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ACTT Workshop: New Jersey
November 16-18, 2004, Cherry Hill, New Jersey

Chapter 3: Workshop Recommendations

3.1 Environmental Skill Set

Constraints and Opportunities

  1. Natural Resources:
    • Stormwater-must consider stormwater options early:
    • Affects ROW needs.
    • Affects project cost (design, construction, ROW, and mitigation).
    • Affects constructibility.
    • Affects geometry (need greater design detail).
    • Avoid violations during construction.
    • Little Timber Creek ecosystem.
    • Pursue diverging Ramp B and C alternative proposed by geometric skill set to provide significant wetland credit and stormwater opportunities:
      • Remove two stream crossings on Al-Jo's curve.
      • Maximize floodplain and wetland creation and restoration.
      • Add bioretention in reclaimed areas.
  2. Bellmawr Park Community:
    • Avoid/minimize impacts by redesigning Ramp F.
    • Meet with Bellmawr Park residents and association to identify preferred solution(s) to potential impacts. Some mitigation options identified are:
      • Utilize undeveloped land adjacent to Bellmawr Park for relocation.
      • Utilize open space within the Bellmawr Park community.
      • Construct higher-density units along alignment within Bellmawr Park to replace affected units.
      • Relocate community facilities to area adjacent to highway and construct new housing in their place.
      • Offer buy-out option to residents (not just affected residents) in order to acquire units for relocation for affected residents who wish to remain in Bellmawr Park.
      • Address Section 106 considerations.
  3. Baseball Fields:
    • Reconstruct an urban deck in the depressed section alternative.
  4. Noise Impacts:
    • Limited mitigation options are available on stacked alternative.
    • Address increased noise impacts at tunnel portals.
    • Utilize quiet paving throughout project.
    • Utilize noise absorbing materials on structures.
  5. Visual Impacts:
    • Develop appropriate modeling to assess and communicate visual impact of alternatives.
    • Consider context when designing structures.
    • Height.
    • Aesthetic treatments.
  6. Tunnel/Underpass:
    • Select location of tunnel/underpass portals to avoid impacts to sensitive receptors.
    • Consider multiple depressed sections to:
      • Minimize visual, noise, and traffic impacts.
      • Optimize constructibility and use of space.
      • Avoid need for detour routes for hazardous cargo.

3.2 Roadway/Geometric Design Skill Set

  1. Evaluate alternate Ramp A connection with Missing Moves I-295 SB Ramp (SR-42 NB to I-295 NB).


    • One primary decision point for SR-42 NB traffic heading towards I-295.
    • Eliminates separate Ramp A exit and one decision point along SR-42 NB.
    • Moving ramp entrance reduces number of weaving sections along SR-42.
    • Continued benefit of longer distance to execute weave between this interchange and SR-168 Interchange.
    • Majority could be built off line. One less movement that has to be maintained within interchange during construction.
    • Improved likelihood of providing a two-lane entrance with I-295-2400 ft (720 m). Current design has two-lane SR-42 takeoff that necks down to one lane prior to merge with I-295.
    • Simplified bridge. Eliminates challenging elevated connection to I-295 mainline.
    • Simplified signing.


    • Potentially worsens weaves between SR-55 and Missing Moves ramp.
    • Missing Moves ramp may not be able to handle increased volume even if increased to two lanes. Missing Moves ramp already services both Leaf Ave and I-295 SB.
    • Additional ROW impacts and/or takings including new impacts to commercial properties along Creek Road.
    • Portion of alignment on inactive landfill requiring likely use of same geofoam roadway section being used in Missing Moves project-increased cost.
    • Original concept does not accommodate local traffic, industrial park traffic, and state trooper access to I-295 NB (see below).
    • Major impacts to Missing Moves project schedule and environmental documents if incorporated into that project.
  2. Evaluate Ramp A connection through variation of original Alternative D concept.


    • Avoids Ramp A on structure over I-76.
    • Continued benefit of longer distance to execute weave between this interchange and SR-168 interchange, however less than current scheme.
    • Elevated section would still lessen potential impacts to properties to remain along Fir Place.


    • Still requires complex structural connection to I-295 mainline bridge.
    • Constructibility-footprint over existing ramp network.
    • Affects mausoleum. Would require additional shifting of mainline north into floodway/floodplain.
  3. Evaluate single two-lane takeoff for Ramp F and Ramp D (I-76 SB to I-295 NB and SB, respectively).


    • One primary decision point for I-76 SB traffic heading to I-295.
    • Eliminate Ramp F exit and one decision point along I-76 SB.
    • Could move Ramp C bullnose north to improve weave to Leaf Ave.
    • Eliminating Ramp F through Bellmawr Park reduces property impacts and roadway footprint.
    • Eliminate need for large retaining walls between Ramp C and Ramp F.
    • Eliminate bridge for Ramp F and Ramp C crossing if reuse of Al-Jo's curve is pursued.
    • Simplified signing.


    • Combined ramp volumes of 2,300 a.m. peak and 3,200 p.m. peak may be too high to be supported on two-lane ramp.
    • Requires complex structural connection to I-295 mainline bridge.
    • Could worsen weave for traffic from Market Street.
    • Reversing curves will be difficult to properly superelevate.
    • Not compatible with Ramp C over I-76.
  4. Evaluate single takeoff for Ramp B and Ramp C (I-295 to I-76 NB and SB, respectively).


    • One primary decision point for I-295 SB traffic heading toward I-76.
    • Eliminate Ramp B exit and one decision point along I-295 SB.
    • Increased weave distance for SR-168 on ramp.
    • Improved driver expectancy if Ramp C under I-76 pursued.
    • Alignment shift could potentially minimize creek impacts.
    • Simplified signing.


    • Combined ramp volumes of 4,200 a.m. peak and 4,000 p.m. peak would likely require three-lane exit.
    • May not have sufficient length to develop profile for Ramp C under I-76.
    • Reversing curves will be difficult to properly superelevate, leading to high crown line break between lanes.
    • Gore grading/drainage could be undesirable-drain across mainline.
    • Could worsen weave from SR-168.
  5. Evaluate improvements to the Leaf Avenue Interchange along SR-42 NB.


    • Maintains connectivity to I-295 and SR-42 NB for locals and commercial properties along Benigno Boulevard.
    • Potentially improves exit to Benigno Boulevard-longer queue.
    • Potentially eliminates need for traffic signal at Benigno Boulevard-less conflict.
    • Leaf Avenue local on ramp would only need to be one lane connection to I-295.
    • Opportunity to cul-de-sac Wellwood Avenue and/or vacate in conjunction with adding left turn lane on Creek Road.
    • Eliminates single exit for I-295 SB and Benigno Boulevard in Missing Moves project.
    • Improves driver expectancy for Benigno Boulevard movement.
    • Most "pros" from first item still applicable.


    • Requirement improvements cited in first item-connection to Missing Moves ramps.
    • Missing Moves flyover ramp could require widening to two lanes.
    • Most "cons" from first item still applicable.
    • Revisions to Missing Moves project would likely delay that project.
    • One lane Ramp A would still require complex midspan connection.
  6. Evaluate realignment of Essex Avenue with Harding Avenue.


    • Could be integrated with modifications to alternatives that shift alignment into ball fields.
    • Provides improved connectivity to SR-42 SB. Eliminates need for left turn from Essex and left turn from Creek Road.
    • Eliminates T-intersection configuration of Essex Ave and Creek Road.
    • Reduces structure length if variation for Ramp A from Missing Moves is pursued.


    • Could potentially worsen Creek Road level of service (LOS).
    • Could require a traffic signal at Creek Road.
    • Limited, if any, specific benefit to the project purpose and need-scope creep.
  7. Investigate benefits of maintaining existing alignment along Al-Jo's Curve for Ramp C movement (I-295 to I-76 SB).


    • Already being investigated as part of the technical environmental study (TES) effort for Alternates D1 and H2.
    • Possibly avoid new structure crossing of I-76. Currently requires widening along I-76 SB and possible deck replacement for NB due to elimination of express/local configuration.
    • Avoid long span curved Ramp C bridge over I-76.
    • Improved elevation differentials along Bellmawr Park versus Ramp C over or under schemes.
    • Potential staging benefits. Limit I-76 maintenance and protection of traffic (MPT) if existing underpass maintained.


    • Public perception that major roadway deficiency is not being eliminated.
    • Existing substandard underclearance.
    • Existing substandard radius and stopping sight distance for 45 mi/h (72 km/h) design speed.
    • Providing required radius could affect additional environmental resource and church property.
    • Reduction in wetlands available to be restored. Existing creek crossing not eliminated.
  8. Investigate required number of lanes along I-295 through interchange and/or reduced roadway section with 12-ft (3.6-m) outer shoulders.


    • Reduced structure width and cost. Even larger benefit realized with underpass/tunnel and stacked alternatives.
    • Reduced footprint through Bellmawr Park.
    • Improved ability to develop multilane ramps-2,400 ft (720 m).


    • Deviates from established project goal of maintaining three-lane I-295 roadway in each direction.
    • Preliminary traffic analysis indicates nominal improvement.
    • Proposed 16- and 17-ft (4.8- and 5.1-m) shoulders meet posted 55 mi/h (88 km/h) speed-more approvable design exception. The 12-ft (3.6-m) shoulders meet less than 45 mi/h (72 km/h) design speed.
    • Perception of being short sighted with respect to traffic increases.
  9. Investigate improvements to the Market Street/Rte 130 I-76 SB on-ramp.


    • Could improve Market Street/Rte 130 to Ramp D weave by reducing on-ramp turbulence.


    • Higher Market Street on ramp volumes could be function of non-existent Missing Move ramps-U-turns.

3.3 Geotechnical Skill Set


  • Accelerate Construction.
  • Minimize impact on:
    • Community.
    • Existing traffic.
    • Existing structures.
  • Improve safety.
  1. Depressed Roadway/Urban Decks


    • Minimal impact to existing traffic.
    • Improved work zone safety (versus bridge construction).
    • Reduced noise.
    • Context sensitive solution (open space).
    • Work underground 24/7.


    • Cost.
    • Spoils.
  2. Jacked Boxes:
    • Jacked sections (under live traffic).
    • Under 800 ft (240 m), not classified a tunnel.
    • Use in conjunction with cut and cover.
    • Minimal impact to traffic.
    • Locations:
    • I-295.
    • Ramp C (under Browning, Ramps B, D, and I-76).
    • Under all existing roadways.
  3. Cut and Cover:
    • Slurry wall construction.
    • Top down.
    • Precast decking.
    • Work below covered area.
    • Minimal impact to traffic.
  4. Embankments:
    • Keep heights as low as possible.
    • Use lightweight fills liberally.
    • Advanced construction contract.
  5. Lightweight fill materials:
    • EPS geofoam embankments.
    • Lightweight foamed concrete.
    • Shredded tires.
    • Numerous facing/aesthetic treatments.
    Fill TypeRange of Density (kg/m3) [lb/ft3]
    Geofoam14 to 30 [1-2]
    Foamed Concrete335 to 770 [20-50]
    Wood Fiber550 to 960 [35-60]
    Shredded Tires600 to 900 [35-55]
    Expanded Shale or Clay600 to 1040 [35-65]
    Flyash1120 to 1440 [70-90]
    Boiler Slag1000 to 1750 [65-110]
    Air Cooled Slag1100 to 1500 [70-95]
  6. Shredded tires:
    • Use of waste material.
    • FHWA guidelines.
  7. Earth retaining structures:
    • MSE walls.
    • Soil nailing.
    • Secant walls.
    • Anchored walls.
    • Gravity walls.
  8. Secant pile wall system
  9. Deep foundations:
    • High-capacity piles.
    • >200 tons.
    • Fewer piles.
    • Smaller cap.
    • Less noise.
    • No spoils.
    • Simplify quality control (QC), dynamic testing, inspection.
    • Augered (drilled shafts, micropiles).
    • Where vibrations are a major issue (<100 ft [30 m]).
    • Advanced construction contract.
    • Design phase load test program.
  10. Cross-discipline:
    • Safety.
    • MOT.
    • Access/laydown.
    • Material availability.
    • Contracting mechanism.
    • Contaminated soil.
    • Utilities.

3.4 Structures Skill Set

Get In, Get out

  1. Bridges:
    • Prefabrication of any bridge, bridge elements, and structural systems.
    • Advance purchase/fabrication of structural components.
    • Superstructures.
    • Deck systems.
    • Substructures.
    • Roll-in railroad structure.
  2. Walls-select based on construction speed and design needs:
    • MSE walls.
    • Sheeting with or without facade.
    • Post and panels.
    • Modular walls.
  3. Technology:
    • High-performance concrete (HPC) and high-performance steel (HPS).
    • Lighter loads.
    • Shallower system.
    • Bridge movement system.
    • Self-propelled modular transport.
    • Girder launching/skidding.
    • Roll in.
    • Vertical lifting.
  4. Stay Out:
    • HPC and HPS.
    • Low-maintenance structures (no tunnel).
    • Quality and durability-integral abutment bridges.
    • Inspectibility without affecting traffic.
    • Future redecking.
    • Automated deicing on deck of big bridge and flyovers.
  5. Miscellaneous:
    • Design with these items-lock in transportability.
    • Set construction duration.
    • Project-wide Web-based electronic communication plan.
    • Electronic shop drawings.
    • Electronic design submittals.
  6. Suggestions to Alternative D:
    • Investigate depressed Ramp C and make Ramp D flyover.
    • Investigate eliminating Ramp F by combining with Ramp D and bring it to the big bridge.
    • Investigate taking all I-295 traffic off SR-42 NB at Missing Move ramp.

3.5 Traffic/ITS/Safety Skill Set

  1. Identify closure hours/options:
    • Monday through Thursday (11 p.m.-5 a.m.), except weekends/holidays; summer period-May 15 to September 1.
    • Tailor hours to actual volumes and capacities on mainline and ramps.
    • Evaluate noise ordinance restrictions; seek waivers.
    • Consider special/sports event impact.
    • Shoulder/median can be used as through lane.
    • Multiple shifts and night work should be considered.
    • Ensure current and reliable counts.
    • Moveable barrier (reversible lane).
  2. Identify alternate routes:
    • Identify routes such as NJTPK, SR-130, SR-41, SR-47, SR-168, and local roads.
    • Identify and involve stakeholders, including Pennsylvania DOT and Delaware DOT.
    • Identify opportunities for improved efficiencies on alternate routes (variable-use lanes; restrict movements on SR-168 and SR-130, signal timing, signing and striping modifications, and intersection improvements).
  3. Staging components:
    • Consider staging sequence to minimize road user impact.
    • Sequencing key phases.
  4. Public transportation alternatives and incentives:
    • Port Authority Transit Company (PATCO).
    • New Jersey Transit.
    • Free/discounted passes, HOV discounts.
    • Park ‘n Ride (temporary leases or permanent) discounts.
    • Cross County Connection, TMA.
    • Include in budget to accommodate additional alternatives.
  5. Smart Work Zone Concept:
    • Provide travel times for existing and alternate routes.
    • Provide detector and camera information.
    • Evaluate possible lane closure options.
    • Use permanent or temporary locations.
  6. Construction coordination:
    • Establish coordination committee.
    • Ensure coordination with other agencies/contractors active in area.
    • Traffic Interference Report (TIR).
    • Maintain active construction worksite.
  7. Emergency response team:
    • Partnering:
      • Communication with police, fire, and other agencies.
    • Include traffic operations and contractor representative.
    • Include incident management task force (Routes 295/42/76).
  8. Advanced notice to public/politicians:
    • Ensure accurate/complete information.
    • Feed info to news media.
    • Variable message signs (new message alert-highway advisory radio).
    • Reliable delay reporting.
    • "511" phone information source.
    • Prepare marketing.
  9. Integrated ITS implementation:
    • Traffic video will be available via TS #16 (real-time and Internet recorded images in use).
    • Permanent VMS are present adjacent to project area.
    • ITS capabilities will be available during construction.
  10. Safety:
    • Work zone construction details including ramp merge.

3.6 Construction Skill Set

  1. Design-Build:
    • Saves time, reduces claims.
    • Requires critical path method (CPM).
    • Allows more innovation.
    • Under contractor control.
    • Single contract.
    • Public relations.
    • Permits innovative funding.
    • Limits bidder pool.
  2. Construction Management:
    • Use of CPM activities:
      • Regardless of contracting method implemented, use cost loaded CPM.
      • Escrow of bid documents.
      • Hire contractor and/or designer to review construction schedule prior to contract award.
      • Incentives and disincentives used at critical stages and milestones.
    • SUE:
      • Prior to design phase.
      • Allows for advanced utility work.
      • Influences design-build options.
      • Benefits funding issues.
      • Utility corridor.
    • A+B bidding and lane rental:
      • NJDOT has experience with A + B bidding.
      • Lane rental is a proven technology that should be pursued in New Jersey.
      • Nationwide experience.
  3. Staging:
    • Construct a temporary ramp for SR-42 SB to the Missing Moves project to I-295 SB:
      • Allows construction of Ramp F, part of Ramp C, and false work on I-295 bridge (mainline) without traffic.
      • Capacity of Missing Moves project must be evaluated.
    • Construct a temporary ramp from I-295 NB to the Missing Moves project to SR-42 NB:
      • Improves construction staging and operations for new I-295 mainline.
      • Additional initial costs will be offset by a much shorter construction duration and lower overall contract costs.
    • Detour traffic using the NJTPK:
      • Segregates I-295 through-traffic.
      • Allows for accelerated construction.
      • Should eliminate NJTPK tolls during construction.
      • Traveler mitigation.
    • Modify Browning Road grade-raise:
      • Reduces heights of I-295 mainline and ramp structures.
      • Reduces cost of mainline work ($50 to $100 million).
      • Reduces impacts to Victory Drive (homes).
      • Enhances mainline and ramp geometrics.
      • Reduces noise and visual impacts.
      • Reduces construction duration by approximately 1 year.
      • 30 percent reduction.
      • Requires reassessment of Bellmawr homes.
      • Build prefabricated structures and other elements:
      • Minimizes disruption to traffic.
      • Provides cost savings.
    • Allow closure of I-295 for short durations:
      • Need advanced public relations (PR).
      • PR needs to be continuous.
    • Consider use of reversible barrier:
      • Easy and quick to implement.
      • Increases traffic capacity.
    • Contractor staging area and casting yard:
      • Eases construction and speeds delivery.
      • Saves contractor money-owner.
  4. Materials:
    • Pavement-type HMA versus PCC:
      • Recommend HMA to facilitate construction stages
    • Use innovative materials/technology as needed to facilitate construction:
      • Numerous materials are available that could be used on this type of project.
      • Cost effective.
      • High quality and durable.

3.7 Innovative Contracting/Financing Skill Set

  1. Delivery Methods:
    • Phased construction.
    • Advance construction (DBB):
      • Utility relocations.
      • Prepurchase material.
      • ITS for alternate routes.
    • Primary contract method (modified DB):
      • Special prequalifications (short list).
      • Risk allocation.
      • Clearly define roles/responsibilities.
        • Prescriptive performance requirements.
      • Program management oversight.
  2. Cost plus time bidding:
    • Commonly referred to as A+B bidding.
    • Award to the lowest A+Bx, where:
      • A = traditional bid component.
      • B = contractors bid for the number of days to complete critical work.
      • x = an amount based on road user cost per day.
      • Include I/D provisions in the contract.
  3. Multiparameter bidding:
    • A+B-C:
    • A+B = cost plus time.
    • C = maintenance or warranty parameter.
  4. Special prequalification:
    • Pass/fail criteria.
    • Specialized expertise.
  5. Contract management:
    • Incentives:
      • Time I/D.
      • Quality I/D.
      • Traffic management I/D.
    • Lane rental:
      • A contracting technique that assesses a rental fee for each lane taken out of service during construction.
      • The use of this technique minimizes the time that roadway restrictions affect traffic flow.
    • Partnering:
      • Elevate issues in a timely fashion.
      • Eliminate litigation and claims.
      • Complete projects on schedule.
      • Complete projects within budget.
      • Maintain high quality.
      • Maintain safety.
      • Find better ways to get the job done.
  6. Quality-based methods:
    • VE/constructibility.
    • Warranty/maintenance provisions.
  7. ADR:
    • Mediation/DRB.
    • Mandatory prebid.
    • Preconstruction workshops:
      • Utility coordination and process review.
      • Scheduling.
      • QA adjustments.
  8. Financing considerations:
    • Revenue sources.
    • Financing mechanisms.
    • Project finance plan and cost estimates.
  9. Revenue sources:
    • Federal Aid Highway Program.
    • New Jersey Transportation Trust Fund Authority.
    • User charges: direct or shadow tolling, HOT lanes.
    • Local involvement: developer assessments, sales taxes, and property taxes.
    • Private sources: construction companies, other contractors.
    • State general funds (GO bond proceeds).
  10. Financing mechanisms:
    • Long-term:
      • GARVEE bonds.
      • Trust fund tax-free debt.
      • 63/20 corporation.
      • DBOM/DBM contracting (prepaid maintenance/warranty).
      • ROW lease-purchase (annuity).
    • Short-term:
      • Construction cashflow financing.
      • Commercial paper issued by State or trust fund.
  11. Financing plan:
    • Basic financing plan and time schedule for each alternative as decision criteria:
      • Consistent with project schedule.
      • Cost estimate:
        • Common cost categories including environmental, traffic management, and utilities.
        • Inclusive of project scope, financing costs.
        • Expressed in year of construction dollars.
        • Includes contingencies.
        • Incorporates certainty/probability (Washington State DOT cost estimation model).

3.8 Public Relations Skill Set

Communication Goals:

  • Inform communities of construction plans, potential impacts, and address their concerns during construction phase.
  • Advise commuters of short- and long-term traffic impacts, i.e., lane closures, traffic pattern changes.
  • Divert 10-20 percent of traffic from the interchange during construction.


  1. Conduct research to:
    • Determine best method of reaching key audiences-find out what they want to know, methods of getting it to them, and how it will change their commutes.
    • Determine motivations that will divert motorists, i.e., time savings or costs.
    • Use and expand community advisory committee.
    • Identify stakeholder groups and communications needs.

Outcome-communications plan:

  1. Communications plan strategy #1:
    • Conduct an aggressive community outreach program:
      • Establish visible, friendly presence in the community via a mobile information center.
    • Communications professional serves as community liaison to address concerns, i.e., noise, traffic.
    • Develop newsletter for community residents, elected officials, and community leaders with project details and milestones.
    • Frequent updates to elected officials to include project tours.
  2. Communications plan strategy #2:
    • Advise commuters of short- and long-term traffic impacts.
    • Partnership with local traffic reporters.
    • Work with tourism industry.
    • Commercial media advertising, radio, and print.
    • Project website; link to live traffic cameras.
    • HAR radio.
    • VMS.
    • Project brochures (distribute at toll booths, EZ pass mailings).
    • E-mail subscriptions for project updates, lane closures, etc.
    • Shopping mall kiosk.
  3. Communications plan strategy #3:
    • Divert 10-20 percent of automobiles from interchange during construction.
    • Establish a mobility strategy group to provide and promote alternative transportation choices:
      • Transportation Management Association (TMA).
      • Delaware River Port Authority (DRPA).
      • New Jersey Transit.
      • NJTPK.
      • Atlantic City Expressway Authority.
      • Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission (DVRPC).
      • Limousine/tour bus industry.
    • Divert 10-20 percent of automobiles from interchange during construction.
  4. Aggressive media relations program:
    • Broadcast and newspaper.
    • Traffic reporters.
    • Special interest publications, i.e., AAA.
  5. Communications needs:
    • Budget 4-6 percent of project cost.
    • Add to the project team a full-time communications professional.
    • Procure marketing firm to assist with research and advertising activities.
  6. Potential funding mechanisms to supplement project funding:
    • Congestion mitigation air quality (CMAQ) promotion of ride sharing.
    • Highway safety 402 funds-promotion of workzone safety, aggressive driving, etc.
<< PreviousContentsNext >>
Updated: 10/27/2015
Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000