U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
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Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations
REPORT 
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information 

Publication Number: FHWA HRT17095 Date: September 2017 
Publication Number: FHWA HRT17095 Date: September 2017 
Figure 1. Graph. Timeseries transverse cracking data for each severity level and the sum of all severity levels for LTPP SPS3 test section A330 in California. This graph displays transverse cracking as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “Transverse cracking (ft),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” Triangles with a dashed line, diamonds with a dashed line, and circles with a dashed line delineate three sets of data corresponding to low severity, medium severity, and high severity, respectively. A solid line represents the bestfit exponential function (sum of all severity levels) for a set of data indicated by squares and is labeled “Sum of all severity levels.” For approximate elapsed times 0, 1, 5.25, 6.75, 7.9, 11.1, and 12.9 years on the x‑axis, the datasets have the following respective approximate transverse cracking (yaxis): set one (triangles)—165, 65, 35, 115, 345, and 165 ft; set two (diamonds)—50, 60, 100, 65, 15, and 65ft; set three (circles)—0, 165, 165, 130, 400, and 360 ft; and set four (squares)—130, 195, 360, 375, 385, 785, and 655 ft. (1 ft = 0.305 m)
Figure 2. Graph. Cumulative timeseries transverse cracking data showing individual transverse crack severity level and the sum of all severity levels for LTPP SPS3 test section A330 in California. This bar graph depicts the sum of severity levels of transverse cracking as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “Sum of severity levels of transverse cracking (ft),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” Each column consists of one, two, or three boxes stacked upon each other. Rectangles filled with diagonal lines represent the low severity transverse cracking, rectangles filled with dots represent the medium severity transverse cracking, and rectangles with dots represent the high severity transverse cracking. For approximate elapsed time 0.2 years, the transverse cracking (only low severity is present) is approximately 130 ft. For approximate elapsed time 1 year, the transverse cracking (only low and medium severities are present) is approximately 165 and 35 ft, respectively. For approximate elapsed time 5.4 years, the transverse cracking is approximately 70, 55, and 155 ft, respectively. For approximate elapsed time 6.7 years, the transverse cracking is approximately 35, 100, and 165 ft, respectively. For approximate elapsed time 11.3 years, the transverse cracking is approximately 345, 5, and 365 ft, respectively. For approximate elapsed time 13 years, the transverse cracking is approximately 165, 65, and 360 ft, respectively. (1 ft = 0.305 m)
Figure 3. Graph. Timeseries transverse cracking data for each severity level and the sum of all severity levels, Highway 24, direction 2, BMP 329.9, in Colorado. This graph displays transverse cracking as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “Transverse cracking (ft),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” Triangles with a dashed line, diamonds with a dashed line, and circles with a dashed line delineate three sets of data corresponding to low severity, medium severity, and high severity. A solid line represents the bestfit exponential function (sum of all severity levels) for a set of data indicated by squares labeled “Sum of all severity levels.” For approximate elapsed times 1, 2, 3, and 4 years on the xaxis, the datasets have the following respective approximate transverse cracking (yaxis): set one (triangles)—85, 60, 100, and 310 ft; set two (diamonds)—135, 130, 160, and 15 ft; set three (circles)—50, 155, 10, and 0 ft; and set four (black squares)—265, 350, 275, and 325 ft. (1 ft = 0.305 m)
Figure 4. Graph. Cumulative timeseries transverse cracking data showing individual transverse crack severity level and the sum of all severity levels, Highway 24, direction 2, BMP 329.9, in Colorado. This bar graph depicts the sum of severity levels of transverse cracking as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “Sum of severity levels of transverse cracking (ft),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” Each column consists of two or three boxes stacked upon each other. Rectangles filled with diagonal lines represent the low severity transverse cracking, rectangles filled with small dots represent the medium severity transverse cracking, and rectangles with large dots represent the high severity transverse cracking. For elapsed time 1 year, the transverse cracking is approximately 80, 130, and 40 ft, respectively. For elapsed time 2 years, the transverse cracking is approximately 55, 140, and 155ft, respectively. For elapsed time 3 years, the transverse cracking is approximately 105, 160, and 10 ft, respectively. For elapsed time 4 years, the transverse cracking is approximately 310, 15, and 0 ft, respectively. (1 ft = 0.305 m)
Figure 5. Chart. Rating and descriptive scales and distress points. This figure reads “Deduct distress points rating scale with a threshold value of 60 points (100 is equal to Excellent pavement)” and provides a horizontal descriptive scale from 0 to 100 in intervals of 10 where 0to 30 is labeled “Very poor,” 30 to 60, “Poor,” 60 to 75, “Fair,” 75 to 90, “Good,” and 90 to 100, “Very good.” It continues, “Engineering criterion is equal to maximum acceptable number of cracks is equal to 50 transverse cracks per 0.1 mile long pavement segment, which is equivalent to 1 crack every 10.5 feet and corresponds to 60 points on the rating scale.” The next section describes the Deduct value method as being conducted by calculating distress points (DP) per transverse crack (TC) equal to DP divided by TC. DP divided by TC is equal to maximum rating scale value minus threshold value divided by the maximum acceptable number of transverse cracks is equal to 100 minus 60 divided by 50 is equal to 0.8. Distress points is equal to DP is equal to 100 minus 0.8 multiplied by the number of TC. Below the deduct value method reads “Cumulative distress points rating scale with a threshold value of 40 points” followed by “(0.0 is equal to Excellent pavement)” and a horizontal descriptive scale from 0 to 100. This scale is in intervals of 10 where 0 to 10 is labeled “Very good,” 10 to 25, “Good,” 25to 40, “Fair,” 40 to 70, “Poor,” and 70 to 100, “Very poor.” The final section provides cumulative distress points. Distress points per transverse crack is equal to DP divided by TC. DP divided by TC is equal to threshold value divided by maximum acceptable number of transverse cracks is equal to 40 divided by 50 is equal to 0.8. Distress points is equal to DP is equal to 0.8multiplied by the number of TC. (0.1 mi = 0.16 km. 1 ft = 0.305 m)
Figure 6. Graph. Descriptive rating scales for pavement condition. This graph displays the rating scale as a function of time. The yaxis is labeled “Rating scale,” and the xaxis is labeled “Time (year).” The yaxis is numbered 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40, where 0 to 10 is labeled “Very good,” 10 to 20, “Good,” 20 to 30, “Fair,” and 30 to 40, “Poor.” A solid curve is plotted. For elapsed times 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years on the xaxis, the rating scale (yaxis) values are approximately 1, 2, 5, 12, and 30, respectively.
Figure 7. Equation. DI. DI is equal to the summation of DP divided by N, which is also equal to the quotient of 0.1 divided by L, end quotient, multiplied by the summation of DP. DI is a distress index, the summation of DP is the sum of the distress points along the project, N is the number of 0.1milong pavement segments along the project where N is equal to L divided by 0.1, and L is the project length in mi. (1 mi = 1.6 km)
Figure 8. Graph. Pavement condition classification system. This graph compares International Roughness Index (IRI) to elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “IRI (inch/mile),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” A horizontal dashed line intercepting the yaxis at 250 inches/mi indicates the threshold. Two additional curves, one dashed and the other dotted, delineate the boundaries between good, fair, and poor sets of data. For approximate elapsed times 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years on the xaxis, the datasets have the following respective approximate IRI (yaxis): dashed—50, 59, 69, 81, 95, and 111 inches/mi; dotted—50, 66, 88, 116, 153, and 203inches/mi. Below the dashed curve is the label “Good,” between the dashed and dotted curves is the label “Fair,” and above the dotted curve is the label “Poor.” (1 inch/mi = 0.0158m/km)
Figure 9. Graph. Shortcomings of the recommended classification system when dealing with real but good data (not the worstcase scenario). This graph compares International Roughness Index (IRI) to elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “IRI (inch/mile),” and the xaxis is labeled Elapsed time (year).” A horizontal dashed line intercepting the yaxis at approximately 250 inches/mi indicates the threshold. Two curves, one dashed and the other dashed dotted, delineate the boundaries between good, fair, and poor sets of data. For approximate elapsed times 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years on the xaxis, the datasets have the following respective approximate IRI (yaxis): dashed curve—50, 59, 69, 81, 95, and 111 inches/mi, and dashed dotted curve—50, 66, 88, 116, 153, and 203 inches/mi. Below the dashed curve is the label “Good,” between the dashed and dashed dotted curves is the label “Fair,” and above the dashed dotted curve is the label “Poor.” Solid triangles, open triangles, and open diamonds, respectively, indicate three sets of data for “Road 1,” “Road 2,” and “Road 3.” These sets of data each have bestfit exponential function curves represented by dashdot, dashdotdot, and dash patterns, respectively. For the approximate elapsed times 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 years, these bestfit curves have the following respective approximate IRI (yaxis): set one solid triangles—40, 45, 53, 60, 80, 90, 115, 130, 160, 175, and 210 inches/mi; set three (open diamonds)—62, 65, 70, 75, 85, 90, 95, 100, 115, 110, and 125 inches/mi. For approximate elapsed times 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years, the set two bestfit curve for open triangles has the following respective approximate IRI (yaxis): 45, 55, 75, 75, 130, 195, and 260 inches/mi. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158m/km)
Figure 10. Graph. A typical pavement performance curve. This graph depicts typical International Roughness Index (IRI) over time. The yaxis is labeled “IRI (inch/mile),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (years).” A horizontal dashed line intercepting the yaxis at 200inches/mi indicates the threshold. A solid curve is plotted. This curve is labeled “Pavement performance curve.” For elapsed times 0, 5, 10, 15, and 16 years on the xaxis, the IRI (y‑axis) is approximately 50, 80, 125, 190, and 200 inches/mi, respectively. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 11. Equation. PI. PI is equal to the exponent of beta subscript one plus beta subscript two multiplied by CAATT plus beta subscript three multiplied by CAFDX. PI is the value of the performance indicator for a pavement segment in a given year; CAATT is the cumulative average annual daily truck traffic (in millions) predicted for the pavement segment from the time of treatment to the given year; CAFDX is the cumulative annual freeze index (in thousands of degreedays) predicted from the time of treatment to the given year; and beta subscript one, beta subscript two, and beta subscript three are statistical parameters.
Figure 12. Equation. RD. RD is equal to gamma multiplied by t to the power of omega. RD is rut depth, gamma and omega are regression parameters, and t is elapsed time in years.
Figure 13. Equation. IRI. IRI is equal to alpha multiplied by the exponent beta multiplied by t. Alpha and beta are regression parameters, and t is elapsed time in years.
Figure 14. Equation. Crack. Crack is equal to k divided by one plus the exponent of negative theta multiplied by t minus mu. Crack is crack length, area, or percent; k, theta, and mu are regression parameters; and t is elapsed time in years.
Figure 15. Graph. Relationship between RSL and cost of managing pavements. This graph depicts cost per lanemile in relation to remaining service life. The yaxis is labeled “Cost per lanemile ($1,000),” and the xaxis is labeled “Remaining service life (year).” A solid curve is plotted through four data points. For remaining service life years 0, 5, 10, 15 on the xaxis, the cost per lanemi in thousands (yaxis) is approximately 1,000, 300, 100, and 20. (1 lanemile = 1.609 lanekm)
Figure 16. Equation. RSL. Zero is less than or equal to RSL, which is equal to the value of t when PC is equal to Th, minus SA, all of which is less than or equal to DSL minus SA. The value of t when PC is equal to Th is the time (the number of years) at which the pavement condition reaches the threshold value (Th), SA is the pavement surface age in years, and DSL is the pavement design service life in years.
Figure 17. Equation. RSL_{network}. RSL subscript network is equal to the summation of RSL subscript i multiplied by SL subscript i for n terms starting at i equal to 1, all of which is divided by the summation of SL subscript i for n terms starting at initial term i equal to 1. RSL is the remaining service life, SL is the segment length, i is the number pavement segment, and n is the total number of pavement segments or sections in the network.
Figure 18. Graph. Schematic of the definition of SLE. This graph depicts International Roughness Index (IRI) by calendar year. The yaxis is labeled “IRI (inch/mile),” and the xaxis is labeled “Calendar year.” A horizontal dashed line intercepting the yaxis at approximately 250inches/mi indicates the threshold. Two curves, one solid and the other dotted, indicate “Beforetreatment” and “Aftertreatment prediction,” respectively. A third curve serves as an extension of the first solid curve as a dashed curve labeled “Beforetreatment prediction.” For approximate calendar years 2005, 2010, and 2011, set one (solid curve) has the approximate IRI (yaxis) 50, 100, and 120 inches/mi, respectively. For approximate calendar years 2015 and 2016, the dashed curve extension indicates approximate IRI (yaxis) 210and 250 inches/mi, respectively. For approximate calendar years, 2011, 2015, and 2020, set two dotted has the approximate IRI (y‑axis) 50, 100, and 250 inches/mi, respectively. The linear distance of the beforetreatment dashed curve is labeled RSL subscript BT. The linear distance between the end of this curve and the end of the aftertreatment prediction is labeled “Service life extension.” (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 19. Graph. Schematic of the definition of TL. This graph depicts International Roughness Index (IRI) by calendar year. The yaxis is labeled “IRI (inch/mile),” and the xaxis is labeled “Calendar year.” A horizontal shortdashed line intercepting the yaxis at approximately 100 indicates before treatment (BT) condition. A horizontal longdashed line intercepting the yaxis at approximately 200 indicates threshold. Two curves are displayed. One thick solid curve indicates BT measured data fit through solid squares representing beforetreatment data, and the other thin solid curve indicates improved after treatment (AT) condition fit through open circles representing “Aftertreatment data.” For approximate calendar years 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2011, set one (solid squares) has the approximate IRI (yaxis) 50, 75, 90, and 100 inches/mi, respectively. For approximate calendar years 2013, 2015, and 2017, set two (open circles) has the approximate IRI (yaxis) 55, 70, and 100 inches/mi, respectively. The linear distance between the BT data and the end of the AT data is labeled “Treatment life.” (1 inch/mi = 0.0158m/km)
Figure 20. Graph. Schematic of the definition of negative TL. This graph depicts International Roughness Index (IRI) by calendar year. The yaxis is labeled “IRI (inch/mile),” and the xaxis is labeled “Calendar year.” A horizontal shortdashed line intercepts the y‑axis at approximately 100 inches/mi. A horizontal dashdot line intercepts the yaxis at approximately 150 inches/mi. A horizontal longdashed line intercepting the yaxis at approximately 200inches/mi indicates threshold. A solid curve indicates before treatment (BT) measured data and is fit through solid squares representing BT data. A black dashed curve indicates BT prediction and serves as an extension of the first data, fitting through open circles representing aftertreatment data. For approximate calendar years 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2011, set one (solid squares) has the approximate IRI (yaxis) 50, 75, 85, and 100 inches/mi, respectively. For approximately calendar years 2013, 2015, and 2017, set two (open circles) has the approximate IRI (y‑axis) 150, 170, and 205 inches/mi, respectively. The open circle located at calendar year 2013 and IRI 150 is labeled “Worse AT condition.” The linear length of the dashed curve is labeled “Negative treatment life.” (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 21. Graph. Schematic of the definition of TB. This graph depicts total benefit as condition indicator by pavement surface age. The yaxis is labeled “Condition indicator,” and the xaxis is labeled “Pavement surface age (year).” A horizontal dashed line intercepting the yaxis at approximately 55 indicates lower benefit cutoff value. Above this line is the label “Do nothing.” A solid curve is plotted. For approximate pavement surface ages 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10years, the condition indicator (yaxis) is approximately 100, 97, 92, 85, 72, and 55years, respectively. A dashed line intercepts the curve at pavement surface age 5 years and extends upward from approximate condition indicator (yaxis) value 90 at the curve to 100 and follows the solid curve in parallel until pavement surface age 11 years where it intercepts the lower benefit cutoff value and terminates.
Figure 22. Graph. PJ and DRR. This graph depicts International Roughness Index (IRI) over elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “IRI (inch/mile),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” Two curves, one solid and one dashed, indicate before treatment and after treatment, respectively. For approximate elapsed times 1, 5, 10, and 12 years, set one (solid curve) has the approximate IRI (yaxis) 55, 85, 150, and 190 inches/mi, respectively. For approximate elapsed times 11, 15, and 20 years, set two (dashed curve) has the approximate IRI (yaxis) 60, 95, and 170 inches/mi, respectively. Tangent dashed line portions accommodate the solid curve from approximate elapsed years 9.5to 12.5 and the dashed curve from approximate elapsed years 12to 16.5. These are labeled “Rates of deterioration.” The tangent portion of the solid curve that extends past the set one data between approximate year 12and 12.5 is labeled “Performance jump.” (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 23. Illustration. Example of decision tree for continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP). This figure consists of a flowchart. The flowchart starts in the top left with “Start.” The first diamond reads present serviceablity rating (PSR) greater than trigger. If yes, this indicates “Good Ride” and the next diamond reads surface rating (SR) greater than trigger. If yes, this indicates “Good Ride” and “Good SR” and the next rectangle dictates to “do nothing.” If the first diamond is not true, the next reads SR greater than trigger. If yes, this indicates “Bad Ride” and “Good SR,” and the next rectangle dictates “thick overlay or unbonded overlay”. If no, this indicates “Bad Ride” and “Bad SR,” and the next rectangle dictates “full pavement restoration, unbonded overlay, or thick overlay.” If the diamond reading SR greater than trigger is not true, this indicates “Good Ride” and “Bad SR,” and the next rectangle dictates “thick overlay or unbonded overlay.”
Figure 24. Equation. NPW. NPW is equal to initial cost plus the summation of preservation costs subscript k multiplied by one divided by the product of one plus i to the power of lowercase n subscript k for uppercase N terms at initial term k equal to 1. NPW is the net present worth, uppercase N is the total number of preservation treatments, i is the discount rate, lowercase n is the number of years into the future, and k is the number of the action in sequence.
Figure 25. Equation. EUAC. EUAC is equal to NPW multiplied by the quotient of the product of 1 plus i to the power of n, divided by the product of one plus i to the power of n minus 1, end quotient. EUAC is the equivalent uniform annual cost, NPW is the net present worth, i is the discount rate, and n is the number of years into the future.
Figure 26. Graph. Typical pavement condition or distress over the pavement lifecycle. This graph displays pavement distress or condition as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “Pavement distress or condition,” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” Three dashed lines are located parallel with the xaxis at approximately onefifth, threefifths, and fourfifths of the distance to the top of the yaxis. Labels reading “Preservation,” “Rehabilitation,” and “Reconstruction” are located above these lines, respectively. The data exhibit an exponential trend, increasing from left to right in nine plots with one solid square point representing deterioration at the start and end of each. The plots run from approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 0years to approximately 10 years, 10 to 16 years, 16 to 22 years, 22 to 30 years, 30 to 34 years, 34to 40 years, 40 to 43 years, 43 to 47 years, and 47 to 53 years. The first plot extends from below the preservation line to above it, and the second through fifth plots extend from below to above the preservation line, at the preservation line to the rehabilitation line, below the preservation line to between the preservation and rehabilitation lines, from the preservation line to between the preservation and rehabilitation lines, and from between the preservation and rehabilitation lines to above the rehabilitation line. The seventh and eighth plots are entirely between the preservation and rehabilitation lines, and the ninth plot is from between the preservation and rehabilitation lines to the reconstruction line. From the rightmost or highest data point of each plot down to the leftmost or lowest data point of the next plot is a dotted line parallel to the yaxis denoting “Preservation.”
Figure 27. Graph. IRI versus elapsed time for LTPP SPS1 test sections 0102 and 0103 in Iowa. This graph displays the International Roughness Index (IRI) as a function of elapsed time. The y‑axis is labeled “IRI (inch/mi)” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” Three dashed lines are located parallel with the xaxis at approximately onethird, twothirds, and five‑sixths of the distance to the top of the yaxis. Labels reading “Good,” “Fair,” and “Poor” are located above these lines, respectively. A label reading “Threshold” is located above the graph. Solid triangles represent section 0103, and solid diamonds represent section 0102. For approximate elapsed times 0.33, 1.67, 3.00, 4.33, 5.33, 6.00, 7, and 8 years on the xaxis, the datasets have the following respective approximate IRI (yaxis): set one (triangles)—45, 50, 65, 65, 65, 75, 75, and 90inches/mi; and set two (diamonds)—55, 75, 90, 100, 125, 140, 150, and 175 inches/mi. These are both fitted exponentially with solid lines, defined by the following equations: y equals 0.7338 multiplied by the exponent of 0.0727 times x, and y equals 0.8687multiplied by the exponent of 0.1483times x, respectively. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 28. Equation. Rut depth. Rut depth is equal to R multiplied by D, which is equal to alpha multiplied by t to the power of beta. The time t is equal to exponent of 1 divided by beta, multiplied by the natural log of R times D divided by alpha.
Figure 29. Equation. t. The variable t is equal to the exponent of 1 divided by beta times the natural log of Th divided by alpha.
Figure 30. Equation. RSP. Zero is less than or equal to RSP, which is equal to t minus SA, which is also equal to the exponent of 1 divided by beta times the natural log of Th divided by alpha, minus SA, which is also less than or equal to DSL minus SA. RD is rut depth, alpha and beta are statistical parameters, Th is threshold value for rut depth (typical value is 0.5 inches (12.5 mm)), SA is surface age (years), DSL is design service life of the last treatment (years), ln is natural logarithm, and e is exponential function.
Figure 31. Graph. Example of idealized rut depth data and function versus elapsed time. This graph displays rut depth as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “Rut Depth (in),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” A horizontal solid line is located at approximate value 0.5 inches on the yaxis. A label above this line reads “Threshold.” Connected circles represent simulated ideal data. For approximate elapsed times 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 years on the xaxis, the dataset has the following approximate rut depth: 0.05, 0.22, 0.28, 0.31, 0.33, 0.36, 0.38, 0.39, 0.41, and 0.43 inches, respectively. The data are extrapolated to approximate elapsed time (xaxis) value 16 years where the curve intercepts the threshold. (1 inch = 25.4mm)
Figure 32. Graph. RSP versus the pavement surface age for an idealized power function. This graph displays remaining structural period (RSP) as a function of surface age (SA) and elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “RSP (year),” and the xaxis is labeled “SA and elapsed time (year).” Solid squares fitted with a dashed line represent “Based on DSL—SA,” and solid circles represent “Based on equation.” The latter dataset is a continuation of the initial set, together exhibiting a downward linear trend. For SA and elapsed time 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 years on the xaxis, the datasets have the following respective RSP (yaxis): set one (squares)—15 and 14years; and set two (circles)—13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, and 6 years.
Figure 33. Graph. IRI versus elapsed time for LTPP SPS1 test sections 0102 and 0103 in Iowa. This graph displays International Roughness Index (IRI) as a function of elapsed time. The y‑axis is labeled “IRI (inch/mi),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” Three dashed lines are located parallel with the xaxis at approximately onethird, twothirds, and fivesixths of the distance to the top of the yaxis. Labels reading “Good,” “Fair,” and “Poor” are located above these lines, respectively. A label reading “Threshold” is located above the graph. Solid triangles represent section 0103, and solid diamonds represent section 0102. For approximate elapsed times 0.33, 1.67, 3.00, 4.33, 5.33, 6.00, 7, and 8 years on the xaxis, the datasets have the following respective approximate IRI (yaxis): set one (triangles)—45, 50, 65, 65, 65, 75, 75, and 90inches/mi; and set two (diamonds)—55, 75, 90, 100, 125, 140, 140, and 175 inches/mi. These are both fitted exponentially with solid lines, defined by the following equations: y equals 0.7338 multiplied by the exponent of 0.0727 times x, and y equals 0.8687multiplied by the exponent of 0.1483 times x, respectively. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 34. Graph. RFP versus pavement surface age for LTPP test section 0102 in Iowa. This graph displays remaining functional period (RFP) as a function of pavement surface age. The y‑axis is labeled “RFP (year),” and the xaxis is labeled “Pavement surface age (year).” For approximate pavement surface age 2.9, 4.2, 5.3, 6.1, and 7 years on the xaxis, solid circles are plotted at approximate RFP (yaxis) 4.0, 3.1, 2.2, 1.5, and 0.8 years, respectively. A solid linear trend line is fitted through these points.
Figure 35. Graph. RFP CSs. This graph displays International Roughness Index (IRI) as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “IRI (inch/mi),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (years).” A legend below the graph indicates five different conditions named “Very good,” “Good,” “Fair,” “Poor,” and “Very poor” separated by patterned boxes. These are diagonal crisscross line pattern, diagonal line pattern, horizontal dashed line pattern, vertical dashed line pattern, and horizontal solid line pattern, respectively. Data are plotted as a solid line for approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years. The IRI (yaxis) is approximately 50, 76, 92, 125, and 171 inches/mi, respectively. A horizontal dashed line is located at approximate IRI of 171 inches/mi. Two solid lines, one horizontal and the other vertical, intercept each other at approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 16 years and approximate IRI (yaxis) 130 inches/mi. Good, fair, and poor are indicated for approximate ranges of elapsed time (xaxis) 0 to 12 years, 12 to 16 years, and 16 to 20 years at approximate IRI (yaxis) of 200 inches/mi. Very good, good, fair, poor, and very poor are indicated for approximate ranges of elapsed time (xaxis) 0 to 8 years, 8 to 12 years, 12 to 15 years, 15 to 17 years, and 17 to 20 years at approximate IRI (yaxis) 220 inches/mi. Vertical lines extend from the dividing lines between the condition to the plotted data. Good, fair, and poor are indicated for approximate respective ranges of IRI (yaxis) of 0 to 105 inches/mi, 105to 130 inches/mi, and 130 to 171 inches/mi for approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 23 years. Very good, good, fair, poor, and very poor are indicated for approximate ranges of IRI (yaxis) 0 to 71 inches/mi, 71to 105 inches/mi, 105 to 130 inches/mi, and 150 to 171 inches/mi for approximate elapsed time (x‑axis) of 25. Horizontal lines extend from the dividing lines between each condition to the plotted data. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 36. Graph. RSP CSs. This graph displays alligator cracking as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “Alligator cracking (ft^{2}/mi),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (years).” A legend below the graph indicates five different conditions named “Very good,” “Good,” “Fair,” “Poor,” and “Very poor” separated by patterned boxes. These are diagonal crisscross line pattern, diagonal line pattern, horizontal dashed line pattern, vertical dashed line pattern, and horizontal solid line pattern. Data are plotted as a solid line where for approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 years, the alligator cracking (y‑axis) is approximately 0, 0, 250, 2,000, 3,100, 3,100, and 3,100 ft^{2}/mi, respectively. A horizontal dashed line is located at approximate alligator cracking value 3,100 ft^{2}/mi. Good, fair, and poor are indicated for approximate ranges of elapsed time (x‑axis) 0 to 15 years, 15 to 19years, and 19 to 23 ft^{2}/mi at approximate alligator cracking (yaxis) 4,000 ft^{2}/mi. Very good, good, fair, poor, and very poor are indicated for approximate ranges of elapsed time (x‑axis) 0 to 10 years, 10 to 15years, 15 to 18 years, 18 to 21 years, and 21 to 23 years at approximate alligator cracking (y‑axis) 4,500 ft^{2}/mi. Vertical lines extend from the dividing lines between the conditions to the plotted data. Good, fair, and poor are indicated for approximate respective ranges of alligator cracking (yaxis) 0 to 2,000 ft^{2}/mi, 2,000 to 3,000 ft^{2}/mi, and 3,000 to 3,100ft^{2}/mi at approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 24 years. Very good, good, fair, poor, and very poor are indicated for approximate respective ranges of alligator cracking (yaxis) value 0 to 400ft^{2}/mi, 400 to 2,000 ft^{2}/mi, 2,000 to 3,000 ft^{2}/mi, 3,000 to 3,050 ft^{2}/mi, and 3,050to 3,100ft^{2}/mi for approximate elapsed time (xaxis) of 26 years. Horizontal lines extend from the dividing lines between each condition to the plotted data. (1 ft^{2}/mi = 0.05806 m^{2}/km)
Figure 37. Graph. Conceptualized cost of pavement preservation versus RSP. The y‑axis is labeled “Cost per lane mile” in thousands of dollars. (The values on the axis decrease from 1,000 at the top to 0 at the bottom (the intersection with the xaxis.) The xaxis, labeled “Remaining structural period (year),” ranges from 0 to 20 years. The curve in the figure has five solid circular labels. The coordinates of the five solid circles are (0, 1000), (5, 250), (10, 100), (15, 20), and (20, 0). The curve follows the five solid circles, and the cost of pavement preservation per lanemile decreases from $1,000,000 at remaining structural period (RSP) 0years to $0.0 at RSP 20years. (1 lanemile = 1.61 lanekm)
Figure 38. Graph. Correlations among RSP, cost of preservation, and descriptive pavement classification. This graph has two horizontal axes. The bottom axis is labeled “RSP (years).” The top axis is labeled “Cost per lanemile ($10^{5})” in $100,000 increments. A legend below the graph indicates five different conditions—Very good, Good, Fair, Poor, and Very poor—separated by patterned boxes. These are diagonal crisscross line pattern, diagonal line pattern, horizontal dashed line pattern, vertical dashed line pattern, and horizontal solid line pattern, respectively. The graph shows that if the remaining structural period (RSP) of a pavement section is allowed to decrease to very poor condition (RSP between 0 and 2 years), the cost of rehabilitation per lanemi is about $1,000,000. The graph also shows that the cost per lanemi for the poor, fair, good, and very good conditions are $700,000, $400,000, $150,000, and to $50,000, respectively. (1 lanemile = 1.61 lanekm)
Figure 39. Graph. Example of pavement condition over time with two thin HMA overlays and one thin millandfill action. This graph displays the condition state of the asphalt concrete (AC) layer over time. The yaxis is labeled “AC thickness”; the x‑axis is labeled “Elapsed time (years).” The data are displayed in bars as a function of the elapsed time (x‑axis). A legend beside the graph indicates five different conditions named “V. good,” “Good,” “Fair,” “Poor,” and “V. poor” with patterned boxes. These are diagonal crisscross line pattern, diagonal line pattern, horizontal dashed line pattern, vertical dashed line pattern, and horizontal solid line pattern. The unscaled xaxis values are 0, 6, 10, 13, 17, 20, and 22. For elapsed time 0years, the AC layer is in very good condition (diagonal crisscross). When the elapsed time is 6years, the AC layer becomes in good condition (diagonal). At the elapsed time of 10 years, the AC becomes in fair condition, a thin overlay is added (the bar length increases), and the pavement surface is restored to very good condition. At the elapsed time of 13years, the pavement surface (the thin overlay) becomes in good condition while the bar of the lower AC layer indicates fair condition. At the elapsed time of 17 years, the bars representing the original AC and the thin overlay indicate fair condition. At that time, another thin overlay was added, and the pavement surface condition was restored to very good condition. At the elapsed time of 20years, the condition of the last thin overlay becomes good while the bar representing the older thin overlay and the original AC layer indicates fair condition. Finally, at the elapsed time of 22 years, a thin millandfill treatment was applied, and the condition of the pavement surface (the surface of the AC fill) was restored to very good condition, and the bar representing the original AC and the first thin overlay indicates fair condition.
Figure 40. Graph. Example RSP over time with two thin HMA overlays and one millandfill action. This graph displays remaining structural period (RSP) as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “RSP (years),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (years).” A legend below the graph indicates five different conditions—Very good, Good, Fair, Poor, and Very poor—with patterned boxes. These are diagonal crisscross line pattern, diagonal line pattern, horizontal dashed line pattern, vertical dashed line pattern, and horizontal solid line pattern, respectively. A solid line plots a downward linear trend from elapsed time (xaxis) 0 years and RSP (yaxis) 15 to elapsed time 10 years and approximately 5 years, respectively. At this location is a label reading “Thin overlay.” A vertical dashed line extends from this point to RSP (yaxis) 14 years. A solid line plots a downward linear trend from this point to elapsed (xaxis) 17 years and RSP (yaxis) 7 years. At this location is a label reading “Thin overlay.” A vertical dashed line extends from this point to RSP (yaxis) 13.5 years. A solid line plots a downward linear trend from this point to elapsed (xaxis) 22 years and RSP (yaxis) 8 years. At this location is a label reading “Thin mill and fill.” A vertical dashed line extends from this point to RSP (yaxis) 13 years. Very poor, poor, fair, good, and very good are indicated for approximate ranges of RSP (y‑axis) 0 to 2 years, 2 to 4 years, 4 to 8 years, 8 to 13 years, and 13 to 16 years at approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 26 years. Very poor, fair, and very good are indicated for approximate ranges of RSP (yaxis) 0 to 4 years, 4 to 8 years, and 8 to 16 years at approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 34 years. A label reading “Five condition states” points toward the first set of condition data, and a label reading “Three condition states” points toward the second set.
Figure 41. Illustration. Envisioned change in deflection through the progression of alligator cracking. This illustration consists of four successive diagrams of the crosssection for a concrete slab. Each has an arrow pointing downward at the top of the slab and a label that reads “Load 9,000 lbs.” and each diagram also has an individual label reading “Deflection 6.0 mils,” Deflection 6.5 mils,” Deflection 7.5 mils,” and “Deflection 9.0 mils,” respectively. The first slab is uncracked, the second has a large crack at the bottom approximately onethird of the distance to the top, the third has a large crack at the bottom approximately twothirds of the distance to the top, and the fourth is has a large crack from the bottom to the top, with one additional smaller crack on either side of the large crack to approximately onethird of the distance to the top. (1 lb = 0.454 kg. 1 mil = 25.4 microns)
Figure 42. Graph. Idealized Sshaped curve for alligator cracking showing three windows (threshold values) for various treatment actions. This graph displays alligator cracking as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “Alligator cracking (percent),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (years).” A legend below the graph indicates three different conditions—Good, Fair, and Poor with patterned boxes. These are diagonal crisscross line pattern, horizontal dashed line pattern, and horizontal solid line pattern. Data are plotted as a solid line. For approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 years, the alligator cracking (yaxis) is approximately 0, 0, 2, 18, 25, 25, and 25percent, respectively. Good, fair, and poor are indicated for approximate ranges of alligator cracking (yaxis) 0 to 2 percent, 2 to 18 percent, and 18 to 24 percent at approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 0 years. Horizontal dashed lines extend from the dividing lines between each condition to the plotted data. Good, fair, and poor are indicated for approximate ranges of elapsed time (xaxis) 0 to 8years, 8 to 12 years, and 12 to 16years, respectively. Vertical dashed lines extend from the dividing lines between each condition to the plotted data.
Figure 43. Graph. Transverse cracking versus elapsed time for LTTP SPS3 test section A330 in California. This graph displays transverse cracking as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “Transverse cracking (ft),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” Solid triangles with a dashed line, solid diamonds with a dashed line, solid circles with a dashed line, and solid squares represent low severity, medium severity, high severity, and sum of all severity levels, respectively. For approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 0.0, 1.5, 5.5, 7.0, 8.0, 11.5, and 13.0years, solid triangles are fitted at approximate transverse cracking (yaxis) 150, 225, 80, 45, 150, 365, and 195 ft, respectively. For approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 0.0, 1.0, 5.5, 7.0, 8.0, 11.5, and 13.0 years, solid diamonds are fitted at approximate transverse cracking (yaxis) 0, 50, 65, 115, 80, 35, and 80 ft, respectively. For approximate elapsed time (xaxis) values 0.0, 1.0, 5.5, 7.0, 8.0, 11.5, and 13.0years, solid circles are fitted at approximate transverse cracking (y‑axis) 0, 0, 215, 215, 165, 425, and 375 ft, respectively. For approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 0.0, 1.0, 5.5, 7.0, 8.0, 11.5, and 13.0years, solid squares are fitted at approximate transverse cracking (yaxis) 165, 245, 360, 375, 395, 820, and 655 ft, respectively. (1 ft = 0.0305 m)
Figure 44. Graph. Transverse cracking versus elapsed time for LTTP SPS5 test section 0502 in California. This graph displays transverse cracking as a function of elapsed time. The y‑axis is labeled “Transverse cracking (ft),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” Solid triangles with a dashed line, solid diamonds with a dashed line, solid circles with a dashed line, and solid squares represent low severity, medium severity, high severity, and sum of all severity levels, respectively. For approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.5, 10.0, 11.0, 11.5, and 13.0 years, solid triangles are fitted at approximate transverse cracking (y‑axis) 0, 0, 35, 25, 65, 150, 50, 55, and 345 ft, respectively. For approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.5, 10.0, 11.0, 11.5, and 13.0 years, solid diamonds are fitted at approximate transverse cracking (yaxis) 0, 0, 35, 35, 65, 65, 15, 195, 195, and 50 ft, respectively. For approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.5, 10.0, 11.0, 11.5, and 13.0 years, solid circles are fitted at approximate transverse cracking (yaxis) 0, 0, 0, 5, 35, 35, 0, 65, 80, and 0 ft, respectively. For approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.5, 10.0, 11.0, 11.5, and 13.0 years, solid squares are fitted at approximate transverse cracking (yaxis) 0, 0, 25, 15, 115, 165, 280, 310, and 375 ft, respectively. (1 ft = 0.0305 m)
Figure 45. Graph. Total longitudinal cracking versus time for LTPP SPS3 control section A310 in Maryland. This graph displays total longitudinal cracking as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “Total Longitudinal cracking (ft),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” For elapsed time (xaxis) 0, 0.5, 1.8, 3, 5, and 7.5 years, solid diamonds are located at total longitudinal cracking (yaxis) values 0, 0, 0, 0, 625, and 690 ft, respectively. A solid polynomial trend line is located through the data and extrapolated as a dashed line through elapsed time 14 years. For elapsed time (xaxis) 10, 12, and 14 years, the approximate total longitudinal cracking (y‑axis) is 1,245, 1,380, and 1,475 ft, respectively. (1 ft = 0.305 m)
Figure 46. Graph. Total longitudinal cracking versus time for LTPP SPS3 control section A340 in Maryland. This graph displays total longitudinal cracking as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “Total Longitudinal cracking (ft),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” For elapsed time (xaxis) 1, 2, 2.3, 3.5, 5, 6, and 9.5 years, solid diamonds are located at total longitudinal cracking (yaxis) values 0, 0, 5, 0, 0, 625, and 525 ft, respectively. A solid polynomial trend line is located through the data and extrapolated as a dashed line through elapsed time 14 years. For elapsed time (xaxis) values 10, 12, and 14 years, the approximate total longitudinal cracking (yaxis) values are 690, 1,015, and 1,215 ft, respectively. (1 ft = 0.305m)
Figure 47. Graph. Total longitudinal cracking versus elapsed time for LTPP GPS1634 linked section to SPS3 experiment in Maryland. This graph displays total longitudinal cracking as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “Total Longitudinal cracking (ft),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” For approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 3.5, 5.0, 7.5, 7.6, 9.0, and 9.5 years, solid circles are located at approximate total longitudinal cracking (y‑axis) 0, 4, 5, 35, 165, and 345 ft, respectively. A solid polynomial trend line is located through the data and extrapolated as a dashed line through elapsed time 15 years. For approximate elapsed time (x‑axis) 10.5, 12.0, 13.5, and 15.0 years, the approximate total longitudinal cracking (y‑axis) is 820, 1,395, 1,475, and 1,475 ft, respectively. (1 ft = 0.305 m)
Figure 48. Graph. Total longitudinal cracking versus elapsed time for LTPP SPS3 test section A350 and A340 control section in New York. This graph displays total longitudinal cracking as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “Total longitudinal cracking (ft),” and the x‑axis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” There are two sets of data: solid circles represent data for A350 and open circles for A340. Solid circles are located at approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 0.0, 0.8, 1.0, 2.5, 4.0, 5.0, and 6.8 years and approximate total longitudinal cracking (y‑axis) 1,000, 1,000, 0, 130, 490, 590, and 540 ft, respectively. Open circles are located at approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 0, 0.8, 1.0, 2.5, 4.0, 5.0, and 6.8 years and approximate total longitudinal cracking (y‑axis) values 260, 260, 310, 165, 5, 720, and 740 ft, respectively. A vertical solid line is located at elapsed time (xaxis) value 1.0 year. The line is labeled “Aggregate seal coat (ASC).” The area of the graph to the left of this line is labeled “Before ASC,” and the area to the right is labeled “After ASC.” (1 ft = 0.305 m)
Figure 49. Graph. IRI versus elapsed time for LTPP SPS1 test section 0119 in Texas. This graph displays IRI as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “IRI (inch/mi),” and the x‑axis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” For elapsed time (xaxis) 1.4, 1.8, 2.8, and 3.3 years, solid circles are located at approximate IRI (yaxis) values 80, 65, 80, and 60 inches/mi, respectively. A solid straight trend line is fitted through the data. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 50. Graph. Exponential, power, and logistic (sshaped) curves. This graph displays pavement condition as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “Pavement condition,” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” Neither axis is labeled with quantities. Open squares with a solid line, open circles with a solid line, and solid triangles with a solid line represent “Power: Rut depth,” “Exponential: IRI and Faulting,” and “Logistic: Cracking,” respectively. For approximate elapsed times 0, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, and tentwentyfifths of the xaxis, the datasets have the following approximate respective pavement condition values as portions of the yaxis—set one (open squares): 0, four, five, seven, eight, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, and fifteenthirtieths; set two (open circles): 0, one, one one, one, one, two, two, two, three, and threethirtieths; set three (solid triangles): 0, 0, one, one, two, three, four, six, nine, twelve, and fifteenthirtieths.
Figure 51. Illustration. Flowchart of the MATLAB® program. This illustration displays a flowchart. The first oval reads “Start.” An arrow from the oval points to a rhombusshaped box below it labeled “Read inventory data for each section to be analyzed.” A rectangular box to the right of the first rhombusshaped box has an arrow pointed at the first rhombusshaped box is labeled “Treatment type and date and inventory data.” An arrow points from the first rhombusshaped box to a second rhombusshaped box below it labeled “Read treatment, condition, and distress data.” A rectangular box to the right of the second rhombusshaped box has an arrow pointed at the second rhombusshaped box and is labeled “Cracking, IRI, rut depth, and fault data inputs.” An arrow points from the second rhombusshaped to a rectangular box below it labeled “Organize the timeseries data for analysis.” An arrow points from this rectangular box to a diamondshaped box below it labeled “For each test section, check whether or not pavement condition and distress data are available.” An arrow labeled “Yes” points from the first diamondshaped box to the second diamondshaped box below it labeled “Check if there are three data points before and/or after each treatment.” An arrow labeled “Yes” points to a rectangular box below the second diamondshaped box labeled “Fit the appropriate mathematical function and calculate the statistical parameters.” An arrow points from the rectangular box to the last rhombusshaped box below it labeled “Export the results and the inventory data to an Excel spreadsheet.” An arrow points from the last rhombusshaped box to the oval below it labeled “Stop.” An additional arrow labeled “No” from the first diamondshaped box points to the right to a rectangular box labeled “The parameters and other estimates are set to null,” and another arrow points to the right and then down to the last rhombusshaped box. The second diamondshaped box similarly has an arrow labeled “No” from it that points to the right to a rectangular box labeled “The model parameters and other estimates are set to null.” This box also points to the last rhombusshaped box.
Figure 52. Graph. Aftertreatment RFP versus beforetreatment IRI of LTPP SPS3 test sections subjected to thin overlay. This graph displays aftertreatment (AT) remaining functional period (RFP) as a function of International Roughness Index (IRI). The yaxis is labeled “AT RFP (year),” and the xaxis is labeled “IRI (inch/mi).” Data are shown as a scatterplot of solid circles. A solid polynomial trend line is plotted through these data. For approximate IRI (x‑axis) 40, 65, 95, 125, 160, and 175 inches/mi, the AT RFP (yaxis) values are approximately 15.5, 13.5, 12, 10.5, 9.5, and 9 years for this trend line. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158m/km)
Figure 53. Graph. Aftertreatment RFP versus beforetreatment IRI of LTPP SPS3 test sections subjected to slurry seal. This graph displays aftertreatment (AT) remaining functional period (RFP) as a function of International Roughness Index (IRI). The yaxis is labeled “AT RFP (year),” and the xaxis is labeled “IRI (inch/mi).” Data are shown as a scatterplot of solid circles. A solid polynomial trend line is plotted through these data. For approximate IRI (x‑axis) 45, 65, 95, 125, 160, 190, 220, and 230 inches/mi, the AT RFP (yaxis) is approximately 15, 12.5, 10, 8.5, 7, 5.5, and 4.9 years, respectively, for this trend line. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 54. Graph. Aftertreatment RFP versus beforetreatment IRI of LTPP SPS3 test sections subjected to crack seal. This graph displays aftertreatment (AT) remaining functional period (RFP) as a function of International Roughness Index (IRI). The yaxis is labeled “AT RFP (year),” and the xaxis is labeled “IRI (inch/mi).” Data are shown as a scatterplot of solid circles. A solid polynomial trend line is plotted through these data. For approximate IRI (x‑axis) 50, 65, 95, 125, 160, 190, and 210 inches/mi, the AT RFP (yaxis) is approximately 15.5, 13.5, 8.5, 5.5, 3, 1.5, and 0 years, respectively, for this trend line. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 55. Graph. Aftertreatment RFP versus beforetreatment IRI of LTPP SPS3 test sections subjected to aggregate seal coat. This graph that displays aftertreatment (AT) remaining functional period (RFP) as a function of International Roughness Index (IRI). The y‑axis is labeled “AT RFP (year),” and the xaxis is labeled “IRI (inch/mi).” Data are shown as a scatterplot of solid circles. A solid polynomial trend line is plotted through these data. For approximate IRI (xaxis) 45, 65, 95, 125, 160, and 175 inches/mi, the AT RFP (yaxis) is approximately 16.5, 13.5, 10, 8, 6, and 5 years, respectively, for this trend line. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 56. Graph. ORCSE model probability graph from LTPP SPS1 before treatment evaluation. This graph displays International Roughness Index (IRI) as a function of condition states. The yaxis is labeled “International Roughness Index (IRI) inch/mi,” and the xaxis is labeled “Condition states.” Four regions are plotted. The top one is delineated by a dotted line labeled “Inner 90 Percentile Probable Range,” with the top of this region delineated by a dotted line labeled “Inner 50 Percentile Probable Range,” and the bottom of it delineated by a solid line labeled “Median Probable Range.” Below the solid line are two more unlabeled regions delineated at their bottoms by dotted lines. The highest and lowest regions are filled in with diagonal lines and the two innermost regions are filled in with a brick pattern. The xaxis has five values: CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, and CS5. These lines are labeled “Kernel Probability Density Functions” and are mostly vertical, but curve as each is fitted to data. For these values, the datasets have the following respective approximate IRI (yaxis): top dotted line—175, 160, 145, 115, and 85 inches/mi; second dotted line—160, 140, 125, 95, and 75 inches/mi; solid line—150, 135, 110, 80, and 65 inches/mi; third dotted line—145, 115, 90, 70, and 55 inches/mi; and fourth dotted line—125, 100, 70, 50, and 40 inches/mi. A dashed line running parallel to the xaxis is labeled “IRI Threshold (172 inch/mi).” (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 57. Illustration. Flowchart of ORCSE model steps with examples from LTPP SPS1 before treatment evaluation. This flowchart has eight numbered sections. The first box, located in the top left, is labeled “Step 1, Calculate Model Parameters.” It includes a chart that provides the International Roughness Index (IRI), rut depth (RD), and cracking per pavement condition/distress type. An arrow points to the right to the second box, which is labeled “Step 2, Eliminate Failing Sections.” An arrow points to the right and then down to the third box, which is labeled “Step 3, Calculate Maximum Functional or Structural Period.” An arrow points to the left and then down to the fourth box, which is labeled “Step 4, Calculate the Condition or Distress After Treatment.” An arrow points to the right to the fifth box, which is labeled “Step 5, Divide Results into CSs.” An arrow points to the right and then down to the sixth box, which is labeled “Step 6, Model Data Distributions with PDFs.” It includes three illustrative figures: one displaying probability density as a function of IRI, one that compares four different plots of probability density as a function of IRI for four condition states, and one displaying probability density as a function of IRI for a single CS. An arrow points to the left and then down to the seventh box, which is labeled “Step 7, Orient PDFs Vertically.” It includes three illustrative figures: one displaying data by CSs, one displaying IRI as a function of CSs, and one duplicating figure 56. An arrow points to the right and then down to the eighth box, which is labeled “Compare Model and Validation Results.” An arrow points to the left and then back up to the first box.
Figure 58. Graph. Backpropagation of IRI data for SHRP ID 26_0116 from an RFP of 0years. This bar graph displays International Roughness Index (IRI) as a function of years from zero remaining functional period (RFP). Vertical bars represent data for section 26_0116. The yaxis is labeled “International Roughness Index (IRI) inch/mi,” and the xaxis is labeled “Years from 0RFP.” For years from 0 RFP (xaxis) values 0 through 20 years, the approximate IRI (yaxis) is 175, 165, 155, 150, 145, 140, 135, 125, 115, 110, 110, 105, 100, 95, 90, 90, 85, 80, 80, and 75 inches/mi, respectively. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 59. Graph. Backpropagation of IRI data for SHRP ID 19_0102 from an RFP of 0years. This bar graph displays International Roughness Index (IRI) as a function of years from zero remaining functional period (RFP). Vertical bars represent data for section 19_0102. The y‑axis is labeled “International Roughness Index (IRI) inch/mi,” and the xaxis is labeled “Years from 0RFP.” For years from 0 RFP (xaxis) values 0through 20 years, the approximate IRI (y‑axis) is 175, 145, 130, 110, 95, 80, 70, 60, 50, 50, 40, 35, 30, 25, 20, 20, 15, 15, 10, 10, 10, and 5inches/mi, respectively. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 60. Graph. Backpropagation of IRI data for SHRP ID 19_0103 from an RFP of 0years. This bar graph displays International Roughness Index (IRI) as a function of years from zero remaining functional period (RFP). Vertical bars represent data for section 19_0103. The y‑axis is labeled “International Roughness Index (IRI) inch/mi,” and the xaxis is labeled “Years from 0RFP.” For years from 0 RFP (xaxis) values 0through 20, the approximate IRI (yaxis) is 170, 160, 145, 135, 125, 115, 110, 100, 95, 90, 80, 75, 70, 60, 55, 55, 50, 50, 45, and 0.65 inches/mi, respectively. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 61. Backpropagation of IRI data for SHRP IDs 26_0116, 19_0102, and 19_0103 displaying variation in IRI growth from an RFP of 0years. This bar graph displays International Roughness Index (IRI) as a function of years from zero remaining functional period (RFP). Vertical black bars represent data for section 26_0116, vertical dark gray bars represent data for section 19_0102, and vertical light gray bars represent data for section 19_0103. The y‑axis is labeled “International Roughness Index (IRI) inch/mi,” and the xaxis is labeled “Years from 0RFP.” For years from 0 RFP values 0 through 20 on the xaxis, the datasets have the following respective approximate IRI (yaxis): set one (black bars)—170, 165, 160, 150, 150, 140, 135, 125, 125, 115, 110, 105, 100, 100, 95, 90, 90, 85, 80, 80, and 75 inches/mi; set two (dark gray bars)—175, 150, 130, 110, 95, 80, 70, 60, 50, 45, 40, 35, 30, 25, 20, 20, 15, 15, 10, 10, and 5inches/mi; and set three (light gray bars)—170, 165, 155, 150, 145, 140, 135, 130, 125, 115, 110, 90, 75, 70, 55, 55, 50, 50, 40, 40, and 40 inches/mi. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 62. Graph. ORCSE model graph for LTPP SPS1 virgin pavement analysis for iteration 1. This graph displays International Roughness Index (IRI) as a function of condition states. The y‑axis is labeled “International Roughness Index (IRI) inch/mi,” and the xaxis is labeled “Condition states.” Four regions are plotted—the top and bottom of the uppermost region delineated by a black dotted line, the bottom of the next lower region delineated by a dotted line, the bottom of the next lower region delineated by a solid line, and two more unlabeled regions below these delineated at their bottoms by dotted lines. The highest and lowest regions are filled in with diagonal lines, and the two innermost regions are filled in with a brick pattern. The xaxis has five values: CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, and CS5. These lines are mostly vertical, but curve as each is fitted to data. For these values, the datasets have the following respective approximate IRI (y‑axis): top dotted line—175, 160, 145, 115, and 90 inches/mi; second dotted line—165, 145, 135, 95, and 80 inches/mi; solid line—150, 135, 110, 80, 70 inches/mi; third dotted line—145, 115, 100, 70, and 55 inches/mi; and fourth dotted line—125, 100, 75, 55, and 40 inches/mi. A dashed line is located at approximate IRI (yaxis) 172 inches/mi. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 63. Graph. ORCSE model graph for LTPP SPS1 virgin pavement analysis for iteration 2. This graph displays International Roughness Index (IRI) as a function of condition states. The y‑axis is labeled “International Roughness Index (IRI) inch/mi,” and the xaxis is labeled “Condition states.” Four regions are plotted: the top and bottom of the uppermost region delineated by a black dotted line, the bottom of the next lower region delineated by a dotted line, the bottom of the next lower region delineated by a solid line, and two more unlabeled regions below these delineated at their bottoms by dotted lines. The highest and lowest regions are filled in with diagonal lines, and the two innermost regions are filled in with a brick pattern. The xaxis has five values: CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, and CS5. These lines are mostly vertical, but curve as each is fitted to data. For these values, the datasets have the following respective approximate IRI (y‑axis): top dotted line—175, 150, 140, 110, and 80 inches/mi; second dotted line—165, 140, 115, 95, and 70 inches/mi; solid line—150, 135, 105, 75, and 55 inches/mi; third dotted line—145, 115, 90, 65, and 55 inches/mi; and fourth dotted line—125, 95, 70, 50, and 40 inches/mi. A dashed line is located at approximate IRI (yaxis) 172 inches/mi. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 64. Graph. ORCSE model graph for LTPP SPS1 virgin pavement analysis for iteration 3. This graph displays International Roughness Index (IRI) as a function of condition states. The y‑axis is labeled “International Roughness Index (IRI) inch/mi,” and the xaxis is labeled “Condition states.” Four regions are plotted: the top and bottom of the uppermost region delineated by a dotted line, the bottom of the next lower region delineated by a dotted line, the bottom of the next lower region delineated by a solid line, and two more unlabeled regions below these delineated at their bottoms by dotted lines. The highest and lowest regions are filled in with diagonal lines, and the two innermost regions are filled in with a brick pattern. The xaxis has five values: CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, and CS5. These lines are mostly vertical, but curve as each is fitted to data. For these values, the datasets have the following respective approximate IRI (y‑axis): top dotted line—175, 160, 145, 115, and 90 inches/mi; second dotted line—165, 145, 115, 100, and 75 inches/mi; solid line—150, 70, 110, 85, and 70 inches/mi; third dotted line—145, 120, 90, 70, and 50 inches/mi; and fourth dotted line—125, 100, 70, 50, and 40 inches/mi. A dashed line is located at approximate IRI (yaxis) value 172 inches/mi. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158m/km)
Figure 65. Graph. ORCSE model graph for LTPP SPS1 virgin pavement analysis for iteration 4. This graph displays International Roughness Index (IRI) as a function of condition states. The y‑axis is labeled “International Roughness Index (IRI) inch/mi,” and the xaxis is labeled “Condition states.” Four regions are plotted: the top and bottom of the uppermost region delineated by a dotted line, the bottom of the next lower region delineated by a dotted line, the bottom of the next lower region delineated by a solid line, and two more unlabeled regions below these delineated at their bottoms by dotted lines. The highest and lowest regions are filled in with diagonal lines, and the two innermost regions are filled in with a brick pattern. The xaxis has five values: CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, and CS5. These lines are mostly vertical, but curve as each is fitted to data. For these values, the datasets have the following respective approximate IRI (y‑axis) values: top dotted line—175, 165, 145, 115, and 90 inches/mi; second dotted line—165, 145, 120, 95, and 80 inches/mi; solid line—145, 120, 105, 70, and 55 inches/mi; third dotted line—145, 120, 90, 70, and 50 inches/mi; and fourth dotted line—130, 100, 80, 50, and 40 inches/mi. A dashed line is located at approximate IRI (yaxis) value 172 inches/mi. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158m/km)
Figure 66. Graph. ORCSE model graph for LTPP SPS1 virgin pavement analysis for iteration 5. This graph displays International Roughness Index (IRI) as a function of condition states. The y‑axis is labeled “International Roughness Index (IRI) inch/mi,” and the xaxis is labeled “Condition states.” Four regions are plotted: the top and bottom of the uppermost region delineated by a dotted line, the bottom of the next lower region delineated by a dotted line, the bottom of the next lower region delineated by a solid line, and two more unlabeled regions below these delineated at their bottoms by dotted lines. The highest and lowest regions are filled in with diagonal lines, and the two innermost regions are filled in with a brick pattern. The xaxis has five values: CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, and CS5. These lines are mostly vertical, but curve as each is fitted to data. For these values, the datasets have the following respective approximate IRI (y‑axis): top dotted line—175, 160, 145, 120, and 90 inches/mi; second dotted line—160, 145, 120, 105, and 80 inches/mi; solid line—150, 135, 110, 85, and 70 inches/mi; third dotted line—145, 120, 100, 75, and 55 inches/mi; and fourth dotted line—125, 100, 75, 50, and 45 inches/mi. A dashed line is located at approximate IRI (yaxis) value 172 inches/mi. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158m/km)
Figure 67. Graph. AI TAF. This graph displays mean pavement temperature as a function of temperature adjustment factor (TAF). The yaxis is labeled “Temperature adjustment factor,” and the xaxis is labeled “Pavement temperature (°F).” A legend at the top of the figure displays “Untreated base thickness (inch)” as a solid line, dotted line, dashed line, medium dashed line, long dashed line, and thin solid line for 0, 3, 6, 12, 19, and 25 inches, respectively. The six sets of data are plotted as curves, each with a decreasing exponential shape and passing through the approximate TAF (yaxis) value 1.0 and corresponding pavement temperature (xaxis) value 70 °F. For approximate temperature adjustment factor 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2, and 2.4 on the yaxis, the first dataset has the following approximate pavement temperature (x‑axis): 120, 95, 80, 70, 65, 55, 50, 45, 40, 40, and 35 °F, respectively. For approximate TAF 0.7, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0, and 2.1 on the yaxis, the second dataset has the following approximate pavement temperature (xaxis) 120, 70, 60, 50, 45, 40, 35, and 30°F, respectively. For approximate TAF 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, and 1.9 on the yaxis, the third dataset has the following approximate pavement temperature (x‑axis) 120, 70, 55, 45, 35, 35, and 30 °F, respectively. For approximate TAF 0.9, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.7 on the yaxis, the fourth dataset has the following approximate pavement temperature (x‑axis) 120, 70, 45, 40, 35, and 30 °F, respectively. For approximate TAF 0.9, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 on the yaxis, the fifth dataset has the following approximate pavement temperature (xaxis) 120, 70, 45, 40, and 30°F, respectively. For approximate TAF 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.5 on the yaxis, the sixth dataset has the following approximate pavement temperature (xaxis) 120, 70, 45, 35, and 30 °F, respectively. (1 inch = 25.4 mm. ºF = 1.8 × (ºC + 32))
Figure 68. Equation. APD_{i}. APD subscript i is equal to the summation of omega subscript i plus C subscript i. APD subscript i is the average peak pavement deflection at sensor i, and omega subscript i and C subscript i are regression constants for sensor i.
Figure 69. Graph. Peak measured pavement deflection at sensors 1, 2, 4, and 7 versus pavement surface temperature for SHRP test section 010101, F3. This graph displays average peak deflection as a function of average pavement surface temperature. The yaxis is labeled “Average peak deflection (mil),” and the xaxis is labeled “Average pavement surface temperature (°F).” Open circles, open triangles, open diamonds, and open squares represent sensor 1, sensor 2, sensor 4, and sensor 7, respectively. A straight line is fitted through each set. For average pavement surface temperature (xaxis) 50, 70, 85, 105, and 120 °F, these datasets have the following respective approximate average peak deflection (yaxis) values: set one (open circles)—8, 10, 11, 13, and 14 mil; set two (open triangles)—7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 mil; set three (open diamonds)—5.5, 6, 6, 6, and 6.5 mil; and set four (open squares)—2, 2, 2, 2, and 2 mil. (1 mil = 25.4 microns. ºF = 1.8 × (ºC + 32))
Figure 70. Graph. Average measured peak deflection at sensor 1 versus the measured pavement surface temperature along the outer wheelpath and midlane of SHRP test sections 010101 and 010102. This graph displays average peak deflection at sensor 1 as a function of pavement surface temperature. The yaxis is labeled “Average peak deflection, sensor 1 (mil),” and the xaxis is labeled “Pavement surface temperature (°F).” Open circles, solid circles, open squares, and solid squares represent 010101_F3, 010101_F1, 010102_F3, and 010102_F1, respectively. A straight solid line is fitted through the datasets. For pavement surface temperature (xaxis) 50, 70, 85, 105, and 120 °F, this fitted line has approximate average peak deflection, sensor 1 (yaxis) values 8, 10, 11, 12, and 14 mil, respectively. The equation for this line is provided as y equals 0.0756 multiplied by x plus 4.3313, and R squared equals 0.4958. (ºF = 1.8 × ºC + 32. 1 mil = 25.4 micron)
Figure 71. Equation. TAF_{di}. TAF subscript d subscript i is equal to alpha subscript i multiplied by T squared plus beta subscript i multiplied by T plus gamma subscript i. TAF subscript d subscript i is the temperature adjustment factor for sensor d subscript i (multiply the measured pavement deflection at temperature T and sensor d subscript i by TAF subscript d subscript i to adjust the deflection to 70 °F), d subscript i is the deflection sensor at the ith distance from the falling weight deflectometer (FWD) load, alpha subscript i, beta subscript i, and gamma subscript i are regression constants (see table 109), and T is the measured pavement surface temperature at the time of FWD testing (°F).
Figure 72. Equation. TAF. TAF is equal to A multiplied by T squared plus B multiplied by T plus C. TAF is the temperature adjustment factor (multiply the measured pavement deflection by this factor to obtain the temperature adjusted deflection); A, B, and C are global regression parameters of the global temperature adjustment model; and T is the pavement surface temperature measured at the time of falling weight deflectometer testing.
Figure 73. Equation. A. A is equal to alpha subscript 1 multiplied by d cubed plus beta subscript 1 multiplied by dsquared plus gamma subscript 1 multiplied by d plus delta subscript 1. d is the lateral distance from the center of the load to the sensor (inch), and alpha subscript 1, beta subscript 1, gamma subscript 1, and delta subscript 1 are regression values (table 110).
Figure 74. Equation. B. B is equal to alpha subscript 2 multiplied by d cubed then plus beta subscript 2 multiplied by dsquared then plus gamma subscript 2 multiplied by d then plus delta subscript 2. The value d is the lateral distance from the center of the load to the sensor (inch), and alpha subscript 2, beta subscript 2, gamma subscript 2, and delta subscript 2 are regression values (table 110).
Figure 75. Equation. C. C is equal to alpha subscript 3 multiplied by d squared plus beta cubed multiplied by d plus gamma subscript 3. d is the lateral distance from the center of the load to the sensor (inch), and alpha subscript 3, beta subscript 3, and gamma subscript 3 are regression values (table 110).
Figure 76. Graph. Measured deflection basins at three pavement surface temperatures 52, 70, and 86 ºF (11, 21, and 30 ºC) along midlane of the SHRP test section 351112 on April25, 1995. This graph displays measured deflection as a function of distance from load. The yaxis is labeled “Measured deflection (mil),” and the xaxis is labeled “Distance from load (inch).” Open circles, open squares, and open diamonds represent measurements at 52, 70, and 86 ºF, respectively. Each data set is plotted with a solid line connecting respective points. For distance from load (xaxis) 0, 8, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 60 inches, these datasets have the following respective approximate measured deflection (yaxis): set one (open circles)—5, 4, 3.5, 3, 3, 2, and 1 mil; set two (open squares)—5.5, 4.5, 4.5, 3.5, 3, 2, and 1 mil; and set three (open diamonds)—6.5, 5.5, 4.5, 3.5, 3, 2, and 1 mil. (ºF = 1.8 × ºC + 32. 1 mil = 25.4 micron. 1 inch = 25.4 mm)
Figure 77. Graph. Error from TAF and AI adjusted deflection basin at two pavement surface temperatures (52 and 86 ºF (11 and 30 ºC)), along midlane of the SHRP test section 351112 on April 25, 1995. This graph displays deflection as a function of distance from load. The yaxis is labeled “Deflection (mil),” and the xaxis is labeled “Distance from load (inch).” Open squares represent measurements at 70 °F, and a shortdash line, longdash line, shortdotted line, and longdotted line represent AI_52°F, AI_86°F, Global_52°F, and Global_86°F, respectively. For distance from load (xaxis) 0, 8, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 60 inches, open squares are plotted at approximate deflection (yaxis) 5.5, 4.5, 4, 3.5, 3, 2, and 1 mil. The longdash line is fitted above these points followed below it by the shortdotted line, longdotted line, and shortdash line. (ºF = 1.8 × ºC + 32. 1 mil = 25.4 micron. 1 inch = 25.4 mm)
Figure 78. Graph. Percent error of the temperatureadjusted deflection data using the equation in figure 72 and the AI procedure. This bar graph displays error in temperatureadjusted deflection as a function of deflection sensor number. The yaxis is labeled “Error in temperature adjusted deflection (%),” and the xaxis is labeled “Deflection sensor number.” Open bars with horizontal lines, open bars with dots, open bars with squares, and solid bars represent Global_52°F, AI_52°F, Global_86°F, and AI_86°F, respectively. For deflection sensor number (xaxis) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, the error in temperatureadjusted deflection (yaxis) are the following, respectively: set one (Global_52°F)—approximately 3, 0.3, 0.5, 1.5, 1.8, 7.8, and 2.2 percent; set two (AI_52°F)— approximately 10, 10, 12, 15, 18.3, 17.5, and 19.5 percent; set three (Global_86°F)—approximately 0.3, 4.5, 5, 4.5, 3.5, 0.2, and 0.1 percent; and set four (AI_86°F)—approximately 2.2, 1.9, 3.5, 6, 7.5, 10, 13.5 percent. (ºF = 1.8 × ºC + 32.)
Figure 79. Graph. Average measured peak pavement deflection at sensors 1, 2, 4, and 7 versus time for SHRP test section 010101, F1. This graph displays average peak deflection as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis on the left is labeled “Average peak deflection (mil),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” The yaxis on the right is labeled “Average pavement surface temperature (°F),” starting at 0 °F when average peak deflection is 0 mil and increases in increments of 20 °F up to 140 °F when average peak deflection is 16 mil. Open squares connected by a line represent sensor 1. Open diamonds connected by a line represent sensor 2. Open triangles connected by a line represent sensor 4. Open circles connected by a line represent sensor 7. Solid triangles connected by a dotted line represent temperature. For elapsed time (x‑axis) 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 years, these datasets have the following respective approximate average peak deflection (yaxis): set one (open squares)—11, 12, 10, 10, 10, 8.5, 6.5, and 9.5 mil; set two (open diamonds)—8.5, 9, 8.5, 8.5, 8.5, 6.5, and 7.5 mil; set three (open triangles)—5.5, 5.5, 6.5, 6, 5, 4.5, and 4.5 mil; set four (open circles)—2, 1.5, 2, 2, 1.5, 1.5, and 1.5 mil; and set five (solid triangles)—105, 105, 120, 120, 105, 95, and 95 mil. (ºF = 1.8 × ºC + 32. 1 mil = 25.4 microns)
Figure 80. Graph. Temperatureadjusted peak deflection at sensors 1, 2, 4, and 7 versus time for SHRP test section 010101, F1. This graph displays average temperatureadjusted peak deflection as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “Average temperature adjusted peak deflection (mil),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” Open squares connected with a line, open diamonds connected with a line, open triangles connected with a line, and open circles connected with a line represent sensors 1 2, 4, and 7, respectively. For elapsed time (x‑axis) 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 years, these datasets have the following respective approximate average temperature adjusted peak deflection (yaxis): set one (open squares)—10, 10, 9, 8.5, 8.5, 7.5, and 7.5 mil; set two (open diamonds)—8, 8, 8, 7.5, 7, 6.5, and 6.5 mil; set three (open triangles)—5.5, 5, 6, 6, 5, 4.5, and 4 mil; and set four (open circles)—1.5, 1.5, 2, 2, 2, 2, and 2 mil. (1 mil = 25.4 micron)
Figure 81. Graph. Temperatureadjusted peak deflection at sensor 1 versus IRI for SHRP test section 010101, F1. This graph displays International Roughness Index (IRI) as a function of temperatureadjusted deflection. The yaxis is labeled “IRI (inch/mi),” and the xaxis is labeled “Temperature adjusted deflection (sensor 1, mil).” For approximate temperatureadjusted deflection (xaxis) 8.5, 8.5, 9, 9.5, 10, 10, 10.5, 10, and 10 mil, the IRI (yaxis) values are approximately 50, 50, 45, 50, 45, 50, 45, 40, and 40 inches/mi, respectively. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158m/km. 1 mil = 25.4 microns)
Figure 82. Graph. Temperatureadjusted peak deflection at sensor 1 versus rut depth for SHRP test section 010101, F1. This graph displays rut depth as a function of temperatureadjusted deflection. The yaxis is labeled “Rut depth (inch),” and the xaxis is labeled “Temperature adjusted deflection (sensor 1, mil).” For approximate temperatureadjusted deflection (x‑axis) 8.5, 8.5, 9, 9, 9.5, 10, 10, and 10.5 mil, the rut depth (yaxis) is approximately 0.2, 0.3, 0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 0.2, and 0.2 inches, respectively. (1 inch = 25.4 mm. 1 mil = 25.4 micron)
Figure 83. Graph. Temperatureadjusted peak deflection at sensor 1 versus alligator cracking for SHRP test section 010101, F1. This graph displays alligator crack as a function of temperatureadjusted deflection. The yaxis is labeled “Alligator crack (ft^{2}),” and the xaxis is labeled “Temperature adjusted deflection (sensor 1, mil).” For approximate temperatureadjusted deflection (xaxis) 8.5, 8.5, 9, 9, 9.5, 10, 10, 10, 10.5, 10.5, and 10.5 mil, the alligator crack (y‑axis) is approximately 755, 335, 410, 590, 730, 720, 45, 65, 0, 65, and 0 ft^{2}, respectively. (1 ft^{2} = 0.0929 m^{2}. 1 mil = 25.4 microns)
Figure 84. Graph. Temperatureadjusted peak deflection at sensor 1 versus transverse cracking for SHRP test section 010101, F1. This graph displays transverse crack as a function of temperatureadjusted deflection. The yaxis is labeled “Transverse crack (ft),” and the xaxis is labeled “Temperature adjusted deflection (sensor 1, mil).” For approximate temperatureadjusted deflection (xaxis) 8.5, 8.5, 9, 9, 9.5, 10, 10, 10, 10.5, 10.5, and 10.5 mil, the transverse crack (y‑axis) values are approximately 50, 10, 0, 5, 50, 0, 5, 0, 0, 0, and 0 ft, respectively. (1 ft = 0.305 m. 1 mil = 25.4 microns)
Figure 85. Graph. Temperatureadjusted peak deflection at sensor 1 versus longitudinal cracking for SHRP test section 010101, F1. This graph displays transverse crack as a function of temperatureadjusted deflection. The yaxis is labeled “Transverse crack (ft),” and the xaxis is labeled “Temperature adjusted deflection (sensor 1, mil).” For approximate temperatureadjusted deflection (xaxis) 8.5, 8.5, 9, 9, 9.5, 10, 10, 10, 10.5, 10.5, and 10.5 mil, the transverse crack (y‑axis) is approximately 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 0, 5, 5, 0, 0, and 0 ft, respectively. (1 ft = 0.305 m, 1mil = 25.4 microns)
Figure 86. Graph. AC layer M_{R} values versus pavement surface temperature for SHRP test section 010101. This graph displays resilient modulus as a function of pavement surface temperature. The yaxis is labeled “Resilient modulus (psi ×10^{6)},” and the xaxis is labeled “Pavement surface temperature (°F).” Open circles and solid circles represent hot mix asphalt (HMA) measured results and HMA adjusted results, respectively. For approximate pavement surface temperature (xaxis) 52, 77, 97, and 102 °F, the respective approximate resilient modulus (yaxis) is the following: set one (open circles)—1.15, 0.70, 0.45, and 0.50 (psi ×10^{6)}; and set two (solid circles)—0.65, 0.85, 0.80, and 0.95 (psi ×10^{6)}. A line is fitted to each. (ºF = 1.8 × ºC + 32. 1 psi = 6.895 kPa)
Figure 87. Graph. AC layer M_{R} values versus pavement surface temperature for SHRP test section 081053. This graph displays resilient modulus as a function of pavement surface temperature. The yaxis is labeled “Resilient modulus (psi ×10^{6}),” and the xaxis is labeled “Pavement surface temperature (°F).” Open circles and solid circles represent hot mix asphalt (HMA) measured results and HMA adjusted results, respectively. For approximate pavement surface temperature (xaxis) values 43, 65, and 84 °F, the respective approximate resilient modulus (yaxis) is the following: set one (open circles)—0.80, 0.65, and 0.50 (psi ×10^{6)}; and set two (solid circles): 0.45, 0.60, and 0.70 (psi ×10^{6)}. A line is fitted to each. (ºF = 1.8 × ºC + 32. 1 psi = 6.895 kPa)
Figure 88. Graph. AC layer M_{R} values versus pavement surface temperature for SHRP test section 271028. This graph displays resilient modulus as a function of pavement surface temperature. The yaxis is labeled “Resilient modulus (psi ×10^{6}),” and the xaxis is labeled “Pavement surface temperature (°F).” Open circles and solid circles represent hot mix asphalt (HMA) measured results and HMA adjusted results, respectively. For approximate pavement surface temperature (xaxis) 50, 65, and 74 ºF, the respective approximate resilient modulus (y‑axis) is the following: set one (open circles)—2.20, 1.85, and 1.80 (psi ×10^{6}); and set two (solid circles)—1.35, 1.70, and 2.0 (psi ×10^{6}). A line is fitted to each. (ºF = 1.8 × ºC + 32. 1 psi = 6.895 kPa)
Figure 89. Graph. AC layer M_{R} values versus pavement surface temperature for SHRP test section 351112. This graph displays resilient modulus as a function of pavement surface temperature. The yaxis is labeled “Resilient modulus (psi ×10^{6}),” and the xaxis is labeled “Pavement surface temperature (°F).” Open circles and solid circles represent hot mix asphalt (HMA) measured results and HMA adjusted results, respectively. For approximate pavement surface temperature (xaxis) 52, 70, and 86 °F, the respective approximate resilient modulus (y‑axis) is the following: set one (open circles)—2.60, 2.05, and 1.65 (psi ×10^{6)}; and set two (solid circles)—1.60, 2.25, and 2.60 (psi ×10^{6)}. A line is fitted to each. (ºF = 1.8 × ºC + 32. 1psi = 6.895 kPa)
Figure 90. Graph. AC layer M_{R} values from measured and temperatureadjusted deflection data. This graph displays resilient modulus, temperatureadjusted deflection as a function of resilient modulus, measured deflection. The yaxis is labeled “Resilient modulus, temperature adjusted deflection (psi ×10^{6}),” and the xaxis is labeled “Resilient modulus, measured deflection (psi ×10^{6}).” Open circles and solid circles represent hot mix asphalt (HMA) below 70 °F and HMA above 70 °F, respectively. A straight line of best fit is plotted for both. For approximate resilient modulus (xaxis) 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, and 1.75 (psi ×10^{6}), the approximate resilient modulus, temperatureadjusted deflection (yaxis) for set one (open circles) is 0.85, 1.20, 1.35, 1.65, 1.85, and 2.20, respectively. For approximate resilient modulus (xaxis) 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25, and 2.50 (psi ×10^{6)}, the approximate resilient modulus, temperatureadjusted deflection (yaxis) for set two (solid circles) is 0.50, 0.70, 0.80, 1.00, 1.20, 1.35, 1.50, and 1.90 (psi ×10^{6}), respectively. (ºF = 1.8 × ºC + 32. 1 psi = 6.895 kPa)
Figure 91. Graph. Base and roadbed soil layer M_{R} values from measured and temperatureadjusted deflection data. This graph displays resilient modulus, temperatureadjusted deflection as a function of resilient modulus, measured deflection. The yaxis is labeled “Resilient modulus, temperature adjusted deflection (psi ×10^{3}),” and the xaxis is labeled “Resilient modulus, measured deflection (psi ×10^{3}).” Open squares and open diamonds represent base and roadbed soil, respectively. One straight line of best fit is plotted through both datasets. For resilient modulus, measured deflection (xaxis) 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 (psi ×10^{3}), the resilient modulus, temperatureadjusted deflection (yaxis) is 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 (psi ×10^{3}), respectively. (1psi = 6.895 kPa)
Figure 92. Graph. Measured peak deflection at sensor 1 versus time for SHRP test section 100201, J1. This graph displays average peak deflection as a function of elapsed time. The y‑axis is labeled “Average peak deflection (Sensor 1, mil),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” For approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 4.2, 5.5, 6.9, and 7.5 years, the approximate average peak deflection (yaxis) is 4, 6, 4, and 4 mil, respectively. (1 mil = 25.4 microns)
Figure 93. Graph. Measured peak deflection at sensor 1 versus IRI for SHRP test section 100201, J1. This graph displays International Roughness Index (IRI) as a function of average peak deflection. The yaxis is labeled “IRI (inch/mi),” and the xaxis is labeled “Average peak deflection (Sensor 1, mil).” Solid squares representing the data points are scattered between approximate average peak deflection (xaxis) 2 and 6 mil and approximate IRI (yaxis) 45 and 135 inches/mi, respectively. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km. 1 mil = 25.4 microns)
Figure 94. Graph. Measured peak deflection at sensor 1 versus faulting for SHRP test section 100201, J1. This graph displays average fault as a function of average peak deflection. The yaxis is labeled “Average fault (inch),” and the xaxis is labeled “Average peak deflection (Sensor 1, mil).” Solid diamonds representing the data points are scattered between approximate average peak deflection (xaxis) 2 and 6 mil and approximate average fault (yaxis) values 0.0and 0.045 inches/mi, respectively. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km. 1 mil = 25.4 microns)
Figure 95. Graph. Measured peak deflection at sensor 1 versus longitudinal cracking for SHRP test section 100201, J1. This graph displays total longitudinal crack as a function of average peak deflection. The yaxis is labeled “Total longitudinal crack (ft),” and the xaxis is labeled “Average peak deflection (Sensor 1, mil).” Solid triangles representing the data points are scattered between approximate average peak deflection (xaxis) 2 and 6 mil and approximate total longitudinal crack (yaxis) 0 and 200 ft, respectively. (1 ft = 0.305 m. 1 mil = 25.4 microns)
Figure 96. Graph. Measured peak deflection at sensor 1 versus transverse cracking for SHRP test section 100201, J1. This graph displays total transverse crack as a function of average peak deflection. The yaxis is labeled “Total transverse crack (ft),” and the xaxis is labeled “Average peak deflection (Sensor 1, mil).” x’s representing the data points are scattered between approximate average peak deflection (xaxis) 2 and 6 mil and approximate total transverse crack (yaxis) 0 and 110 ft, respectively. (1 ft = 0.305 m. 1 mil = 25.4 microns)
Figure 97. Graph. LTE versus time for SHRP test section 100201, J4. This graph displays load transfer efficiency (LTE) as a function of elapsed time. The yaxis is labeled “LTE (%),” and the xaxis is labeled “Elapsed time (year).” For approximate elapsed time (xaxis) 4.3, 5.5, 6.9, and 7.5years, the approximate LTE (yaxis) is 88, 90, 88, and 98 percent, respectively.
Figure 98. Graph. LTE versus IRI for SHRP test section 100201, J4. This graph displays International Roughness Index (IRI) as a function of load transfer efficiency (LTE). The yaxis is labeled “IRI (inch/mi),” and the xaxis is labeled “LTE (%).” Open squares representing the data points are scattered between approximate LTE (xaxis) 55 and 95 percent and approximate IRI (yaxis) values 45 and 135 inches/mi. (1 inch/mi = 0.0158 m/km)
Figure 99. Graph. LTE versus faulting for SHRP test section 100201, J4. This graph displays average fault as a function of load transfer efficiency (LTE). The yaxis is labeled “Average fault (inch),” and the xaxis is labeled “LTE (%).” Open diamonds representing the data points are scattered between approximate LTE (xaxis) 55 and 95 percent and approximate average fault (yaxis) values 0.0 and 0.045 inches. (1 inch = 25.4 mm)
Figure 100. Graph. LTE versus longitudinal cracking for SHRP test section 100201, J4. This graph displays total longitudinal crack as a function of load transfer efficiency (LTE). The yaxis is labeled “Total longitudinal crack (ft),” and the xaxis is labeled “LTE (%).” Open triangles representing the data points are between approximate LTE (xaxis) 55 and 95 percent and approximate total longitudinal crack (yaxis) 0 and 200 ft. (1 ft = 0.305 m)
Figure 101. Graph. LTE versus transverse cracking for SHRP test section 100201, J4. This graph displays total transverse crack as a function of load transfer efficiency (LTE). The yaxis is labeled “Total transverse crack (ft),” and the xaxis is labeled “LTE (%).” x’s representing the data points are between approximate LTE (xaxis) 55 and 95 percent and approximate total transverse crack (yaxis) 0 and 110 ft. (1 ft = 0.305 m)
Figure 102. Graph. Comparison of the weighted average RFP based on IRI of five treatment types performed on LTPP test sections and on various pavement projects of CDOT, LADOTD, and WSDOT. This bar graph displays “RFP (year)” on the yaxis and “Thin OL,” “Thick OL,” “Thin M&F,” “Thick M&F,” and “CS” in five respective sections on the xaxis. OL, M&F, and CS represent overlay, mill and fill, and chip seal. Up to five bars of data are provided in each section. Leftslanted lines, rightslanted lines, horizontal dash, vertical dash, and brick patterned bars represent Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, specific pavement studies (SPS), and general pavement studies (GPS), respectively. For Thin OL, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 18, 11, 17.5, 17, and 18.5 years, respectively. For Thick OL, Washington, Colorado, SPS, and GPS are approximately 20, 18, 20, and 19.5 years, respectively. For Thin M&F, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 18.5, 14, 17.5, 19.5, and 17.5 years, respectively. For Thick M&F, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 17, 20, and 20 years, respectively. For CS, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 12, 16, 12.5, and 15.5 years, respectively.
Figure 103. Graph. Comparison of the weighted average CFP based on IRI of five treatment types performed on LTPP test sections and on various pavement projects of CDOT, LADOTD, and WSDOT. This bar graph displays “RFP (year)” on the yaxis and “Thin OL,” “Thick OL,” “Thin M&F,” “Thick M&F,” and “CS” in five respective sections on the xaxis. OL, M&F, and CS represent overlay, mill and fill, and chip seal. Up to five bars of data are provided in each section. Leftslanted lines, rightslanted lines, horizontal dash, vertical dash, and brick patterned bars represent Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, specific pavement studies (SPS), and general pavement studies (GPS), respectively. For Thin OL, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 9, 1, 14, 11, and 10.5 years, respectively. For Thick OL, Washington, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 3.5, 14, 7.5, and 13.5years, respectively. For Thin M&F, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 6.5, 7.5, 11, 7.5, and 7 years, respectively. For Thick M&F, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 12, 7.5, and 11.5 years, respectively. For CS, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, and SPS are approximately 3.5, 4, 1.5, and 2 years, respectively.
Figure 104. Graph. Comparison of the weighted average FCROP based on IRI of five treatment types performed on LTPP test sections and on various pavement projects of CDOT, LADOTD, and WSDOT. This bar graph displays “RFP (year)” on the yaxis and “Thin OL,” “Thick OL,” “Thin M&F,” “Thick M&F,” and “CS” in five respective sections on the xaxis. OL, M&F, and CS represent overlay, mill and fill, and chip seal. Up to five bars of data are provided in each section. Leftslanted lines, rightslanted lines, horizontal dash, vertical dash, and brick patterned bars represent Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, specific pavement studies (SPS), and general pavement studies (GPS), respectively. For Thin OL, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 13.5, 2.5, 17, 11.5, and 13 years, respectively. For Thick OL, Washington, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 10, 17.5, 18, and 16 years, respectively. For Thin M&F, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 14.5, 10, 15, 18, and 6 years, respectively. For Thick M&F, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 15.5, 19, and 15 years, respectively. For CS, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, and SPS are approximately 2.5, 0.5, 1, and 3.5 years, respectively.
Figure 105. Graph. Comparison of the weighted average RFP/RSP based on rut depth of five treatment types performed on LTPP test sections and on pavement projects of CDOT, LADOTD, and WSDOT. This bar graph displays “RFP (year)” on the yaxis and “Thin OL,” “Thick OL,” “Thin M&F,” “Thick M&F,” and “CS” in five respective sections on the xaxis. OL, M&F, and CS represent overlay, mill and fill, and chip seal. Up to five bars of data are provided in each section. Leftslanted lines, rightslanted lines, horizontal dash, vertical dash, and brick patterned bars represent Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, specific pavement studies (SPS), and general pavement studies (GPS), respectively. For Thin OL, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 20, 14, 19.5, 19, and 19.5 years, respectively. For Thick OL, Washington, Colorado, SPS, and GPS are approximately 20, 19.5, 17.5, and 18.5 years, respectively. For Thin M&F, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 19, 20, 20, 17, and 18.5 years, respectively. For Thick M&F, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 18, 17.5, and 20 years, respectively. For CS, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, and SPS are approximately 20, 19.5, 19.5, and 15 years, respectively.
Figure 106. Graph. Comparison of the weighted average CFP/CSP based on rut depth of five treatment types performed on LTPP test sections and on pavement projects of CDOT, LADOTD, and WSDOT. This bar graph displays “RFP (year)” on the yaxis and “Thin OL,” “Thick OL,” “Thin M&F,” “Thick M&F,” and “CS” in five respective sections on the xaxis. OL, M&F, and CS represent overlay, mill and fill, and chip seal. Up to five bars of data are provided in each section. Leftslanted lines, rightslanted lines, horizontal dash, vertical dash, and brick patterned bars represent Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, specific pavement studies (SPS), and general pavement studies (GPS), respectively. For Thin OL, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 6, 4, 4, 9.5, and 11 years, respectively. For Thick OL, Washington, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 8, 6, 7.5, and 11 years, respectively. For Thin M&F, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 7.5, 6, 14, 7.5, and 14.5 years, respectively. For Thick M&F, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 8, 6.5, and 12 years, respectively. For CS, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, and SPS are approximately 0.5, 3, 5.5, and 3.5 years, respectively.
Figure 107. Graph. Comparison of the weighted average FCROP/SCROP based on rut depth of five treatment types performed on LTPP test sections and on pavement projects of CDOT, LADOTD, and WSDOT. This bar graph displays “RFP (year)” on the yaxis and “Thin OL,” “Thick OL,” “Thin M&F,” “Thick M&F,” and “CS” in five respective sections on the xaxis. OL, M&F, and CS represent overlay, mill and fill, and chip seal. Up to five bars of data are provided in each section. Leftslanted lines, rightslanted lines, horizontal dash, vertical dash, and brick patterned bars represent Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, specific pavement studies (SPS), and general pavement studies (GPS), respectively. For Thin OL, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 15, 6.5, 18, 16, and 18 years, respectively. For Thick OL, Washington, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 15, 9.5, 14, and 18years, respectively. For Thin M&F, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 16, 14, 18.5, 17, and 17.5 years, respectively. For Thick M&F, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 14, 16.5, and 18 years, respectively. For CS, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, and SPS are approximately 9, 0.5, 8, and 11 years, respectively.
Figure 108. Graph. Comparison of the weighted average RSP based on alligator cracking of five treatment types performed on LTPP test sections and on pavement projects of CDOT, LADOTD, and WSDOT. This bar graph displays “RFP (year)” on the yaxis and “Thin OL,” “Thick OL,” “Thin M&F,” “Thick M&F,” and “CS” in five respective sections on the xaxis. OL, M&F, and CS represent overlay, mill and fill, and chip seal. Up to five bars of data are provided in each section. Leftslanted lines, rightslanted lines, horizontal dash, vertical dash, and brick patterned bars represent Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, specific pavement studies (SPS), and general pavement studies (GPS), respectively. For Thin OL, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 17.5, 8.5, 11, 11.5, and 16 years, respectively. For Thick OL, Washington, Colorado, SPS, and GPS are approximately 17.5, 15, 14.5, and 14 years, respectively. For Thin M&F, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 17.5, 11, 17.5, 15, and 9 years, respectively. For Thick M&F, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 16.5, 15, and 16.5 years, respectively. For CS, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, and SPS are approximately 19.5, 10.5, 10.5, and 11 years, respectively.
Figure 109. Graph. Comparison of the weighted average CSP based on alligator cracking of five treatment types performed on LTPP test sections and on pavement projects of CDOT, LADOTD, and WSDOT. This bar graph displays “RFP (year)” on the yaxis and “Thin OL,” “Thick OL,” “Thin M&F,” “Thick M&F,” and “CS” in five respective sections on the xaxis. OL, M&F, and CS represent overlay, mill and fill, and chip seal. Up to five bars of data are provided in each section. Leftslanted lines, rightslanted lines, horizontal dash, vertical dash, and brick patterned bars represent Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, specific pavement studies (SPS), and general pavement studies (GPS), respectively. For Thin OL, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 6, 6, 8, 4.5, and 14 years, respectively. For Thick OL, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 5, 12.5, 12.5, 7, and 9.5 years, respectively. For Thin M&F, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 2, 2.5, 9, 7, and 6.5 years, respectively. For Thick M&F, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 15, 6.5, and 11 years, respectively. For CS, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, and SPS are approximately 2, 6.5, 7.5, and 1.5 years, respectively.
Figure 110. Graph. Comparison of the weighted average SCROP based on alligator cracking of five treatment types performed on LTPP test sections and on pavement projects of CDOT, LADOTD, and WSDOT. This bar graph displays “RFP (year)” on the yaxis and “Thin OL,” “Thick OL,” “Thin M&F,” “Thick M&F,” and “CS” in five respective sections on the xaxis. OL, M&F, and CS represent overlay, mill and fill, and chip seal. Up to five bars of data are provided in each section. Leftslanted lines, rightslanted lines, horizontal dash, vertical dash, and brick patterned bars represent Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, specific pavement studies (SPS), and general pavement studies (GPS), respectively. For Thin OL, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 13, 0.5, 9.5, 6.5, and 15years, respectively. For Thick OL, Washington, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 14, 14.5, 10, and 12 years, respectively. For Thin M&F, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 10.5, 7, 13, 13.5, and 11 years, respectively. For Thick M&F, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 17, 11.5, and 13 years, respectively. For CS, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, and SPS are approximately 7, 4.5, 8.5, and 6 years, respectively.
Figure 111. Graph. Comparison of the weighted average RSP based on longitudinal cracking of five treatment types performed on LTPP test sections and on pavement projects of CDOT, LADOTD, and WSDOT. This bar graph displays “RFP (year)” on the yaxis and “Thin OL,” “Thick OL,” “Thin M&F,” “Thick M&F,” and “CS” in five respective sections on the xaxis. OL, M&F, and CS represent overlay, mill and fill, and chip seal. Up to five bars of data are provided in each section. Leftslanted lines, rightslanted lines, horizontal dash, vertical dash, and brick patterned bars represent Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, specific pavement studies (SPS), and general pavement studies (GPS), respectively. For Thin OL, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 17.5, 10.5, 16.5, 12.5, and 9.5 years, respectively. For Thick OL, Washington, Colorado, SPS, and GPS are approximately 18.5, 17, 14, and 8 years, respectively. For Thin M&F, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 18, 8.5, 18, 14, and 7.5 years, respectively. For Thick M&F, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 16, 15, and 14.5 years, respectively. For CS, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, and SPS are approximately 19, 12.5, 17, and 17.5 years, respectively.
Figure 112. Graph. Comparison of the weighted average CSP based on longitudinal cracking of five treatment types performed on LTPP test sections and on pavement projects of CDOT, LADOTD, and WSDOT. This bar graph displays “RFP (year)” on the yaxis and “Thin OL,” “Thick OL,” “Thin M&F,” “Thick M&F,” and “CS” in five respective sections on the xaxis. OL, M&F, and CS represent overlay, mill and fill, and chip seal. Up to five bars of data are provided in each section. Leftslanted lines, rightslanted lines, horizontal dash, vertical dash, and brick patterned bars represent Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, specific pavement studies (SPS), and general pavement studies (GPS), respectively. For Thin OL, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 4, 2, 7.5, 1, and 7.5 years, respectively. For Thick OL, Washington, Colorado, SPS, and GPS are approximately 0.5, 7, 2.5, and 7 years, respectively. For Thin M&F, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 3.5, 2.5, 7, 4.5, and 8.5 years, respectively. For Thick M&F, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 12, 4, and 6.5 years, respectively. For CS, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, and SPS are approximately 4.5, 10, 9, and 1 years, respectively.
Figure 113. Graph. Comparison of the weighted average SCROP based on longitudinal cracking of five treatment types performed on LTPP test sections and on pavement projects of CDOT, LADOTD, and WSDOT. This bar graph displays “RFP (year)” on the yaxis and “Thin OL,” “Thick OL,” “Thin M&F,” “Thick M&F,” and “CS” in five respective sections on the xaxis. OL, M&F, and CS represent overlay, mill and fill, and chip seal. Up to five bars of data are provided in each section. Leftslanted lines, rightslanted lines, horizontal dash, vertical dash, and brick patterned bars represent Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, specific pavement studies (SPS), and general pavement studies (GPS), respectively. For Thin OL, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 13, 0.5, 10.5, 5, and 10.5 years, respectively. For Thick OL, Washington, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 13.5, 11.5, 4, and 4 years, respectively. For Thin M&F, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 9.5, 4, 12, 5.5, and 4 years, respectively. For Thick M&F, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 13, 6.5, and 9.5 years, respectively. For CS, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, and SPS are approximately 10, 5, 11, and 8 years, respectively.
Figure 114. Graph. Comparison of the weighted average RSP based on transverse cracking of five treatment types performed on LTPP test sections and on pavement projects of CDOT, LADOTD, and WSDOT. This bar graph displays “RFP (year)” on the yaxis and “Thin OL,” “Thick OL,” “Thin M&F,” “Thick M&F,” and “CS” in five respective sections on the xaxis. OL, M&F, and CS represent overlay, mill and fill, and chip seal. Up to five bars of data are provided in each section. Leftslanted lines, rightslanted lines, horizontal dash, vertical dash, and brick patterned bars represent Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, specific pavement studies (SPS), and general pavement studies (GPS), respectively. For Thin OL, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 19, 12.5, 10.5, 12.5, and 12 years, respectively. For Thick OL, Washington, Colorado, SPS, and GPS are approximately 20, 14, 15.5, and 14 years, respectively. For Thin M&F, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 19, 8, 14.5, 15, and 10.5 years, respectively. For Thick M&F, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 16, 16.5, and 15.5 years, respectively. For CS, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, and SPS are approximately 20, 6.5, 13, and 11.5 years, respectively.
Figure 115. Graph. Comparison of the weighted average CSP based on transverse cracking of five treatment types performed on LTPP test sections and on pavement projects of CDOT, LADOTD, and WSDOT. This bar graph displays “RFP (year)” on the yaxis and “Thin OL,” “Thick OL,” “Thin M&F,” “Thick M&F,” and “CS” in five respective sections on the xaxis. OL, M&F, and CS represent overlay, mill and fill, and chip seal. Up to five bars of data are provided in each section. Leftslanted lines, rightslanted lines, horizontal dash, vertical dash, and brick patterned bars represent Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, specific pavement studies (SPS), and general pavement studies (GPS), respectively. For Thin OL, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 2, 4, 3.5, 0.5, and 6.5 years, respectively. For Thick OL, Washington, Colorado, SPS, and GPS are approximately 2, 8, 3, and 11 years, respectively. For Thin M&F, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 2, 3.5, 8.5, 2, and 4.5 years, respectively. For Thick M&F, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 12, 4, and 6.5 years, respectively. For CS, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, and SPS are approximately 0.5, 3, 8.5, and 1.5 years, respectively.
Figure 116. Graph. Comparison of the weighted average SCROP based on transverse cracking of five treatment types performed on LTPP test sections and on pavement projects of CDOT, LADOTD, and WSDOT. This bar graph displays “RFP (year)” on the yaxis and “Thin OL,” “Thick OL,” “Thin M&F,” “Thick M&F,” and “CS” in five respective sections on the xaxis. OL, M&F, and CS represent overlay, mill and fill, and chip seal. Up to five bars of data are provided in each section. Leftslanted lines, rightslanted lines, horizontal dash, vertical dash, and brick patterned bars represent Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, specific pavement studies (SPS), and general pavement studies (GPS), respectively. For Thin OL, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 12, 4.5, 6.5, 6.5, and 8years, respectively. For Thick OL, Washington, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 16, 9.5, 10.5, and 11years, respectively. For Thin M&F, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 10.5, 1, 12.5, 8, and 4.5years, respectively. For Thick M&F, Louisiana, SPS, and GPS are approximately 15, 11, and 13years, respectively. For CS, Washington, Colorado, Louisiana, and SPS are approximately 4.5, 2.5, 9.5, and 5.5years, respectively.