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Construction

ACTT Workshop: Tennessee
April 6-8, 2004, Knoxville, Tennessee

Appendix B tables: Skill Set Reporting Forms

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Structures

IDEA (Short Name) IDEA (Detailed Description) Implementation Details (Barriers, Skill Set Coordination, etc.)
Contracting
  • Single Contract
  • Preprocurement of Materials
  • Advanced Contracting
  • Value Engineering (VE)
  • Set Realistic Schedule with incentives
  • Advanced Fill Under I-40 Bridge
  1. Final Design (contract #1) + Preliminary Design (contract #2)
  2. Bridge Girders
  3. Manholes
  4. Retaining Wall Panels
  5. Noise Walls
  6. Utility Relocation
  7. Building Demolition
  8. Clean and Paint Existing Steel Girders
  9. Early Selected Substructure Construction
  10. Initial Screening (within 30 days)
  11. Submission (within 90 Days)
Precasting/ Prefabricated Technology
  • Columns
  • Caps
  • Girders
  • Full Depth Slabs
  • Prefabricated Units (girder and slabs)
  • Full Span Prefabrication and Erection
  1. Splice Girder (longer spans)
  2. Replace with Steel (longer spans)
  3. Segmental Concrete
Staged R/W acquisition like design-build (D/B) projects
  • Self Consolidating Concrete
  • Maturity Meters for Concrete Strength
  • Light Weight Concrete
  • High Performance Concrete and High Strength Steel
  • Onsite Batch Plant
  • Advanced Mix Design
 
Embankment
  • Early Construction of Abutments
  • EPS (Expanded Polystyrene Fill)
  • Graded Rock Fill
 
Foundations
  • Detail Three Alternate Foundation Types for Piers
  1. Drilled Shaft (mono shaft)
  2. Steel Piles
  3. Spread Footings
Retaining Walls
  • Only Prequalified (TDOT) Products (No VE)
  • Candidate for Prepurchase
  • Early Submission for Tie-Back Walls
  • Verify ROW Easement for All Types
  • Precast Fascia Panels (EPS Fill)
 
Construction
  • Miss Existing Foundation
  • Jet Grouting
  • Bent Caps, Use Precast Cap
  • Precast Columns (Seismic Connections May Be a Problem)
  • Continuous Placement of Deck on Prestressed Beams
  • High Early Strength Concrete
  • -No Aluminum
  • -No Shrinkage
  • -Need a Mix Design
  • Consider Black Steel and Latex Concrete Overlay
  • Stainless Clad or Epoxy Bars OK
  • Preassemble Steel and Set in Place
 

Construction, Materials, Accelerated Testing, Constructibility

IDEA (Short Name) IDEA (Detailed Description) Implementation Details (Barriers, Skill Set Coordination, etc.)
Preconstruction and Utilities
  1. Accelerate utility relocation by authorizing in advance of construction *
  2. Accelerate permit process
  3. Railroads double shifts
  4. Partial opening of I-40
  5. Co-location of offices for field inspection coordination
  6. Coordinate construction of other facilities
  7. Suggest (not mandatory) material storage near railroad and port
  8. Identify all work on the critical path that can be done in advance of closing I-40 (i.e., ramps, foundations)
  1. Usage of SUE procedures to minimize delays.
  2. Coordination time and in-house resources are barriers.
  3. Coordination with railroads to prevent delay is a barrier.
  4. Assumption that I-640 can handle the deferred traffic is a barrier. Worker safety is another barrier.
  5. No barriers.
  6. This needs to be coordinated with traffic.
  7. No barriers.
  8. Develop critical path.
Materials
  1. Use of high early strength concrete
  2. VECP
  3. Non-destructive testing (maturity meters)
  1. Need to make sure that it is necessary (justify the additional cost).
  2. No barriers because this is a standard special provision of the contract.
  3. Specification change and (for maturity meter, increased production monitoring) are barriers.
Bridges
  1. Adjust span lengths to avoid existing foundations, and install spread footings and/or pin pile foundation under the JWP before demolition.*
  2. Use of precast pier caps, bent caps, and post-tensioned/precast columns
  3. Use of continuous pours for deck slabs on prestressed beams
  4. Greater cover in lieu of epoxy coated rebars to avoid painting holidays and speed construction
  5. Use of high early strength concrete, particularly for deck slabs
  6. Preassemble structural steel in sections and launch or lift into place
  7. What needs to be done to coordinate the movement of cranes and overweight specialty equipment across pavement and bridges during construction
  1. Confirm that foundations will be spread footings and/or piles.
  2. Needs to be investigated and developed if approved.
  3. No barriers.
  4. Philosophy changes.
  5. Philosophy changes.
  6. No barriers.
  7. Coordinate and approve.
Pavement
  1. Alternative Pavement:
    • Usage of long-life pavement
    • Noise reduction
    • Service life
  2. Use same structure for shoulder and pavement
  3. Use of alternative pavement in the bidding process
  1. Cost factor would be a barrier on using pavement with longer life. How much pavement can be stacked on top of other pavement is another issue.
  2. Cost is only barrier.
  3. Establishing the contract document in bidding is the barrier.
Contract Administration
  1. Let contract early before I-40 closure for prep time
    • Specify shop draw approval time limitation
  2. Use of one contract instead of breaking down
  3. Work multiple shifts
  4. Develop overall schedule (CPM) for all included commitments, not just job schedule *
  5. Use of incentives/disincentives, A + B,* warranty
  6. Construction management coordination of all contracts
    • Issues resolution
  7. Contractor quality control process
    • Rating contractor performance
  8. Establish dispute resolution board
  9. Include price adjustment clause
  1. Paying of a premium and stockpile payment are barriers.
    • Specification of development is another barrier.
  2. The barriers are funding, project delivery, and time.
  3. Local ordinances (noise restrictions, etc.) need to be checked. Coordinate with city and county.
  4. In-house resources are needed.
  5. Bonding companies for the warranty can be a barrier.
  6. Coordination is needed.
  7. Establishment of a new process is the barrier. Change partnering specification is another barrier.
  8. New process that has to be developed and established.
  9. Establish indexes for steel and write specification.

* = items of increased emphasis areas

Geotechnical

IDEA (Short Name) IDEA (Detailed Description) Implementation Details (Barriers, Skill Set Coordination, etc.)
Lengthen bridge spans
  • In order to reduce the number of bridge piers and potentially the critical path construction time, eliminate bridge piers where feasible.
  • This may involve use of drilled shaft foundations to permit high column loads; Structures group coordination required.
Consider alternatives to driven piling
  • Provide multiple foundation alternatives where practical and allow contractor to select option that is best suited to project goals. Also provides backup if originally designed foundation is not feasible at a particular pier location.
  • Need to prepare design alternatives, which likely would include driven piles, drilled shafts, and spread footings; Structures group coordination required; Additional design time and lack of experience with alternatives are possible barriers.
EPS at abutments
  • Structural group suggests use of EPS foam at abutments to expedite construction.
  • This option appears feasible, however, EPS foam must be protected from hydrocarbons to prevent collapse.
Two spans at Bridge 19
  • Reduce number of spans to two spans to reduce number of piers and potentially shorten schedule reduce and conflict with 54-inch pipe. Improve safety by eliminating pier construction in median of I-40 while under traffic.
  • Coordinate with structural group. Barrier - longer spans may not be typical design for overpass type structure.
Use top-down construction at Bridge 19
  • North end of bridge is in cut section. By using top-down method, it may be possible to shorten the schedule since excavation can occur after bridge is built. May enhance construction drainage, and eliminate much of the temporary shoring for the adjacent bridge.
  • Coordinate with structural. Barrier - not a common technique. Contractor may not be familiar.
Footings, pin piles at Bridge 21
  • Rock is shallow at Bridge 21 such that footings can be constructed before the existing bridge is razed. This should save time. Where footings are not feasible, consider pin piles, which can be installed under low headroom.
  • Coordinate with structural. Pin piles may not be common foundation for agency.
Single span at Bridges 4 and 5
  • Eliminate center pier to reduce construction time. Improve safety by eliminating center pier.
  • Longer span than typically used. Coordinate with structural.
Improve subgrade throughout corridor
  • Poor soils exist in portions of the corridor that will need to be improved by removal and replacement or insitu treatment to provide a suitable pavement subgrade. Other areas also likely will require improvement. Instead of doing this piecemeal, improve the entire corridor. This will improve mobility during construction, and increase pavement life.
  • Coordinate with materials (pavement design). Barriers - typically subgrade improvement is done locally depending on conditions exposed in the field.
Detailed design of drainage at Bridge 19
  • The piping in this area is deep (50 ft) and if not properly done may significantly affect construction. Instead of leaving this totally to the contractor's means and methods, provide a detailed design and construction sequence.
  • Construction coordination. Barrier, may not be typical practice
Train inspectors on MSE walls and drilled shafts
  • Since designs may include these elements, inspection staff should be knowledgeable prior to construction
  • Construction coordination. Barriers, funding and time for training.

Innovative Contracting/Worker Health/Warranties

IDEA (Short Name) IDEA (Detailed Description) Implementation Details (Barriers, Skill Set Coordination, etc.)
Goals/Drivers
  1. Time Savings
  2. Quality
  3. Safety
  4. PR
  5. Build in Budget
  6. Context Sensitive Const.
    1. Environment
    2. Noise
    3. Dirt
 
  1. Design, Bid, Build
  2. Design, Build
  3. CM @ Risk or Agency CM (construction mgr)
  1. Clustered Construction {one contract or two (bidder has option to bid both)} (bid second at 30 percent)
  2. Combined Contracts
Procurement/Bidding Methods
  1. A + B (A+C) Bidding A = Cost, B = Time,
  2. A + B - Q Q = Warranty
  3. Bid Alternates/Design Alternates, VE
  4. Best Value
  1. Time
  2. Time/Quality
  3. Additive Alternates
    1. Items Other Than Price (prequalification) (can be a post-project or post-selection process)
    2. Quality/Time
    3. Safety
    4. Context Sensitive Issues
    5. Special Prequalification
Contract Mgmt Methods
  1. Incentive Contracting
  2. Performance Incentives
  3. Insurance
  4. Lane Rental
    1. I/D Time No Excuse Bonus
    2. Define I/D Completion
    1. Safety (number of incidents)
    2. Quality
    3. Time
    4. Prequalify
    5. CEI
  1. Owner Controlled Policy
  2. Daily/Hourly (traffic)
Advanced Construction Early Action
  1. Utility Work
  2. Mainline Phase 1
  3. ROW/Permits
  4. Lead Time Activities
  5. Owner Furnished Materials
  6. Geotech Investigation
  7. Local Street Enhancements
  8. Identify Borrow/Waste/Staging Sites
  1. Agreements
    1. Flexible Start Dates
    2. A+B to reduce closure times
    3. Lengthen Prebid Time (between advertise and award) (mandatory prebid meeting)
  2. Drilled Shafts
Contract Management During Construction
  1. CPM Scheduling Specification
  2. Change Order Process
  3. Partnering Agreements
  4. Escalation
  5. Warranties
  6. Performance Specifications
  7. Worker Safety/Health
    1. CPM Master Schedule (internal to owner)
    2. Baseline
    3. Monthly Updates
    4. Bid Item
    5. Payment Contingent On Getting Updates
    6. Special Restrictions
    7. Non-work Periods
    1. Change Review Team
    2. Delegation of Authority
    1. Plants
    2. Landscape
    3. Asphalt
    1. Contractor TCM/TCP's State Approved (Internal TMP)
    2. Noise
    3. Performance-Related Spec For Concrete
    4. No Excuse Clause
    5. Bid Escrow
    6. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) /Dispute Review Board
Group visit; Traffic Construction Warranty    

Traffic/ITS/Worker Safety

IDEA (Short Name) IDEA (Detailed Description) Implementation Details (Barriers, Skill Set Coordination, etc.)
1. Incentives and Disincentives
  • Use contract clauses to encourage the contractor to reduce travel delay and project duration.
  • Use A + B bidding - Time + Money. Consider A + B + C where C is contractor prequalification. Goal is to accelerate construction and reduce traffic delay. Consider having the contractor develop a traffic management plan. Develop traffic management criteria as part of the initial construction contract bidding process - establish maximum delays, minimum capacities, etc. Link these measures to contract incentives.
  • Use offsite preparation, staging areas to reduce impact on Interstate 40 and primary surface streets. Use liquidated damages for noncompliance with traffic standards, lane closures, etc. May want to consider intermediate points for incentive/disincentive, e.g., opening of Hall of Fame Drive, in addition to overall project completion. If Hall of Fame Drive and Interstate 40 are separated, both contracts should include incentives/disincentives for major phases.
  • While Interstate 40 will be completely closed initially, an early opening of one direction of travel would be well received by the public. Contract could include incentives to achieve this goal.
2. Incident Management
  • Incident management will be key to maintaining traffic flow during the construction phase of this project. ITS, HELP trucks, and emergency services are all vital to traffic operations in the project area.
  • ITS system monitors interstate only - no surface street coverage outside the view of cameras (ITS system will be operational in Knoxville in early 2005). Traffic Management Center should offer as much help as possible to City of Knoxville. Surface streets will be greatly affected by this project.
  • Can TDOT divert HELP trucks to city streets, or should part of the contract include a service truck to patrol the area? HELP trucks are stretched thin as is - adding coverage to surface streets could cause problems elsewhere on the system. Safety issues - shoulders are not full-width on many city streets. Can additional HELP trucks be brought in from other cities to assist in times of peak impact? Oregon DOT provided a temporary fire station when a project cut off a fire station from part of its service area.
  • Include a contract line item for local law enforcement along Interstate 640 during the I-40 closure. Also consider funds for onsite or oncall towing services to protect operations on I-640. If trucks are diverted to I-640 prior to the I-40 closure, use Governor's Highway Safety Office funding for state law enforcement, including commercial vehicle enforcement. Encourage participation and coordination with local law enforcement and incident management officials during planning and construction meetings.
  • Consider having the contractor develop a traffic management plan. Develop traffic management criteria as part of the initial construction contract bidding process - establish maximum delays, minimum capacities, etc. Link these measures to contract incentives.
3. Maintenance of Traffic Flow
  • Steps can be taken to anticipate problems on alternate routes to prevent incidents and congestion on these roadways.
  • Take an early look (preplanning as opposed to crisis management) at surface streets in the area, which will serve as a detour. Identify potential bottlenecks along detour routes. Look at revised signal timing, increased turn storage lengths, etc. Upgrades to signal systems on surface streets would be helpful both for detour traffic and incident management capability. Signal coordination and communication with central control could help to manage incidents.
  • Identify potential bottlenecks on Interstate 640 where non-traditional techniques could be applied. Ramp metering, though controversial, could be used to alleviate some congestion, especially along I-640 during the I-40 closure.
  • Post an advisory urging trucks to use the I-640 route before the project begins in earnest.
  • Use of QuickZone could be very beneficial. Use other forms of traffic analysis and modeling in development and implementation of traffic control plan.
  • Use Critical Path scheduling techniques, integrate into traffic management.
  • Park and Ride, Carpool lots could be added to reduce congestion. Identify needed lots before the project starts.
  • Ensure that other interstate routes are not affected by additional construction.
  • Designate responsibility for traffic maintenance to the construction contractor - designate a traffic control and management supervisor. Contract should stipulate that this individual have ATSSA or equivalent certification. Alternate certification is subject to TDOT approval.
4. Public Awareness
  • The use of extensive public education and relations campaigns to inform the public of project details, delays, and alternatives can greatly reduce traffic demand in the project area.
  • By informing the public of project details and offering alternatives to usual traffic patterns, a much more attractive situation can be created for both the contractor and the traveling public. DOT can provide alternate route suggestions, fund increased transit runs, encourage the adoption of shifted work schedules, etc. Work with major employers such as UT and TVA to encourage ride sharing, transit, and off-peak travel. Focus on new traffic control devices and techniques, such as ramp metering, if appropriate.
  • Consider use of Internet site to inform the public. Ensure that someone has responsibility for keeping information fresh. Consider the use of a public information officer (PIO) (in addition to TDOT's regional PIO) devoted to this project to reduce confusion and misinformation in the media. PIO will maintain a working relationship with downtown businesses and homeowners directly affected by the project. PIO should work closely with all local media. TDOT could utilize the services of a PR firm, but it is important that the public face for this project is someone with TDOT.
  • Bring the PIO onboard early (during the planning phase) to keep the public up to speed from the start - this could mean that the PR services should be separated from the construction contract. Traffic management center will automatically provide up-to-date information regarding freeway status (camera images, average speeds, travel times, etc.).
  • 511 will be up and running by the time this project comes on line. HAR will also be in place for general information. Encourage use of park and ride. Make sure that information is timely or it is useless.
  • Working with motor carriers may offer relief - Interstate 640 currently offers no incentive to truckers - encourage its use early either through CVE efforts or through mandatory truck routes.
  • Spread information to out-of-area motorists by providing information and materials at interstate rest areas. Should also provide information to bordering states - GA, KY, NC, VA - to inform drivers of potential delays and encourage alternate routes where appropriate.
5. Hall of Fame Drive
  • Hall of Fame Drive should be completely functional and properly maintained before Interstate 40 is closed.
  • Hall of Fame Drive is an essential alternate route during the Interstate 40 closure. HOF should be open to traffic before the closure. Incentives/Disincentives should be utilized to protect the completion date of HOF.
  • In order to ensure that traffic signals and controls are properly maintained, interagency agreements should be formed between the city and the state. Contractor maintenance is not an attractive option because of the potentially long response times from out of town personnel.
  • Local monitoring of the HOF signal system would improve operations. It would be preferable for the city engineering department to have remote connectivity to the signal system on HOF. Any incident management capability in the signal system would be helpful. Use of video traffic detection (as opposed to loop detection) would help to make the system fully functional at an earlier date. Consider surveillance cameras as part of the HOF system.

Environmental/PR/Aesthetics

IDEA (Short Name) IDEA (Detailed Description) Implementation Details (Barriers, Skill Set Coordination, etc.)
Sound Walls
  • Aesthetics, materials, graffiti, plantings, color/texture, whisper walls, spray anti-graffiti material, neighborhood vs. historical
(open question - not in const. plans) (location and ht.?)
  • designs are far enough along to see where the grades will be
  • retaining wall on the sides of the Gill St. Bridge (Whisper Wall technology) (precast concrete that looks like stone used out west and is aesthetically easy on the eye (planting vines may damage the structure of the wall
  • some parts on Papermill project that has cypress trees going along the edge of the wall on state right-of-way) (mural or painting to discourage graffiti
  • can you spray for anti-graffiti and anti-noise at same time) (in TX they've been putting in terraced sound walls but more expensive to build and maintain) (cost on sound walls - sm. Compared to a 160 m project-vision)
Lighting
  • Corridor only, not flooding neighborhood, 24 hr. under bridge
  • (localized to the corridor - not flooding the neighborhood) (mercury or sodium vapor) (orange light has more contrast as opposed to stark white) Ullrich says shadows are "no good and people feel unsafe" Needs to have lighting underneath the structures - 24 hr. lighting - Gill St. Bridge wouldn't have the problem of darkness as much as Central or Broadway - lighting for security issues -
Bridges
  • Clear spanning (no pillars), homeless issues
  • (structures need to be designed where homeless people (1,000 - 1,500 per month -Travis: one of the highest in the south because Knoxville is very generous to the homeless - better solution than chain link fences ? - in Calif. they use "razor grid" to keep the homeless away -
    • design period? 20 yr. Design period will always be in reconstruction
    • needs to go 100 yr. design period, Fed Hwy. encourages longer design period
    • clear span a bridge with high-strength concrete you minimize the cost
    • look at future cost
    • recommend clear span bridges
    • clear spanning makes it easier for future reconstruction because of no pillars
    • clear spanning may provide more visibility
    • also provides savings in geo support
    • mirrors used for visual inspection to look for the homeless?
    • 24 hr. lighting will help to discourage the homeless
    • could install cameras to monitor homeless
    • multi-use for bridges = parking, signage, etc
Creek
  • Flood Control
  • Upstream and downstream flood control - City of Knoxville issues
PR
  • Thru traffic vs. local, discuss how to handle local, signs for local area, signs for detour route
  • Put out press releases for info. Detour rts. (putting up proper signage for detours) and traffic flow to other areas (immediate) - putting out the proper signage for local of interest
  • Needs name for project, Smart Fix
  • A plan in place, a central contact to deal with the public, a dedicated PIO to get announcements out and inform the public as to project issues, would Travis have time for big a project or bring in a contract person (an intern could/would work for free), pr firm?, ways to inform the public about construction
  • E-mail list serves, city council members, information dissemination methods discussed, keep flow of info. clear that flows between information people (no miscommunication possibilities) the key is to have one person who makes the decisions as to information flow, (should be a TDOT person to make info. is clear and what you want the info. to reflect) two-way communication is necessary between the residents and the PIO. The PIO should be familiar and accessible to the public.
  • Closer to the construction date, have a public meeting with a sign-up sheet for information releases. Before construction starts: have a preconstruction meeting with the public and put the info. in simple terms, phasing maps, have q and a, send out announcement about 2 weeks before on a postcard with an artist rendering of what the finished project would look like.
  • Get the names and addresses of stakeholder groups up to ½ mile outside the parameters of the project area and the project area itself. Can get this through KUB.the. Other concerns will be the college, emergency medical personnel, etc., credibility is very important with communication issues. Use the Chamber of Commerce as a communication resource for information dissemination. The contractor should always attend public meetings
  • Have TDOT lease a bldg. In the area for a project presence with maps, drawings, etc., and staffed certain hours each day so it's easily accessible to stakeholders. A presence there would make a big difference in PR.
  • The PIO is officed with the construction engineer to ensure communication.
  • Let the CEI group have a designated person to disseminate info. An information flow chart should be implemented.
  • Media events (like Hall of Fame Kick-Off)
  • Designated radio station to inform the public of project closures, alternate routes, including rehab on detour routes and tourism issues.
  • Telephone line set up with daily reports recordings
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Updated: 01/11/2016
Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000