Negotiated Exactions

Since the 1920s, states have passed laws requiring exactions from developers as part of the development approval process. These exactions were typically land dedications internal to the development project, such as new roads and sidewalks within a subdivision. Beginning in the 1950s, local governments passed laws requiring exactions external to the development, such as new roads to connect a subdivision to an existing network.

Over the years, there have been a number of court challenges to municipalities' use of exactions, providing a lengthy legal history, including two important U.S. Supreme Court cases. Those two cases are listed in the first table below. Additional court case analysis and information on the history and legal basis for exactions is summarized in a 2006 working paper published by the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, a nonprofit thinktank.

Additional information on instances in which municipalities impose exactions and the judicial standards used to determine their validity is reviewed in a 1983 article in the Washington University Journal of Urban and Contemporary Law.

The second table below is a list of state enabling legislation related to exactions.

Last Updated: 09/04/19

Negotiated Exactions Supreme Court Rulings
U.S. Supreme Court Cases Summary
Nollan v. California Coastal Commission, 483 U.S. 825, 107 S. Ct. 3141 (1987) Ruled that there must be a reasonable relationship ("rational nexus) between the exaction and the development project.
Dolan v. City of Tigard, 114 S. Ct. 2309, 129 L.Ed.2d 304 (1994) Ruled that there must be "rough proportionality" between the exaction and the development project.
Negotiated Exactions Legislation
State Title Citation
Alabama Territorial Jurisdiction; Approval of Maps or Plats; Regulations; Limits on Exercise of Powers Ala. Code § 11-52-30
Alaska Platting Authority Alaska Stat. § 40.15.070 et seq.
Arizona Municipal Subdivision Regulations Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 9-463.01 - 9-463.04
Arizona Subdivision Plats; Projection of Street and Alley Lines; Approval; Survey (cities and towns) Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 9-474 - 9-478
Arizona Subdivision Approval; Platting Regulations; Violation; Classification; Easement Vesting (counties) Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 11-822
Arkansas Regulations to Control Development of Land Ark. Code § 14-56-417
California Subdivision Map Act Cal. Gov. Code §§ 66410 - 66499.38
Colorado Subdivision Regulations (cities and towns) Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 31-23-214 - 31-23-226
Colorado Subdivision Regulations (counties) Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 30-28-133 - 30-28-139
Connecticut Subdivision of Land Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 8-25 - 8-26d
Delaware Subdivision and Land Development (New Castle County) Del. Code tit. 9, §§ 3001 - 3013
Delaware Subdivision Plans; Land Development Plans; Road Plats; Submission to Commission; Recording; Fees; Regulations (Kent County) Del. Code tit. 9, §§ 4810 - 4812
Florida Approval of Plat by Governing Bodies Fla. Stat. §§ 171.071 - 171.081
Georgia Home Rule for Counties and Municipalities - Planning and Zoning Ga. Const. art. IX, § 2, para. 4
Hawaii Public Access Haw. Rev. Stat. § 46-6.5
Hawaii Development Agreement; Provisions Haw. Rev. Stat. § 46-126
Hawaii Powers of the Court Haw. Rev. Stat. § 668-7
Idaho Plats and Vacations Idaho Code Ann. § 50-1301 et seq.
Illinois Compliance of Plat with Map; Designation of Public Lands; Approval; ... 65 Ill. Comp. Stat. §§ 5/11-12-8 - 11-12-12
Indiana Subdivision Control Ind. Code § 36-7-4-700 et seq.
Iowa Platting - Division and Subdivision of Land Iowa Code § 354.1 et seq.
Kansas Planning and Zoning in Cities and Counties Kan. Stat. Ann. § 12-741 et seq.
Kentucky Subdivision Management Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 100.273 et seq.
Louisiana Scope of Control of Subdivision La. Rev. Stat. §§ 33:111 - 33:114
Maine Impact Fees Me. Stat. tit. 30-A, § 4354
Maryland Subdivision Md. Code Land Use § 5-101 et seq.
Massachusetts Subdivision Control Law Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 41 §§ 81K - 81GG
Michigan Land Division Act Mich. Comp. Laws § 560.101 et seq.
Michigan Reincorporation under Act; Platting of Lands; Liability of City for New Streets (fourth class cities) Mich. Comp. Laws § 113.9
Minnesota Official Controls: Subdivision Regulation; Dedication Minn. Stat. §§ 469.358 - 469.365
Mississippi Regulation of Subdivisions Miss. Code Ann. § 17-1-23
Missouri Regulations Governing Subdivision of Land - Bond (Certain First Class Counties) Mo. Rev. Stat. § 64.060
Missouri Regulations Governing Subdivision of Land - Bond (Second and Third Class Counties) Mo. Rev. Stat. § 64.580
Missouri Regulations Governing Subdivision of Land, Limitations, Contents... Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 89.410 - 89.450
Montana Local Regulation of Subdivisions Mont. Code Ann. § 76-3-101 et seq.
Nebraska Real Estate; Subdividing; Procedure; Conditions; Replatting... (cities of the metropolitan class) Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 14-115 - 14-116
Nebraska Additions; How Platted; Approval... (cities of the primary class) Neb. Rev. Stat. § 15-106
Nebraska Zoning regulations; building ordinances... Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 16-901 - 16-904
Nebraska Additions; Subdivision or Platting; Procedure... Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 19-916 - 19-921
Nevada Division of Land Nev. Rev. Stat. § 278.230 et seq.
New Hampshire Regulation of Subdivision of Land N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 674:35 - 674:42
New Jersey Contribution for Off-tract Water, Sewer, Drainage, and Street Improvements N.J. Rev. Stat. § 40:55D-42
New Mexico Subdivisions; Planning and Platting (municipalities) N.M. Stat. § 3-20-1 et seq.
New Mexico County Subdivisions N.M. Stat. § 47-6-1 et seq.
New York Subdivision Review; Record of Plats N.Y. VIL Law § 7-732
New York Subdivision Review; Approval of Plats; Development of Filed Plats N.Y. TWN Law §§ 276 - 278
New York Subdivision Review; Approval of Plats; Development of Filed Plats N.Y. GCT Law §§ 32 - 33
New York Approval of Building Permits, Curb Cuts, and Subdivision Plats (county planning boards and regional planning councils) N.Y. GMU Law § 239-F
North Carolina "Subdivision" Defined (counties) N.C. Gen. Stat. § 153A-335
North Carolina Subdivision Regulation (cities and towns) N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 160A-371 - 376
North Dakota Extraterritorial Subdivision Regulation... N.D. Cent. Code §§ 40-48-18 - 40-48-23
Ohio Plats Ohio Rev. Code § 711.001 et seq.
Oklahoma Municipal Planning Commissions - Appointment Authorized - Ordinances Okla. Stat. tit. 11, §§ 45-101 - 46-105
Oregon Subdivisions and Partitions Or. Rev. Stat. § 92.010 et seq.
Pennsylvania Subdivision and Land Development Pa. Stat. tit. 53 § 10501 et seq.
Rhode Island Subdivision of Land 45 R.I. Gen. Laws § 45-23-25 et seq.
South Carolina Local Planning - Land Development Regulation S.C. Code Ann. § 6-29-1110 et seq.
South Dakota Platting of Townsites, Additions and Subdivisions S.D. Codified Laws § 11-3-1 et seq.
South Dakota Subdivisions Outside Municipal Corporate Limits Not Approved Pursuant to § 11-3-6 S.D. Codified Laws §§ 11-6-26 - 11-6-35
Tennessee Municipal Planning Regulations Tenn. Code Ann. § 13-4-301 et seq.
Texas Regulation of Subdivisions (municipalities) Tex. Local Gov't Code § 212.001 et seq.
Texas County Regulation of Subdivisions Tex. Local Gov't Code § 232.001 et seq.
Texas Authority of Municipality and County to Regulate Subdivisions in and Outside Municipality's Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Tex. Local Gov't Code § 242.001 et seq.
Utah Subdivisions Utah Code § 10-9a-601 et seq.
Vermont Limitations on Municipal Bylaws Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 24, §§ 4413 - 4421
Virginia Land Subdivision and Development Va. Code Ann. § 15.2-2240 et seq.
Washington Plats-Subdivision-Dedications Wash. Rev. Code § 58.17.010 et seq.
West Virginia Subdivision and Land Development Ordinance W. Va. Code § 8A-4-1 et seq.
West Virginia Subdivision or Land Development Plan and Plat W. Va. Code § 8A-5-1 et seq.
Wisconsin Platting Lands and Recording and Vacating Plats Wis. Stat. § 236.01 et seq.
Wyoming [Zoning] Regulations; Scope and Purpose... (cities and towns) Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 15-1-601
Wyoming Real Estate Subdivisions (counties) Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 18-5-30 et seq.