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Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-15-074     Date:  September 2016
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-15-074
Date: September 2016

 

Pavement Structural Evaluation at the Network Level: Final Report

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Page number 215, Figure 217 T subscript c equals 19.791 times exponential raised to the power of -0.043 times T subscript r minus the quantity 19.791 times exponential raised to the power of -0.043 times T subscript f. /publications/research/infrastructure/pavements/15074/008.cfm#errata01

 

FOREWORD

As State transportation departments begin to consider structural adequacy as part of their routine pavement management system (PMS) activities by incorporating deflection testing, it is important to advance their practices from deflection testing using falling weight deflectometers, which involves a slow, stop-and-go operation and requires lane closures, to a more viable alternative for network-level pavement management applications. The development of moving deflection testing devices that can measure pavement responses at traffic speeds is a more viable alternative.

The goal of this project was to establish a reliable measure of the structural condition of bound pavement layers above the unbound base layer as it deteriorates over time under traffic and environmental loading by measuring pavement deflection at traffic speeds. As part of the project, a literature review was conducted, and questionnaires were developed and followed up by interviews to device manufacturers, owners, and users. Two devices were found to be potentially viable: the Traffic Speed Deflectometer and Rolling Wheel Deflectometer. A work plan was developed and implemented to evaluate if the two devices met a minimum set of specifications related to the structural evaluation of pavements at the network level. Field evaluations and validation analyses were completed in accordance with the work plan. Finally, analysis methodologies and processes were developed for incorporating pavement structural information within PMS applications. This report is intended for use by pavement management engineers and pavement investment decision makers across the United States.

Mayela Sosa
Acting Director, Office of Infrastructure
Research and Development

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers’ names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

 

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

 

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.

FHWA-HRT-15-074

2. Government Accession No. 3 Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

Pavement Structural Evaluation at the Network Level: Final Report

5. Report Date

September 2016

6. Performing Organization Code

None

7. Author(s)

Gonzalo R. Rada, Soheil Nazarian, Beth A. Visintine, Raj Siddharthan, and Senthil Thyagarajan

8. Performing Organization Report No.

 

9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Amec Foster Wheeler Environment & Infrastructure, Inc.
12000 Indian Creek Court, Suite F, Beltsville, MD 20705

The University of Texas at El Paso
Center for Transportation Infrastructure Systems
500 West University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968

University of Nevada Reno
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV 89557

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

11. Contract or Grant No.

DTFH61-12-C-00031

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Infrastructure Research and Development
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Final Report, September 2012–April 2015

14. Sponsoring Agency Code

 

15. Supplementary Notes

The Contracting Officer's Representative was Nadarajah Sivaneswaran, HRDI-20.

16. Abstract

As State transportation departments consider structural adequacy as part of their routine pavement management system (PMS) activities by incorporating deflection testing, it is important to advance their practices from measuring deflection using falling weight deflectometers, which involves a slow, stop-and-go operation and requires lane closures, to a more viable alternative for network-level pavement management applications. The development of moving deflection testing devices that can measure pavement responses at traffic speeds represents this more viable alternative. The modern versions of the moving deflection testing devices that are actively used today include the Traffic Speed Deflectometer (TSD) and a Rolling Wheel Deflectometer (RWD).

The goal of this project was to establish a reliable measure of the structural condition of bound pavement layers above the unbound base layer as it deteriorates over time under traffic and environmental loading based on moving pavement deflection technology measuring at traffic speeds. Moreover, this measure needed to be robust enough in capturing the structural condition or deterioration of the pavement layer notwithstanding the seasonal and spatial variation in base and subgrade layers. As part of the project, a literature review was conducted, and questionnaires were developed for device manufacturers, owners, and users, which were then followed up by interviews. Both the TSD and RWD were found to be potentially viable devices. Based on this finding, a work plan was developed and implemented to evaluate if the two devices met a minimum set of specifications related to the structural evaluation of pavements at the network level including accuracy and precision of deflection measurements, monitoring applied load, operating speed, and distance between deflection measurements. Field evaluations and validation analyses were completed in accordance with the work plan. Ultimately, analysis methodologies and processes were developed for incorporating pavement structural information within highway agencies’ PMS applications.

17. Key Words

Network-level, Structural evaluation, Rolling wheel deflectometer, Traffic speed deflectometer, Deflection indices

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.
http://www.ntis.gov

19. Security Classification
(of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classification
(of this page)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

282

22. Price
Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized

SI* (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER 3. MANUFACTURERS', OWNERS', AND USERS' QUESTIONNAIRES

CHAPTER 4. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS WORK PLAN

CHAPTER 5. PROCESS OF EVALUATION AND VALIDATION OF DEVICES

CHAPTER 6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DEVICES

CHAPTER 7. 3D-MOVE CALIBRATION

CHAPTER 8. DEFLECTION BASIN INDICES

CHAPTER 9. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

CHAPTER 10. RECOMMENDATIONS

APPENDIX A. DEVICE MANUFACTURERS' QUESTIONNAIRES AND INTERVIEWS

APPENDIX B. SENSOR INSTALLATION AND FIELD TRIALS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

REFERENCES

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Acronyms

AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
AC asphalt concrete
AIAsphalt Institute
AUPP area under pavement profile
BCI Base Curvature Index
BDI Base Damage Index
COV coefficient of variation
DAQ data acquisition
DMI distant measuring instrument
DSI Deflection Slope Index
ESAL equivalent single-axle load
FDR full-depth reclamation
FFT fast Fourier transform
FHWA Federal Highway Administration
FWD falling weight deflectometer
GPR ground penetrating radar
GPS Global Positioning System
HMA hot mix asphalt
IRI International Roughness Index
LE linear elastic
LED light-emitting diode
LTPP Long-Term Pavement Performance
LVDT linear variable differential transformer
LVR low-volume road
M&R maintenance and rehabilitation
MA member agency
MEPDG Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide
MnDOT Minnesota Department of Transportation
MSI Modified Structural Index
PCC portland cement concrete
PG performance grade
PMS pavement management system
RWD Rolling Wheel Deflectometer
SCI Surface Curvature Index
SD slope of deflection
SEE standard error of estimate
SHRP2 Second Strategic Highway Research Program
SN structural number
TC thermocouple
TS tangent slope
TSD Traffic Speed Deflectometer
TSDD traffic speed deflection device
UNR University of Nevada-Reno
UTEP University of Texas-El Paso
VTS Viscosity temperature susceptibility
WESLEA Waterways Experiment Station Linear Elastic Analysis

 

 

 

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