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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-96-143
Date: April 1997

Development of Human Factors Guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems and Commercial Vehicle Operations: Exploring Driver Acceptance of In-Vehicle Information Systems

 

FOREWORD

This report is one of a series of nine reports produced as part of a contract designed to develop precise, detailed human factors design guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) and Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO). Among the other topics discussed in the series are functional description of ATIS/CVO, comparable systems analysis, task analysis of ATIS/CVO functions, alternate systems analysis, identification and exploration of driver acceptance, and definition and prioritization of research studies.

This report discusses the problem of user acceptance of new technoloy and documents several empirical studies designed to further understand this issue as related to ATIS/CVO systems. A tentative model for driver acceptance of ATIS devices, based in part on the obtained experimental results is proposed.

A. George Ostensen, Director
Office of Safety and Traffic
Operations Research and Development

 

NOTICE

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

The United States Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade and manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the object of the document.

 


TECHNICAL REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE

1. Report No.

FHWA–RD–96–143

2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS GUIDELINES FOR ADVANCED TRAVELER INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND COMMERCIAL VEHICLE OPERATIONS; EXPLORING DRIVER ACCEPTANCE OF IN–VEHICLE INFORMATION SYSTEMS.

5. Report Date

April 9, 1997

6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)

Kantowitz, B.H., Lee, J.D., Becker, C.A., Bittner, A.C., Kantowitz, S.C., Hanowski, R.J., Kinghorn, R.A., McCauley, M.E., Sharkey, T.J., McCallum, M.C., and Barlow, S.T.

8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Battelle Human Factors Transportation Center
4000 NE 41st Street
Seattle, WA 98105

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

3B2C1012

3B2C

11. Contract or Grant No.

DTFH61–92–C–00102

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Safety and Traffic Operations R&D
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101–2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

7/1/93 – 3/31/94

14. Sponsoring Agency Code
15. Supplementary Notes

Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR): Joseph Moyer, HSR–30

16. Abstract

This document is part of an integrated program to develop human factors guidelines for advanced in–vehicle information systems. This document provides both an analytic and empirical determination of the human factors issues specific to user acceptance of Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) and Commercial Vehicle Operation (CVO) systems. Previous research indicates that Automatic Teller Machine technology has not enjoyed widespread acceptance. Two questionnaire–based experiments identified features that drivers find desirable for ATIS systems. The use of a model–based approach for determining drivers' preferred features was also used with success. An experiment using a route guidance simulation that presented real– time video of on–the–road driving scenes, and a map used for route selection and the purchase of traffic information showed that drivers accepted the ATIS information even when only 77 percent accurate. An experiment that addressed CVO function acceptance provides tentative recommendations for the introduction of ATIS systems into commercial vehicles.

17. Key Words

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS), Commerical Vehicle Operators (CVO), User Acceptance

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia, 22161.

19. Security Classif. (of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classif. (of this page)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

356

22. Price
Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. ASSESSING DRIVER ACCEPTANCE: PROBLEM DEFINITION

2. EXPERIMENT 1 AND 1B

3. EXPERIMENT 2

  • METHOD
    • Subjects
    • Apparatus
    • Battelle Route Guidance Simulator
    • Independent Variables
    • Dependent Variables
    • Experimental Procedure

  • RESULTS
    • Information Cost
    • Penalty Costs
    • Convergence
    • Trust in the Route Guidance System (Inter-Link)
    • Self-Confidence in Ability to Accurately Anticipate Traffic Conditions (Inter-Link)
    • Traffic Expectations (Inter-Link)
    • Trust Minus Self–Confidence

  • DISCUSSION
    • Objective Measures of Driver Behavior
    • Subjective Measures of Driver Behavior
    • Effects of Aging
    • Conclusions

4. EXPERIMENT 3

  • METHOD
    • Participants
    • Materials and Procedures

  • RESULTS
    • Magnitude Estimation Data
    • Option Package Magnitude Estimation Data
    • Paired Comparison Preference Data
    • Network Analysis

  • DISCUSSION

5. CONCLUSIONS

  • USE OF MODELS
  • ATIS AND CVO GUIDELINES
    • Designing ATIS Equipment
    • Education
    • Incentives to Promote ITS Acceptance and Use in CVO
  • FUTURE RESEARCH

APPENDIX A: A SUMMARY OF RELEVANT LITERATURE

APPENDIX B: EXPERIMENT 1 AND 1B MATERIALS

APPENDIX C: EXPERIMENT 1 AND 1B RESULTS

APPENDIX D: EXPERIMENT 2 MATERIALS

APPENDIX E: EXPERIMENT 2 RESULTS

APPENDIX F: EXPERIMENT 3 MATERIALS

REFERENCES

 


LIST OF FIGURES

  1. A structural model of the components of innovation acceptance adapted from Mackie & Wylie (1988)
  2. Age and gender distribution for subjects participating in experiment 1
  3. Practice map
  4. Map of Harry P. Leu Botanical Gardens to Church Street Station route
  5. Examples of TravTek system information presentation formats
  6. Example of CityGuide system text instructions
  7. Example of CityGuide system hotel
  8. CityGuide map
  9. Composite variable feature pattern relationships
  10. The TravTek system's guidance display was easy to learn. (TRAV1A)
  11. The TravTek system's guidance display was easy to use. (TRAV1B)
  12. The TravTek system's guidance display was useful. (TRAV1C)
  13. The TravTek system's route map was easy to learn. (TRAV2A)
  14. The TravTek system's route map was easy to use. (TRAV2B)
  15. The TravTek system's route map was useful. (TRAV2C)
  16. The TravTek system's voice guide feature was easy to learn. (TRAV3A)
  17. The TravTek system's voice guide feature was easy to use. (TRAV3B)
  18. The TravTek system's voice guide feature was useful. (TRAV3C)
  19. Of the two routing displays, route map, and guidance display, which did you prefer? (TRAV4)
  20. Overall, the TravTek system was easy to learn. (TRAV5A)
  21. Overall, the TravTek system was easy to use. (TRAV5B)
  22. Overall, the TravTek system was useful. (TRAV5C)
  23. Do you think the TravTek system would be useful for at–home daily driving? (TRAV6A)
  24. Do you think the TravTek system would be useful for out–of–town vacation driving? (TRAV6B)
  25. Do you think the TravTek system would be useful for out–of–town business trips? (TRAV6C)
  26. How much would you be willing to pay for a TravTek system? (TRAV7)
  27. Rank...energy conservation. (TRAV8A)
  28. Rank...environmental quality. (TRAV8B)
  29. Rank...highway/traffic safety. (TRAV8C)
  30. Rank...relief of highway congestion. (TRAV8D)
  31. Mean percent correct scores for all system capabilities
  32. Basic map feature pattern desirability
  33. Voice feature pattern desirability
  34. Text/Icon feature pattern desirability
  35. Coordination of travel information feature pattern desirability
  36. Map simplification pattern desirability
  37. Monitoring & emergency response feature pattern desirability
  38. Indirect relationships of feature patterns
  39. Relationships among composite variables
  40. CityGuide system's map display was easy to learn. (CGTEST1A)
  41. CityGuide system's map display was easy to use. (CGTEST1B)
  42. CityGuide system's map display was useful. (CGTEST1C)
  43. CityGuide system's text instructions were easy to learn. (CGTEST2A)
  44. CityGuide system's text instructions were easy to use. (CGTEST2B)
  45. CityGuide system's text instructions were useful. (CGTEST2C)
  46. Of the two routing options, map display, and text instructions, which do you prefer? (CGTEST3)
  47. Overall, CityGuide system was easy to learn. (CGTEST4A)
  48. Overall, CityGuide system was easy to use. (CGTEST4B)
  49. Overall, CityGuide system was useful. (CGTEST4C)
  50. Mean percent correct scores for CityGuide system's capabilities
  51. Recreational information feature pattern desirability
  52. Routing assistance feature pattern desirability
  53. Accommodation related information feature pattern desirability
  54. Restaurant and other coordinations feature pattern desirability
  55. Indirect relationships of feature patterns
  56. Relationships among composite variables for TravTek system
  57. Relationships among composite variables for CityGuide system
  58. Artist reconstruction of real–time digitized color display
  59. Monitor displaying a computer–generated schematic map
  60. Link tree diagram (actual links used)
  61. Mean purchased information costs as a function of repetition
  62. Information cost as a function of age and accuracy
  63. Mean penalty costs as a function of age and accuracy
  64. Mean penalty costs as a function of accuracy and repetition
  65. Percentage agreement with baseline route as a function of age and accuracy
  66. Number of cases of route convergence or non–convergence with pre–trial baseline across all trials
  67. Mean rated trust as a function of information accuracy and repetition
  68. Mean rated trust as a function of information accuracy and link position
  69. Mean rated trust as a function of link position
  70. Mean rated trust as a function of age and purchased link information
  71. Mean rated trust as a function of age given the type of information purchased for the 77‰ accurate trials
  72. Mean rated self–confidence as a function of age and purchased link information
  73. Mean self–confidence ratings as a function of age given the type of information purchased for the 77‰ accurate trials
  74. Mean rated traffic expectations as a function of accurate information availability and the purchasing of that information
  75. Mean rated traffic expectations as a function of age and purchased link information
  76. Mean rated traffic expectations as a function of age given the type of information purchased for the 77‰ accurate trials
  77. Mean rated trust (–) self–confidence as a function of age and purchased link information
  78. Mean rated trust (–) self–confidence as a function of age given the type of information purchased for the 77‰ accurate trials
  79. A link–weighted network of ATIS/CVO functions generated for local drivers
  80. A link–weighted network of ATIS/CVO functions generated for long–haul drivers
  81. Driver acceptance of ITS technology
  82. Diffusion curves for four consumer products
  83. Mean rated trust for five links traversed
  84. Mean rated trust for six links traversed
  85. Mean rated trust for seven links traversed
  86. Mean rated trust for eight links traversed
  87. Mean rated trust, two middle links averaged
  88. Mean rated trust, three middle links averaged
  89. Mean rated trust, four middle links averaged
  90. Mean rated trust comparing accuracy of purchased information for links traversed
  91. Mean rated self–confidence for five links traversed
  92. Mean rated self–confidence for six links traversed
  93. Mean rated self–confidence for seven links traversed
  94. Mean rated self–confidence for eight links traversed
  95. Mean rated traffic expectations across links with accurate or inaccurate information (Sequence 1)
  96. Mean rated traffic expectations across links with accurate or inaccurate information (Sequence 2)
  97. Mean rated traffic expectations across links with accurate or inaccurate information (Sequence 3)

 


LIST OF TABLES

  1. Definition of terms for figure 1
  2. Independent variables in experiment 1
  3. Dependent variables in experiment 1
  4. Time table for experiment 1
  5. Independent variables in experiment 1B
  6. Dependent variables in experiment 1B
  7. TravTek system user test questions
  8. TravTek system most desired features
  9. TravTek system least desired features
  10. Method for determination of feature patterns
  11. Desired feature patterns
  12. Cross-correlations between unfamiliar-city and familiar-city factor scores of the feature patterns
  13. Method for determination of composite variables
  14. Composite variable correlations
  15. Basic map feature pattern initial analysis summary
  16. Basic map feature pattern final analysis summary
  17. Voice feature pattern initial analysis summary
  18. Voice feature pattern final analysis summary
  19. Text/Icon feature pattern initial analysis summary
  20. Text/Icon feature pattern final analysis summary
  21. Gender and age interaction on desirability
  22. Coordination of travel information feature pattern initial analysis summary
  23. Coordination of travel information feature pattern final analysis summary
  24. Map simplification feature pattern initial analysis summary
  25. Map simplification feature pattern final analysis summary
  26. Monitoring & emergency response feature pattern initial analysis summary
  27. Monitoring & emergency response feature pattern final analysis summary
  28. CityGuide system user test questions
  29. CityGuide system most desired features
  30. CityGuide system least desired features
  31. Method for determination of feature patterns
  32. Desired feature patterns
  33. Cross-correlations between unfamiliar-city and familiar-city factor scores of the feature patterns
  34. Method for determination of composite variables
  35. Composite variable correlations
  36. Recreational information feature pattern initial analysis summary
  37. Recreational information feature pattern final analysis summary
  38. Routing assistance feature pattern initial analysis summary
  39. Routing assistance feature pattern final analysis summary
  40. Accommodation related information feature pattern initial analysis summary
  41. Accommodation related information feature pattern final analysis summary
  42. Restaurant and other coordinations feature pattern initial analysis summary
  43. Restaurant and other coordinations feature pattern final analysis summary
  44. Summary of the TravTek system multiple-correlation results
  45. Age differences in the TravTek system feature acceptance
  46. Text/Icon feature pattern AGEXGEN subset of the final analysis summary
  47. Summary of the CityGuide system multiple-correlation results
  48. Age differences in the CityGuide system feature acceptance
  49. Age group and number of subjects for experiment 2
  50. Link segments for experiment 2
  51. Summary of the independent variables
  52. List of dependent variables for experiment 2
  53. Sequence of questionnaires administered
  54. Analysis of trials: Cell entries are trial ordinal position
  55. Multiple t-tests for information accuracy: Middle links versus other links
  56. Demographic data for local and long-haul drivers
  57. Magnitude estimation task mean z-scores by driver group and function
  58. Mean ratings of option packages
  59. Paired comparison task mean z-scores by driver group and function
  60. Factors affecting resistance to ATIS/CVO technology
  61. Possible techniques to resist ATIS/CVO technology
  62. Information developed from bibliography and small-group discussion
  63. Information generated from small-group discussion
  64. Analysis of variance for TRAV1A: Guidance easy to learn
  65. Analysis of variance for TRAV1B: Guidance easy to use
  66. Analysis of variance for TRAV1C: Guidance useful
  67. Analysis of variance for TRAV2A: Route map easy to learn
  68. Analysis of variance for TRAV2B: Map route easy to use
  69. Analysis of variance for TRAV2C: Route map useful
  70. Analysis of variance for TRAV3A: Voice easy to learn
  71. Analysis of variance for TRAV3B: Voice easy to use
  72. Analysis of variance for TRAV3C: Voice useful
  73. Analysis of variance for TRAV4: Routing preference
  74. Analysis of variance for TRAV5A: TravTek easy to learn
  75. Analysis of variance for TRAV5B: TravTek easy to use
  76. Analysis of variance for TRAV5C: TravTek useful
  77. Analysis of variance for TRAV6A: At home daily driving
  78. Analysis of variance for TRAV6B: Out-of-town vacation driving
  79. Analysis of variance for TRAV6C: Out-of-town business trips
  80. Analysis of variance for TRAV7: Willing to pay for TravTek
  81. Analysis of variance for TRAV8A: Energy conservation
  82. Analysis of variance for TRAV8B: Environmental quality
  83. Analysis of variance for TRAV8C: Highway/traffic safety
  84. Analysis of variance for TRAV8D: Relief of highway congestion
  85. Analysis of variance for overall TravTek system capabilities
  86. Analysis of covariance for CGTEST 1A
  87. Analysis of covariance for CGTEST 1B
  88. Analysis of covariance for CGTEST 1C
  89. Analysis of covariance for CGTEST 2A
  90. Analysis of covariance for CGTEST 2B
  91. Analysis of covariance for CGTEST 2C
  92. Analysis of covariance for CGTEST3
  93. Analysis of covariance for CGTEST 4A
  94. Analysis of covariance for CGTEST 4B
  95. Analysis of covariance for CGTEST 4C
  96. Analysis of covariance for overall CityGuide system capabilities
  97. Analysis of variance for information cost
  98. Analysis of variance for penalty cost
  99. Analysis of variance for convergence
  100. Analysis of variance for trust in the route guidance system
  101. Analysis of variance for trust in the route guidance system: Purchased link information
  102. Analysis of variance for trust in the route guidance system: Information type
  103. Analysis of variance for self-confidence: Purchased link information
  104. Analysis of variance for self-confidence: Information type
  105. Analysis of variance for traffic expectations: Purchased link information
  106. Analysis of variance for traffic expectations: Information type
  107. Analysis of variance for trust minus self-confidence: Purchased link information
  108. Analysis of variance for trust minus self-confidence: Information type

 


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

AAA American Automobile Association

AARP American Association of Retired Persons

ANOVA Analysis of Variance

ATA American Trucking Association

ATIS Advanced Traveler Information Systems

ATM Automated Teller Machine

CB Citizen band

COTR Contracting Officer's Technical Representative

CTA California Trucking Association

CVO Commercial Vehicle Operations

FHWA Federal Highway Administration

h hour

IMSIS In-Vehicle Motorist Services Information Systems

IRANS In-Vehicle Routing and Navigation Systems

ITS Intelligent Transportation Systems

LCD Liquid crystal display

MANOVA Multivariate Analysis of Variance

MIAT Modified Innovation Acceptance Theory

min minute

MRA Multiple Regression Analysis

NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PC Personal Computer

PFA Principal Factor Analysis

RGS Route Guidance Simulator

RPM Revolutions per minute

SAS Statistical Analysis Software

SPSS Statistical Package for Social Science

TAM Technology Acceptance Model

TLX Task Loading Index

TRB Transportation Research Board

TV Television set

U. S. United States

VCR Videocassette recorder

 

FHWA-RD-96-143

 

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