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International Resources


Public-private partnerships are widely used in Australia on a range of infrastructure. Infrastructure Australia is a business unit of the Australian Government that provides comprehensive guidance on a national framework, including guidelines for practitioners, methodologies, specific jurisdictional requirements, and commercial principles. State-level P3 programs follow this framework. Additional information on projects and state-level policies and guidelines can be found on their respective websites.



Partnerships British Columbia supports the public sector in meeting its infrastructure needs by providing leadership, expertise and consistency in the procurement of complex capital projects by utilizing private sector innovation, services and capital to deliver measureable benefits for taxpayers. Partnerships BC is owned by the Province of British Columbia and governed by a Board of Directors reporting to its sole shareholder, the Minister of Finance.


Infrastructure Ontario (IO) is a Crown agency owned by the Province of Ontario that provides a wide range of services to support the Ontario government's initiatives to modernize and maximize the value of public infrastructure and real estate. It leads four business lines that partner with the private sector: Major Projects, Reals Estate Services, Infrastructure Lending, and Commercial Projects. Under Major Projects, IO applies the Alternative Financing and Procurement (AFP) model to leverage partnerships with the private sector to expand, modernize and replace Ontario's aging infrastructure. The AFP model drives innovation and transfers risks in order to protect the public interest. Infrastructure assets include new hospitals, transit systems, highways, courthouses, children's treatment centers and high-performance sport venues.


The Canadian Council for Public-Private Partnerships was established in 1993 as a not-for-profit non-partisan, member-based organization with representatives from both the public and the private sectors. As proponents of the concept of P3s, the Council conducts research, publishes findings, facilitates forums for discussion and sponsors an Annual Conference on topics related to P3s, both domestic and international.


European Union:

The role of the Central PPP Unit in the Department of Public Expenditure and Reform is to facilitate the P3 process centrally, by developing the general policy framework (including, where necessary, the legal framework) within which P3s operate and by providing central guidance to Departments and other State authorities in that context. A full suite of guidance has been published to facilitate the P3 process and is available on the website.


United Kingdom:

The Infrastructure and Projects Authority (IPA) brings together expertise in infrastructure and the financing, delivery, and assurance of major projects as a single unit, reporting to the Chancellor (the head of HM Treasury) and the Minister for the Cabinet Office. The authority is responsible for providing expertise across all major government projects and UK infrastructure, and delivering critical projects for the UK government, including economic and social infrastructure, housing, IT, and transportation. IPA's purview includes P3 projects under the UK's Private Finance 2 (PF2) model.


Scotland Futures Trust

The Scottish Futures Trust (SFT) is an independent company, established by the Scottish Government with a responsibility for delivering value for money across public sector infrastructure investment. Among SFT's work areas is SFT invest, which includes its P3 program. As with the UK's Infrastructure and Projects Authority, SFT procures privately financed infrastructure projects, including transportation, using the Non-Profit Distributing (NPD) model. (The NPD model is not a not-for-profit model as contractors and lenders are expected to earn a nominal rate of return as in any other form of privately-financed P3 deal.)


International Organizations:

Recommendation of the Council on Principles for Public Governance of Public-Private Partnerships

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

This document sets forth the OECD Council's principles on public-private partnerships governance. Twelve principles are described, organized under three topics:

  1. Establish a clear, predictable and legitimate institutional framework supported by competent and well-resourced authorities
  2. Ground the selection of Public-Private Partnerships in Value for Money
  3. Use the budgetary process transparently to minimize fiscal risks and ensure the integrity of the procurement process

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) is the regional development arm of the United Nations for the Asia-Pacific region, the most comprehensive of the UN's five regional commissions. Its Transport Division helps member countries optimize the use of available resources for infrastructure investment and seek alternative financing mechanisms including private sector participation.


World Bank Public-Private Partnerships

The World Bank's P3 webpage provides access to a number of publications and resources on P3s and their application, especially to meeting the organization's goals of eliminating extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity. Its Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) Project Database has data on more than 6,400 infrastructure projects in 139 low- and middle-income countries. The database is the leading source of PPI trends in the developing world, covering projects in the energy, telecommunications, transport, and water and sewerage sectors.

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