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Office of Highway Policy Information

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Office of Highway Policy Information (OHPI) – Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) – HPMS Reassessment 2010+

Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS)

7.0 References

AASHTO Standard Practice for Determination of International Roughness Index for Quantifying Roughness of Pavements, AASHTO PP 37-02.

AASHTO, Joint Task Force on Traffic Monitoring Standards of the AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Traffic Engineering. AASHTO Guidelines for Traffic Data Programs.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., 1992.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Standard Specification and Test Methods for Highway Traffic Monitoring Devices, Review Copy: Version C for E17.52, Draft December 2002.

Avis, J., Transportation System Network, Presentation at NATMEC 2002.

Cunagin, W.D., A.B. Grubbs, and D.J. Vitello Jr. Development of an Overhead Vehicle Sensor System. Research Report 426-1F. Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX, October 1987.

Cunagin, W.D., S.O. Majdi, and H.Y. Yeom. Development of Low Cost Piezoelectric Film WIM System, Research Report 1220-1F, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX, 1991.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), HPMS Field Manual, 2001b, https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/hpmsmanl/hpms.htm.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Study Tour for European Traffic Monitoring Programs and Technologies, FHWA's Scanning Program, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington D.C., August 1997.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Traffic Monitoring Guide, 2001, https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/tmguide/.

Fekpe, E., Gopalakrishna, D., Margiotta, R., Turner, S., Middleton, D., Traffic Data Quality Workshop Proceedings and Action Plan, Report to FHWA Office of Highway Policy Information, September 2003.

Florida DOT, Project Forecasting Handbook, 2002.

Florida DOT, Traffic Monitoring Handbook, Transportation Statistics Office, 2002.

Gillmann, R., Status of ITS Data for HPMS, Memo for FHWA, 2002.

Harvey, B.A., and G.H. Champion. "Classification Algorithms/Vehicle Classification Accuracy," presented at NATDAC96 hosted by Alliance for Transportation Research, Federal Highway Administration, and the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department, Albuquerque, NM, May 5-6, 1996.

Heltebridle, L., Pennsylvania's HPMS Quality Review, Presented at the HPMS Issues Workshop, Chicago, August 2002

Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), The Traffic Detector Handbook, Second Edition, Washington, D.C., 1991.

Labell, L.N., and A.D. May. Detectors for Freeway Surveillance and Control: Final Report. Institute of Transportation Studies. University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 1990.

Labi, S., and Fricker, J.D., "Assessing and Updating INDOT's Traffic Monitoring System for Highways", FHWA/IN/JTRP-98/12, 2001. Available at http://rebar.ecn.purdue.edu/JTRP_Completed_Project_Documents/HPR%5F0438/FinalReport/Hpr_0438_final_Prelude.pdf

Margiotta, R., State of the Practice for Traffic Data Quality, White Paper for FHWA Office of Policy, http://www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov/JPODOCS/REPTS_TE/13768.html, 2003.

Martin.P.,, Feng.Y., Wang.X., Detector Technology Evaluation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Utah Traffic Lab, November 2003.

Middleton, D., R. White, and J. Crawford. Initial Evaluation for Traffic Monitoring Equipment Evaluation Facility. Report FHWA/TX-04/0-4664-1, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, May 2004.

Middleton, D. and R. Parker. Initial Evaluation of Selected Detectors to Replace Inductive Loops on Freeways, Research Report FHWA/TX1439-7, Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX, April 2000.

Middleton, D., and Parker, R., Evaluation of Promising Vehicle Detection Systems, Research Report FHWA/TX-03/2119-1, Draft, Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX, October 2002.

Middleton, D., Jasek, D., Charara, H., and Morris, D. Evaluation of Innovative Methods to Reduce Stops to Trucks at Isolated Intersections, Study No. 7-2972, Research Report TX 97/2972-1S, Sponsored by the Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, TX, August 1997.

Minnesota DOT (MnDOT), Phase II Evaluation of Non-Intrusive Technologies for Traffic Detection, Final Report, St. Paul, MN, September 2002.

NYSDOT, Highway Data Services Bureau, Loop/Piezo Automatic Traffic Recorder specification, September 2001

Texas Transportation Institute (TTI), Texas Traffic Signal Detector Manual. Texas Transportation Institute Report 1163-1. Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX, July 1992.

Triplett, R. and Avis, J., Sensor Sharing Project, Presentation at NATMEC 2002.

Tyburski, R.M. "A Review of Road Sensor Technology for Monitoring Vehicle Traffic,"Institute of Transportation Engineers Journal, Volume 59, Number 8, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington D.C., August 1989.

Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, An Overview of Traffic Monitoring Programs in Large Urban Areas, Report for FHWA Office of Information Management, July 1997.

Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Case Studies of Traffic Monitoring Programs in Large Urban Areas, Report for FHWA Office of Information Management, July 1997b.

Washington DOT, Short Term Count Factoring Guide, 2003.

Woods, D.L., J.D. Blaschke, and H.G. Hawkins. A Short Course on Traffic Signal Design. Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX, November 1986.

Wright, T., Hu, P.S., et al. Variability in Traffic Monitoring Data, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, August 1997.

Relevant Websites of State DOT Traffic Monitoring Groups


Florida www.dot.state.fl.us/planning/statistics/trafficdata
California http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/
Washington http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/mapsdata/tdo/highwaybranch.htm
Maryland http://www.sha.state.md.us/traffictrends2/
Ohio http://www.dot.state.oh.us/techservsite/offceorg/traffmonit/traffmonit.htm
Virginia http://virginiadot.org/projects/pr-traffic-counts.asp
Illinois http://www.dot.state.il.us/tpublic.html
New York  
New Jersey www.state.nj.us/transportation
Massachusetts www.state.ma.us/MHD
Georgia http://www.dot.state.ga.us/DOT/plan-prog/transportation_data/index.shtml
Texas www.dot.state.tx.us
Michigan www.michigan.gov/mdot


List of Interviewees

Joe Avis
Chief Traffic Data and Photolog Unit
Division of Traffic Operations
California Department of Transportation (Caltrans)
Ph: (916) 654-3072

Brian Domsic
Division of Transportation System Information
California Department of Transportation (Caltrans)
Ph: (916) 653-3272
Fax: (916) 654-6583

Jim Neidigh
Transportation Planning & Programming Division
Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT)
Ph: (512) 486-5137

Rob Robinson
Data Management Unit Chief
Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT)
Ph: (217) 785-2353
Fax: (217) 524-6251

Harshad Desai
(formerly) Manager, Traffic Data Section
Florida DOT (FDOT)
Ph: (850) 414-4718
Office of Highway Policy Information
Federal Highway Administration
(202) 366-5047

John Rosen
Highway Usage Branch Manager
Washington DOT (WsDOT)

David Adams
Office of Transportation Data
Georgia Department of Transportation
Ph: (770) 986-1364

Todd Westhuis
NYSDOT Highway Data Services Bureau
Traffic Monitoring Section Supervisor
Ph: (518) 457-7203

Nabeel Akhtar
Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT)

David Gardner
Manager, Traffic Monitoring Section
Ohio Department of Transportation
Ph: (614) 752-5740

Tony Manch
Engineer, Office of Technical Services
Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT)
Ph: (614) 466-3075

Mike Baxter
Assistant Division Chief, HISD
Database Management, Traffic Monitoring, HPMS, Road Inventory
Maryland State Highway Administration
Ph: (410) 545-5511
Fax: (410) 209-5033

Mike Walimaki
Supervisor, Travel Information Unit
Data Collection Section
Asset Management Division
Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT)
Ph: (517) 335-2914

Tom Schinkel
Virginia DOT, Planning
Ph: (804) 225-3123
Fax: (804) 371-0190

Louis Whiteley
Section Chief, Traffic and Technology Section
New Jersey DOT (NJDOT)

Philip Hughes
Contracts/Agreements Administrator
Massachusetts Highway Department
Ph: (617) 973-7330


Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT)
The estimate of typical daily traffic on a road segment for all days of the week, Sunday through Saturday, over the period of one year.

Average Daily Traffic (ADT)
The total traffic volume during a given time period (more than a day and less than a year) divided by the number of days in that time period.

Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR)
A device that records the continuous passage of vehicles across a given section of roadway by hours of the day, days of the week or months of the year.

ATR Counts
Base traffic counts recorded at an automatic traffic recorder.

Automatic Vehicle Classifier AVC)
A device that works in conjunction with computerized electronic equipment that counts and classifies vehicles by type and axle configuration.

Axle Correction Factor
The factor developed to adjust vehicle-axle sensor-base data for the incidence of vehicles with more than two axles, or the estimate of total axles based on automatic vehicle classification data divided by the total number of vehicles counted.

The data collected as a result of measuring and recording traffic characteristics such as vehicle volume, classification, speed, weight, or a combination of these characteristics.

Count Period
The beginning and ending date and time of traffic characteristic measurement.

Count Type
The traffic characteristic being measured, the measurement device, and time period.

Coverage Count
A traffic count taken as part of the requirement for system-level estimates of traffic. The count is typically short-term, and may be volume, classification, or Weigh-in-Motion.

Functional Classification
The grouping of streets and highways into classes, or systems, according to the character of service they are intended to provide. The recognition that individual roads do not serve travel independently and most travel involves movement through a network of roads is basic to functional classification.

Geographic Information System GIS)
A method of storing, analyzing, and displaying spatial data.

Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS)
A federally mandated data reporting system for all roads except local.

Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)
A system that employs electronics, communications, and/or information processing to improve the efficiency of surface transportation operations and provide real-time information about travel options.

Loop Detector
A detector that senses changes in inductance, of its inductive loop sensor, caused by the passage or presence of a vehicle near the sensor.

Manual Counts
Measurement of traffic characteristics based on human observation, which may or may not be electronically recorded.

Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO)
Regional agency responsible for urbanized area transportation planning.

National Highway System (NHS)
A designated system of highways of National Significance mandated under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. The purpose of the NHS is to provide an interconnected system of principal arterial routes to serve major population centers, airports and public transportation facilities, to meet national defense requirements and to serve interstate and interregional travel.

Permanent Count Stations
ATRs that are permanently placed at specific locations throughout the region to record the distribution and variation of traffic flow by hours of the day, days of the week, and months of the year from year to year.

Seasonal Factors
Parameters used to adjust base counts that consider travel behavior fluctuations by day of the week and month of the year.

Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP)
A five-year program for pavement and operations research funded by Congress and managed through the National Academy of Sciences. One of the four research areas, Long-term Pavement Performance, is planned as a 20-year program.

Traffic Management Center (TMC)
Also known as Traffic Operations Center, it serves as the nerve center for a traffic management system. Data on traffic conditions collected in real time by any of a variety of means are transmitted to the TMC where traffic engineers, assisted by computer, monitor traffic flow and respond to congestion in a variety of ways, such as adjusting traffic signal timing or transmitting information on current conditions to motorists via changeable message signs.

Traffic Monitoring Guide (TMG)
Document that provides FHWA's recommended approach to the monitoring of traffic characteristics. The guide provides direction for persons interested in conducting a statistically based monitoring of traffic counting, vehicle classification, and truck weighing.

Traffic Program
The collection, editing, summarization, reporting, and analysis of traffic volume, classification, and weight data.

Vehicle Classification
The measurement, summarization, and reporting of traffic volume by vehicle type and axle configuration.

Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)
Average Sunday through Saturday vehicle movement on a specific road segment multiplied by the length of the road segment, reported in the form of daily and annual VMT.

Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) The process of estimating a moving vehicle's static gross weight and the portion of that weight that is carried by each wheel, axle, or axle group or combination thereof, by measurement and analysis of dynamic forces applied by its tires to a measuring device.


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