Fostering Innovation Interstate Route H-1 Viaduct Improvements
3. Skill Set Recommendations
The construction team discussed the options available to HDOT and
made the following recommendations:
- Identify existing conditions.
- Discuss viable options.
- List advantages and disadvantages.
- Evaluate chloride content throughout the entire depth of the deck.
- Determine the extent of crack depth.
- Determine the extent of delamination and the relative quantities.
- Assess the depth of steel before scarifying.
- Evaluate other issues as determined by structures.
- Avoid patching and polymer overlay because of short service life.
- Avoid widening because of cost and environmental concerns.
- Do not recommend half-depth reconstruction because of cost,
service life uncertainties and the good condition of the existing deck.
- Scarify deck to required depth (hydro-milling, roto-milling, micro-milling).
- Consider making hydro-demolition a requirement.
- Do patching concurrent with overlay.
- Increase deck thickness by one inch or more.
- Based on traffic splits, detour traffic from off-peak direction onto
- Consider daily shift of peak traffic to viaduct and lesser traffic to
- Give contractor full use of viaduct under repair.
- Use conventional construction techniques and materials.
- Consider the impact of other factors, such as:
- Zipper median coordination.
- Labor force (both contractor and State). HDOT needs to look
at staffing levels in terms of inspections, overtime and timely
- Staging areas.
- Public transportation/diversion.
- Traffic counts.
Pearl City and Waimalu Viaduct
- Remove median barrier.
- Create traffic lanes 11 feet wide. This would provide 10 travel
lanes with 20 to 22 feet of work area.
- Phase from outer lanes in.
- Provide for zipper lane coordination, including temporary traffic
- Remember that the additional inbound lane will not be
available when working in the median area.
- Address overpass center piers.
3.2. Innovative Contracting
The innovative contracting group began by discussing the assumptions
underlying their recommendations and then proceeded with their
Assumptions Underlying Recommendations
- HDOT is looking for a long-term solution, not just a crack sealing and patch.
- The Airport Viaduct rehabilitation cost estimate is $50 million.
- A single project is desirable for financing and traffic management purposes.
Recommended Funding Tools
- Consider using Transportation Infrastructure Finance and
Innovation Act (TIFIA) funds.
- Note that there is a $50 million project cost threshold.
- Can finance up to 33 percent of eligible costs.
- Fund with Grant Anticipation Revenue Vehicle (GARVEE) or other bonds.
- Look at joint development agreements for the right-of-way
(ROW) under the viaducts.
- Investigate Highways for LIFE (HfL) financing options.
- Can apply for a 20 percent grant up to $5 million (100
percent Federal share).
- Solicit stakeholder contributions, i.e., Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA), Navy, Air Force, etc.
- Consider private sector financing with private activity bonds
- Combine with availability/performance payments.
- Take advantage of depreciation tax benefits.
- Package as a single project to make it more attractive to the
- Implement user fees or high occupancy toll (HOT) lanes.
- Might require State legislation.
- Requires Federal approval under a value pricing pilot
program (VPPP) or a similar Interstate tolling pilot program
under SAFETEA-LU, the Safe, Accountable, Flexible,
Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users.
- Will be challenging politically.
- Hold bake sale (Malasadas/Shaved Ice/Zippy's chili/Huli Huli chicken).
Recommended Procurement Options
- Consider A-plus-B or A-plus-B-plus-C contracting, where C is a
quality parameter, a maintenance option, etc.
- Utilize a two-step process that consists of short listing qualified
contractors and reviewing their proposals.
- Rate proposals utilizing best-value factors, such as:
- Traffic management.
- Price/contractor financing/life cycle costs.
- Public information/public relations.
- Accept alternative technical concepts (ATCs).
Recommended Contracting Tools
- Recommend a single contract versus multiple contracts.
- Must maintain the option of removing segments from the
contract without termination costs. This would provide extra
time for financing individual segments and allow HDOT to
control the funding/cash flow.
- Allows for coordination of construction.
- Provides risk transference.
- Provides efficiencies of scale.
- Utilize D-B or Design-Build-Maintain.
- Offers advantageous approach for performance goals.
- Enables State to accelerate construction.
- Offers a fixed price.
- Transfers risk to contractor.
- Implement a long-term maintenance agreement: it offers the
quality hook as well as life cycle cost efficiencies.
- Include performance specifications in the areas of traffic
management, quality and life cycle efficiency.
- Provide incentives and disincentives in the following areas:
- Traffic management.
- Lane closures/liquidated damages/lane rentals.
- Shared contingency for change orders.
- Value engineering (VE).
- Public relations/consumer satisfaction.
Other Contracting Issues
- Set up a lump sum contract with schedule-based progress
payments. HDOT inspectors would not be required to verify
- Ensure adherence to all permitting requirements: HDOT
bears the responsibility for National Environmental Policy Act
- Address ROW issues early.
- Provide adequate construction staging areas. HDOT is
responsible for acquisition of temporary property rights and
- Deal with utilities early. Note: this is not much of an issue, as
responsibility falls on the contractor to address this.
- Coordinate with other contractors on potential alternate routes.
- Provide a streamlined contract administration and oversight
processes that includes the following:
- Alternative dispute resolution.
- Dedicated staff.
- Escrowed pricing documents.
- Include quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) specifications.
- Make the contractor responsible through ISO 9000 or an
- Have an independent QA/QC firm report directly to HDOT.
- Have HDOT be responsible for verification testing/audits.
3.3. Traffic Engineering/Safety/ITS
The traffic engineering/safety/ITS skill set offered the following
- Collect traffic data and build a traffic model immediately.
- Use the model to estimate traffic impacts for the various
- Use graphical outputs for public relations and decision makers.
Traffic Performance Goals
- Set realistic goals early, both for during and after construction.
- Manage the public's expectations.
- Establish responsibility for meeting traffic performance goals.
- Determine how to measure these performance goals.
- Determine the appropriate remedy if the performance goals are not met.
Demand Management Alternatives
- Maximize transit use.
- Make existing transit more attractive by making it free or
subsidizing it during construction, by offering wireless fidelity
(WiFi) or by making it more comfortable.
- Institute a public information campaign to promote transit.
- Improve travel time reliability.
- Give transit vehicles preferential treatment at signalized
intersections on parallel routes.
- Think long-term, not just for construction.
- Construct temporary bus bays.
- Promote rideshare.
- Consider changing high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes from
two-plus to three-plus.
- Promote HOV during construction.
- Provide more secure park and ride facilities.
- Promote telecommuting and/or flexible commuter work schedules.
Traffic Management During and After Construction
- Use existing and portable devices (closed circuit television, or
CCTV, and detection) to monitor traffic during construction.
- Install permanent devices (CCTV and detection instruments) for
100 percent coverage.
- Install variable message signs (VMS) early for use during and
- Coordinate with the City, H-3 traffic management center (TMC)
and construction field office.
- Maintain communication to ITS devices during construction.
- Coordinate work effort with police, emergency management
system (EMS) and fire.
- Form a project incident management team.
- Detect and remove incidents quickly.
- Utilize a freeway service patrol.
- Provide rapid towing capability.
- Provide access for emergency services.
- Use existing City/State TMC to disseminate traffic information.
- Coordinate and support public information staff.
- Provide an up-to-date hotline for real time information.
- Create a project web site.
- Provide accurate travel time information.
Construction Phasing and Staging
- Designate a corridor traffic manager.
- Consolidate small projects into one large project.
- Coordinate the construction schedule with projects on alternate routes.
- Consider spot improvements on alternate routes.
- Allow directional-specific lane closures on the basis of actual traffic flow.
- Consider both the traveling public and the workers onsite.
- Ensure safety for the workers by utilizing barriers and intrusion
alarms and by providing safe access to the work site.
- Ensure the safety of the traveling public by providing safe
access and by not violating the public's expectations.
- Supply ample education and training.
3.4. Public Relations
The public relations teams offered the following suggestions:
- Create a vision for the future of the corridor.
- Establish a communications budget that comprises one percent
of the project's construction funds.
- Conduct market research to determine the audience and their
needs and concerns.
- Develop a strategic marketing plan.
- Build support for the project corridor.
Primary Communications Tactics
- Establish the project management team.
- Hire a communications firm.
- Dedicate a full-time community liaison for the corridor.
- Brand the corridor, i.e., "There's only one H-1."
- Utilize traditional and grassroots marketing efforts to "match the
audience with the message."
- Utilize mailings, a project web site, news releases, paid
placements, a project hotline, electronic message boards, etc.
- Attend community meetings and utilize legislative outreach,
community walk-throughs, door hangers, posters, church
bulletins/community newsletters, word-of-mouth.
- Incorporate TV coverage and work with radio and newspaper
reporters; editorial boards and traffic reporters.
Additional Communications Tactics
- Seek Federal or other funding sources for public relations (PR)
- Involve City and County officials in developing the traffic
- Utilize marketing promotions, i.e., art/school contests, grocery
bags showing project details, poster contests, a State fair booth,
- Incentivize customer satisfaction.
- Provide level of service (LOS) bonuses to the contractor.
- Market transportation alternatives through incentives, i.e., bus
subsidies, carpool incentives, NU-Ride Program, Guaranteed
Ride Home Program, etc.
- Solicit third party and celebrity endorsements.
- Remember to communicate with the internal (HDOT) audience.
- Celebrate project milestones.
- Use a countdown to completion.
- Conduct surveys to determine the effectiveness of HDOT
messages. Adjust HDOT's messages and methods as needed.
- Nominate the project for awards.
Additional Corridor Needs
- Provide access for emergency services personnel throughout construction.
- Work with internal and external partners to develop a congestion mitigation plan.
- Require the contractor to hire a private tow service.
Remember: communicate, communicate, communicate and
collaborate, collaborate, collaborate!
The structures/geotechnical/materials group identified what they
considered to be key issues along the corridor and made their
- Most cracks are shallow (less than one and a half inches deep).
- The actual causes are not known at this time.
- Bridge joints.
- The spacing of the existing joints is 200 feet plus or minus.
- Most of the joints are leaking.
- The long-term deterioration of the beam ends and piers is a concern.
- All repair options should address the joints.
- HDOT needs to try and minimize the number of joints, if possible.
- Investigate the cause of the cracking.
- Perform a survey and take field samples.
- Perform a petrographic analysis (alkali-silica reaction or
ASR, sulfate, w/c ratio, carbonation, segregation).
- Take full-depth cores through the cracks and the rebar at
good locations as well as bad.
- Do half-cell potential testing to check active corrosion.
- Once the cause is known, identify proper repair methods.
- Look into possible repair materials.
- Survey repair methods from other States/countries.
- Investigate previous research projects.
- Investigate potential suppliers.
- Investigate required material properties.
- Perform field testing.
- Consider a crack seal and patch.
- Seal cracks with methacrylate crack sealer or equivalent.
- Patch the delaminated areas.
- Provides a low cost alternative.
- Allows for overnight construction.
- Has a low probability of long-term success.
- Consider for Waimalu Viaduct to delay the deck rehabilitation project.
- Do a thin bonded overlay.
- Does not require partial deck removal.
- Patch delaminated areas and repair existing patches.
- Place a thin polyester overlay that is less than one inch thick
(can be less than half an inch thick).
- Need to consider long-term durability: it is a concern.
- Do a patch and overlay.
- Remove the concrete to the top of the rebar (entire deck).
- Patch isolated areas.
- Perform a full width overlay, adding approximately one inch
to the existing deck thickness (a one-and-a-half-inch to two-inch total overlay).
- Use low water content concrete with quality curing methods (a seven-day minimum curing time).
- Ensure that material is compatible with existing deck concrete.
- Offers the best benefit to cost ratio.
- Consider a full-depth deck replacement (either cast-in-place or precast).
- Is the best option for long-term durability.
- Probably not warranted in this case: the existing deck is not
in bad condition overall.
- Utilize overnight lane closures.
- Not desirable for a long-term repair.
- Consider weekend lane closures.
- Minimizes the time needed for a quality repair.
- Consider local streets, advanced warning, public involvement
and truck detours.
- Need to improve local roads prior to bridge construction.
- Think about long-term closure.
- Provides the best option for a high-quality repair.
- Need to decide how this could be done.
- Build the bridge (two-plus lanes wide) over the existing deck to
support traffic over the work area. A temporary bridge to the
side of the existing bridge is not considered viable because of
- Need to check the structural capacity of the existing bridge.
- Can establish a full-time work area without disrupting traffic.
- Allows for longer term curing of concrete.
- Can establish a work area of one or more spans at a time.
- Can advance the bridge forward as work is complete. Need
to determine the best way to advance the bridge from span to span.
- Need to maintain six to eight feet of vertical clearance
underneath the bridge.
- Need to support the temporary bridge at the existing piers.
- Need approaches to the temporary bridge with a maximum three
percent additional/supplemental grade.
- Design for lower-speed traffic, and close the temporary bridge
during non-peak hours.
The environmental group stated that decisions should be made to
avoid environmental impacts. If such impacts cannot be avoided,
HDOT must incorporate all feasible and reasonable measures to
minimize these impacts. With this in mind, they made the following
- Process as a categorical exclusion (CE).
- Coordinate with resource agencies early and often.
- Establish an interdisciplinary project development team to make
- Establish stakeholder advisory committee(s) that include
community representatives (residents, business owners, etc.).
Their role would be to provide input to the project development team.
- Develop a construction noise policy that balances the need to
maintain the project schedule and other constraints with the
desire to minimize impacts and complaints and provide peace
and quiet in noise-sensitive areas.
- Ensure that noise impacts/mitigation will not inhibit the project
- Comply with local noise ordinances.
- Include procedures to identify and mitigate noise impacts. Look
at the FHWA Roadway Construction Noise Model released in
- Include noise control specifications for certification of equipment
and maximum lot line noise levels.
- Provide a process to address complaints.
Highway Traffic Noise
- Consider opportunities to reduce traffic noise from H-1 and
enhance the noise environment beyond what is required (not a
Type I project).
- Assess alternative pavement textures.
- Acknowledge that longitudinal textures may provide the
- Consider increasing the height of bridge rails in noise sensitive
- Utilize traffic simulations/assessments to assess cumulative or
indirect environmental impacts, especially on alternate routes.
- Develop an adaptive traffic management plan (TMP).
- Address traffic demand management, i.e., public
transportation, park and ride lots, etc.
- Provide for transportation system management, i.e., traffic
- Ensure that measures included in the TMP do not add costs
to the commuting public.
- Identify and assess staging areas and disposal sites. This
should be done during pre-design, with permits obtained before
- Be prepared for possible asbestos removal during bridge
demolition (joints/bearing pads): assess the situation and obtain
the required permits during pre-construction.
- Ensure water quality by minimizing the pollutants leaving the
- Have the contractor develop approved best management
- Assess possible 404/401/National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) involvement early.
- Maintain air quality by minimizing/controlling dust.
- Have the contractor develop approved BMPs.
- Coordinate with the City to optimize traffic signal progression
on alternate/arterial detour routes.
- Consider opportunities to enhance aesthetics.
- Assess the possibility of allowing certain groups to create
murals/art on substructures.
- Consider using anti-graffiti measures or a consistent texture
coating for ease in removing graffiti.
- Reduce light diffusion into the adjacent communities, i.e., by
increasing the height of bridge rails.
- Assess potential socio-economic impacts, including access
to local businesses and residential areas and the efficient
transportation of goods and services.
- Recognize that the impacts are dependent on the volume of
- Consider advanced PR with affected businesses/residential areas.
- Provide free advertising for adversely affected businesses
(project newsletters, web site, etc.).
- Identify potential environmental justice (EJ) impacts.
- Identify the EJ population using census or other available data.
- Assess possible disproportionate impacts associated with
- Coordinate with projects near the corridor to minimize other
construction and maintain sufficient capacity for diverted traffic.
- Assess potential project conflicts, i.e., the Kamehameha
Highway Resurfacing, H-2 to Waihau Street, the H-1
Rehabilitation, Aiea Heights Drive to Salt Lake Viaduct.