material specification used for the bridge Yellow
49 Abutment curing time Number 3 hours Select all that apply:
  • Ambient air.
  • Steam.
  • High temperature.
  • Moist cure.
  • Curing compound.
  • Sprinkler with burlap.
  • Plastic sheets.
  • Wet burlap.
  • Unknown.
Yellow
50 Ambient air temperature at placement Number 1 ºF   Yellow
51 Actual abutment concrete compressive strength at 28 days Number 50 psi   Yellow
52 Comments Text       Orange
Piers Pink
53 Pier unique element identifier Text       Blue
54 Pile placement method Predefined list     Driven pile
Jetted pile
Excavated drilled shaft
No piles/drilled shafts
Unknown foundation
Yellow
55 Pile driving data—maximum blow count Number 1     Yellow
56 Pile driving data— minimum blow count Number 1     Yellow
57 Pile driving data— average blow count Number 1     Yellow
58 Pile driving data—maximum cutoff length Number 1     Yellow
59 Pile driving data— minimum cutoff length Number 1     Yellow
60 Pile driving data—average cutoff length Number 1     Yellow
61 State concrete specification used for pier Text     Name and year of State material specification used for the bridge. Yellow
62 Pier curing type Predefined list     Select all that apply:
  • Ambient air.
  • Steam.
  • High temperature.
  • Moist cure.
  • Curing compound.
  • Sprinkler with burlap.
  • Plastic sheets.
  • Wet burlap.
  • Unknown.
Yellow
63 Pier curing time Number 3 hours Time from first curing application to end of curing. Yellow
64 Ambient air temperature at placement Number 1 ºF   Yellow
65 Actual pier concrete compressive strength at 28 days Number 50 psi   Yellow
66 Comments Text       Orange
Wingwalls Pink
67 Wingwall unique element identifier         Blue
68 Pile placement method Predefined list     Driven pile
Jetted pile
Excavated drilled shaft
No piles/drilled shafts
Unknown foundation
Yellow
69 Pile driving data—maximum blow count Number 1     Yellow
70 Pile driving data—minimum blow count Number 1     Yellow
71 Pile driving data—average blow count Number 1     Yellow
72 Pile driving data—maximum cutoff length Number 1     Yellow
73 Pile driving data—minimum cutoff length Number 1     Yellow
74 Pile driving data—average cutoff length Number 1     Yellow
75 State concrete specification used for wingwall Text       Yellow
76 Wingwall curing type Predefined list     Name and year of State material specification used for the bridge Yellow
77 Wingwall curing time Number 3 hours Select all that apply:
  • Ambient air.
  • Steam.
  • High temperature.
  • Moist cure.
  • Curing compound.
  • Sprinkler with burlap.
  • Plastic sheets.
  • Wet burlap.
  • Unknown.
Yellow
78 Ambient air temperature at placement of wingwall Number 1 ºF   Yellow
79 Ambient wind speed at placement of wingwall Number 2 mph   Yellow
80 Actual wingwall concrete compressive strength at 28 days Number 50 psi   Yellow
81 Comments Text       Orange
Footings Pink
82 Footing unique element identifier         Blue
83 State concrete specification used for footing Text       Yellow
84 Footing curing type Predefined list     Name and year of State material specification used for the bridge. Yellow
85 Footing curing time Number 3 hours Select all that apply:
  • Ambient air.
  • Steam.
  • High temperature.
  • Moist cure.
  • Curing compound.
  • Sprinkler with burlap.
  • Plastic sheets.
  • Wet burlap.
  • Unknown.
Yellow
86 Ambient air temperature at placement of abutment Number 1 ºF   Yellow
87 Ambient wind speed at placement of footing Number 2 mph   Yellow
88 Actual footing concrete compressive strength at 28 days Number 50 psi   Yellow
89 Comments Text       Orange
4.2 Table Key:  
Column Descriptions
# Sequential number of data item
Field Name Data field name
Data Type Type of data, such as text, number, predefined list, binary large object (BLOB), or PDF file
Accuracy Accuracy to which the data are recorded
Unit Unit in which a measurement is taken and recorded
Field Description Commentary on the data or list of items in a predefined list
Row Color Key
Green Data items only entered once for each protocol for each day the protocol is applied
Pink Logical breakdown of data by elements or defect types (not always used)
Blue Data identifying the element being evaluated or the type of defect being identified
Yellow LTBP data reported individually for each element or defect identified
Orange Comments on the data collection or data entered

5.

Criteria for Data Validation

 
5.1 Data extracted from bridge documents should be checked by a second (independent) person.  
5.2 Where feasible, data will be validated using standard error checking within the Bridge Portal.  

6.

Commentary/Background

 
6.1 This protocol provides guidance for collecting data that define the conditions under which the structure was built, details of the placement and curing of concrete elements, details of welding and coating systems for steel bridge members, and results of tests that were conducted on the materials during and immediately after construction.  
6.2 A drilled shaft is a high load capacity foundation unit that consists of a cylindrical drilled hole, a steel reinforcement cage and cast-in-place concrete that takes the place of multiple driven or cast-in-place piles.  
6.3 After placement and finishing, concrete hardens and develops its final properties through a process called hydration, which occurs when water and portland cement are mixed. In order for concrete to develop the desired properties, a satisfactory moisture content and temperature in the concrete is necessary. Curing is a general term for the method used to maintain that moisture content and temperature during hydration. Depending on the concrete member being cured, there may be more than one method of curing that can be used:  
6.3.1 Ambient air – In this method, the temperature and level of humidity in the surrounding air maintain the proper curing conditions.  
6.3.2 High temperature – This involves subjecting concrete to higher temperatures to accelerate the hydration process, resulting in faster development of strength. Concrete cannot be subjected to dry heat to accelerate the hydration process as the presence of moisture is also an essential requisite. Therefore, subjecting the concrete to higher temperature and maintaining the required wetness can be achieved by subjecting the concrete to steam curing.  
6.3.3 Moist cure – This can be achieved with water by immersing the element, ponding water on the top of a horizontal or by spraying water on the surface of a horizontal or vertical surface.  
6.3.4 Curing compounds – These are materials that are applied to the fresh concrete and which provide a membrane that retards or reduces evaporation of moisture from the concrete.  
6.3.5 Plastic sheets or impervious papers – These are two materials that can be applied to seal in the moisture in the concrete while hydration proceeds. This type of curing generally does not require periodic additions of water.  
6.3.6 Wet burlap curing – This maintains the proper moisture content by preventing evaporation of the water in the concrete. It also provides some cooling through evaporation of the water in the burlap, which is helpful in hot weather. Wet burlap curing is often augmented by sprinkling water on the burlap to maintain a continuous level of moisture in the burlap.  
6.4 Coatings for protection of structural steel from corrosion are applied in two different settings:  
6.4.1 Shop-applied coatings – Applied at the steel fabrication plant where surface preparation can be done in an enclosed environment and where temperature and humidity can be controlled, and the ergonomics of applying the coating can be optimized.  
6.4.2 Field-applied coatings – Applied to the steel member, usually at the construction site; compared to shop-applied coatings, a lesser degree of control over the environment, temperature, humidity, and ergonomics is normal.  
6.5 Developing the strength of concrete is a function of not only time but also that of temperature.

When concrete is subjected to higher temperatures, it accelerates the hydration process, resulting in faster development of strength. Concrete cannot be subjected to dry heat to accelerate the hydration process as the presence of moisture is also an essential requisite. Therefore, subjecting the concrete to a higher temperature and maintaining the required wetness can be achieved by subjecting the concrete to steam curing.
 

7.

References

 
7.1 LTBP Protocols:  
7.1.1 PRE-PL-LO-005, Personnel Qualifications.  
7.1.2 FLD-DS-LS-001, Data, Document, and Image Storage—Local.  
7.1.3 FLD-DS-RS-001, Data, Document, and Image Storage—Remote.  
7.2 External:  
7.2.1 FHWA-NHI-12-053, Bridge Inspector’s Reference Manual, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2012.  
7.2.2 State materials specifications for State and year that bridge was constructed.  

 

 

 

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