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Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-17-026    Date:  March 2017
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-17-026
Date: March 2017


State of The Practice for Shoulder and Center Line Rumble Strip Implementation on Non-Freeway Facilities


Appendix A includes the verbatim list of questions provided to the five State transportation departments and FHWA’s EFL. The project team provided the questions in advance for review. ConnDOT, TxDOT, and FHWA’s EFL provided direct responses to each of the questions. For all departments, the questions were used to drive the discussion during the interview. Questions were categorized into the following categories:



  1. How would you characterize your State’s need for a rumble strip application tool?

  2. What would be some preferred characteristics in terms of tool platform and functionality?

  3. Do you have a policy for using shoulder, edge line, and/or centerline rumble strips on rural, two-lane, two-way roadways? If yes:

    1. Do you install on a case-by-case basis?
    2. On resurfacing projects are rumble strips a consideration/mandatory?
    3. Do you have a program to install rumble strips separate from paving projects?
    4. Under what conditions and circumstances does your State consider rumble strips? Are lower-cost delineation enhancements (e.g., signage and/or striping strategies) always considered first?

  4. Does your State require a certain speed limit, or width of roadway for shoulder rumble strip and/or centerline rumble strip application?

  5. Do you have a minimum shoulder width or remaining shoulder width beyond the rumble strip for use of shoulder or edge line rumble strips? If so, would you consider them facilities with lesser shoulders if there was a history of roadway departure crashes?

  6. Would you consider narrower length (4-inch to 6-inch) rumble strips?

  7. Does crash history dictate implementation of rumble strips? Is there a specific level of crash history and is there an expected level of crash reduction considered?

  8. Has your State faced issues that had necessitated removal of rumble strips? How have you revamped your policies to continue the rumble strip program?


  1. What are the effects of rumble strip installation on existing roadways especially regarding the pavement deterioration?

  2. Does your State have a specific policy regarding pavement condition prior to rumble strip installation? If so, how is pavement condition assessed? If pavement condition is not adequate, are any modifications made to allow for installation?

  3. Do you have a minimum offset specification for longitudinal joints or edge of pavement?

  4. Does your State allow for raised rumble strips? If so, how does your State consider using raised rumble strips versus milled rumble strips? What is the lifecycle cost, pavement service life, and service life of raised rumble strips?

  5. Do you have guidelines with rumble strips regarding snow removal, or have weather related issues due to excess rain and hydroplaning? Are rumble strips implemented in areas of bad weather for guidance when visibility is poor?

  6. Have you experienced debris collecting in the rumble strips?

  7. Do you use fog seal when applying rumble strips? Does the fog seal enhance the rumble strip longevity/performance? Is the fog seal a hindrance during application? Does the fog seal show any positive return results? Is it only an issue when the pavement marking is located directly over top of the rumble strip?

  8. Do you install rumble strips on open-graded friction course (OGFC) pavements? If so, what are the impacts?

  9. Are there any pavement types where rumble strips are not used? Is there a difference for new installations versus existing pavement?

  10. Has your State ever researched the use of one-sided rumble strips? If so how might they be used or implemented in your State?

  11. What is your centerline rumble strip policy for passing zones? Has safety been analyzed in regards to centerline rumble strips for passing zones?

  12. Does your State have an AADT threshold for installation of a centerline rumble strip? Does your State have an AADT threshold for installation of shoulder rumble strips?

  13. Does your State have a policy regarding edge line rumble stripes? How do you decide when to use edge line rumble stripes or to offset the rumble strips on the shoulder?

  14. Does your State have any specific criteria for installing centerline and shoulder rumble strips in combination?

  15. Do you have any policies in place for gaps in the rumble strip pattern other than for bicyclists? For example, do you have gaps for passing zones, at driveways, intersections, or on the inside of horizontal curves?

  16. Do you install rumble strips on bridge decks? If so, how are rumble strips installed?

Bicyclist Accommodations

  1. How does your State accommodate bicyclists? Are bicyclists considered for every shoulder rumble strip installation or only when bicyclists are expected? Do you have separate standards for bicycle locations and non-bicycle locations?

  2. Does your State provide gaps for bicyclists? If so, what pattern do you use (e.g., 12 ft every 60 ft)?

  3. Do you have a minimum shoulder width specified for bicyclists? Does this differ from the required minimum shoulder width if bicyclists are not expected?

  4. How do you address bicycle outreach? Are there any outspoken bicyclist or motorcycle unions that have input into your policies?

  5. Do you consider alternative designs for areas with potential bicyclist concerns? For example, would you consider a shorter length, shorter depth, or an alternative pattern (e.g., sinusoidal design)?

Noise Policy

  1. Does your State struggle with noise complaints, despite outreach prior to installation? If so, how do you address these complaints? What public outreach did you perform before the installation of rumble strips?

  2. Does your State have distance criteria from residences? If so, is the criteria based on expected noise level or is it a pre-defined distance?

  3. In regards to hamlets (small villages along a rural corridor), what are your equivalent policies/procedures regarding installation adjacent to residential areas?

  4. Has your State found that rumble strips impact nearby wildlife?

  5. If nearby noise is within an acceptable limit (specified in question 2), how do you address the public due to the different type of noise that the rumble strips produce?

  6. Has your State conducted noise studies? How do you apply the findings to rumble strips?

  7. Do you consider alternative designs for areas with potential noise concerns? For example, would you consider a shorter length, shorter depth, or an alternative pattern (e.g., sinusoidal design)?


  1. What outreach has your agency conducted prior to installation? Who has the outreach targeted (e.g., motorcycle groups, bicycle croups, neighborhoods)?

  2. What methods have you used to gain upper management/elected officials approval/buy-in?

  3. What type of material do you use to gain public acceptance and perceptions regarding rumble strips? Flyers, informative videos, DOT Web site dedicated to rumble strip information
    and installation?

  4. How do you sell rumble strips in residential areas with documented crash histories?



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