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Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations

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Publication Number:  FHWA-HRT-12-048    Date:  November 2013
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-12-048
Date: November 2013


Pavement Marking Demonstration Projects: State of Alaska and State of Tennessee

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This report provides information on four topics related to advanced pavement marking systems: (1) an evaluation of the durability and cost effectiveness of alternative marking materials, (2) a two-part study on the safety impacts of wider edge lines, the first part using operational effects as surrogate safety metrics and the second part based on a post-hoc analysis of safety data, (3) an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of cost effective pavement marking systems, and (4) a review of the effect of State procurement processes on the quality of installed markings. This report amplifies information that may be found in Pavement Marking Demonstration Projects: State of Alaska and State of Tennessee: Report to Congress (FHWA-HRT-09-039). The intent of this report is to provide decisionmakers with information on materials and methods that will reduce the overall national expenditure on pavement markings, while providing improved guidance and enhanced safety for the driving public.

Monique R. Evans
Director, Office of Safety
Research and Development



This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.


Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.


Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.


2. Government Accession No. 3 Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

Pavement Marking Demonstration Projects: State of Alaska and State of Tennessee

5. Report Date

November 2013

6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)

Paul Carlson, Eun-Sug Park, Adam Pike, R.J. Porter, Jeffrey Miles,
Bryan Boulanger, Omar Smadi, Neal Hawkins, Seth Chalmers,
Frank Darmiento, Adrian Burde, Beverly Kuhn, and Wendy Ealding

8. Performing Organization Report No.


9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Texas Transportation Institute
The Texas A&M University System
College Station, TX 77843-3135

1710 SAIC Drive
McLean, VA 22101-2296

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

11. Contract or Grant No.

Task T-06-002

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Safety Research and Development
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Final Report

14. Sponsoring Agency Code


15. Supplementary Notes

Projects were performed with the cooperation and participation of the Tennessee Department of Transportation and the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities. The Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) was Carl K. Andersen, Office of Safety Research and Development.

16. Abstract

This project evaluates the safety impacts, environmental impacts, and cost effectiveness of different pavement marking systems as well as the effect of State bidding and procurement processes on the quality of pavement marking material employed in highway projects. The findings indicate that States are pursuing alternative procurement strategies to provide high-quality durable markings in a cost effective manner, often as part of a strategic safety plan, while industry has responded to requirements for more environmentally benign materials. A multi-State retrospective crash analysis suggests that the use of 6-inch edge lines reduces several crash types on rural two-lane two-way roads as compared to 4-inch edge lines. The monitored performance of pavement markings installed as part of the demonstration project was used to evaluate pavement marking cost effectiveness. The same results were also used to populate a framework for a pavement marking selection tool.


17. Key Words

Acrylic waterborne paint, Durability, Environmental impacts, Pavement markings, Retroreflectivity, State bidding procedures, Wider edge lines

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service Alexandria, VA 22312

19. Security Classification
(of this report)


20. Security Classification
(of this page)


21. No. of Pages


22. Price
Form DOT F 1700.7 Reproduction of completed page authorized


SI* (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors







AADTAverage annual daily traffic
AASHTOAmerican Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
ACAsphalt concrete
ACGIHAmerican Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ADOTArizona Department of Transportation
ADTAverage daily traffic
AGBMAAmerican Glass Bead Manufacturers Association
AKDOTAlaska Department of Transportation
ALDOTAlabama Department of Transportation
ANOVAAnalysis of variance
ANSIAmerican National Standards Institute
AWPMAll-weather pavement marking
BMPBest management practices
CAAClean Air Act
CASChemical Abstracts Service
CDOTColorado Department of Transportation
CERCLAComprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
CFRCode of Federal Regulations
CMRGChemical Manufacturer Recommended Guideline
EBEmpirical Bayes
EECEuropean Economic Community
EHSEnvironment, Health, and Safety
EPAEnvironmental Protection Agency
F+IFatal plus injury
FDOTFlorida Department of Transportation
FHWAFederal Highway Administration
FP-XRFField-portable x ray fluorescence
GDOTGeorgia Department of Transportation
GEEGeneralized estimating equation
GEVGeneralized extreme value
HMACHot mix asphalt concrete
HMISHazardous Materials Identification System
HSISHighway Safety Information System
HSLHue, saturation, and lightness
IARCInternational Agency for Research on Cancer
IIAIndependence of irrelevant alternatives
Iowa DOTIowa Department of Transportation
ISOOrganization for Standardization
KDOTKansas Department of Transportation
LC50Median lethal concentration
LCALife-cycle assessment
LCILife-cycle inventory
LCIALife-cycle inventory assessment
LD50Median lethal dose
LRSLongitudinal reference system
MCMidpoint of curve
mcd/lux/m2millicandela per lux per square meter
MDOTMichigan Department of Transportation
milOne thousandth of an inch
MMAMethyl methacrylate
MnDOTMinnesota Department of Transportation
MSDSMaterial safety data sheet
MUTCDManual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices
NAAQSNational Ambient Air Quality Standards
NCDOTNorth Carolina Department of Transportation
NEPANational Environmental Policy Act
NESHAPNational Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
NFPANational Fire Protection Association
NJDOTNew Jersey Department of Transportation
NJIT/RUNew Jersey Institute of Technology/Rowan University
NOAELNo observed adverse effect level
NTPNational Toxicology Program
NTPEPNational Transportation Product Evaluation Program
OSHAOccupational Safety and Health Administration
PCPoint of curve
PDOProperty damage only
PELPermissible exposure limit
PMParticulate matter
PMSTPavement marking selection tool
PCCPortland cement concrete
PPEPersonal protective equipment
ppmParts per million
RCRAResource Conservation and Recovery Act
REMLRestricted maximum likelihood
R.I.Refractive index
R.P.Reference post
RPMRaised pavement marker
RTLTWRural two-lane two-way
SAFETEA-LUSafe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users
SAICScientific Applications International Corporation
SARASuperfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
SAS®Statistical Analysis Software®
SCBASelf-contained breathing apparatus
SIPState Implementation Plan
SPFSafety performance function
SPLPSynthetic precipitation leaching procedure
SRState route
TCLPToxicity characteristic leaching procedure
TDOTTennessee Department of Transportation
TSCAToxic Substances Control Act
TTITexas Transportation Institute
TxDOTTexas Department of Transportation
UUpstream location
VDOTVirginia Department of Transportation
VOCVolatile organic compound
WAdvance curve warning sign location
WSDOTWashington State Department of Transportation



α    Alpha, level of statistical significance
β    Beta, regression coefficient (of a negative binomial model)
χ    Chi, covariate (of a negative binomial model)
c    Combinations, number of factor-level combinations in an interaction
Δ    Delta (upper case), mean difference, in a given factor
δ    Delta (lowercase), minimum detectable difference
μ    Mu (lowercase), represents one millionth, or 10-6
n    Sample size
Σ    Sigma (upper case), sum of parts that follow
σ    Sigma (lowercase), one standard deviation



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