Office of Innovative Program Delivery
Center for
Local Aid Support



Introduction to Traffic Incident Management (TIM) Programs

July 26, 2017

U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration logo


  • Introduction and Opening Remarks
    • Paul Jodoin, Federal Highway Administration
  • Introduction to Traffic Incident Management and Overview of Arizona Traffic Incident Management Program
    • Jeff King, Federal Highway Administration and Retired Arizona State Trooper Captain
  • Overview of Oregon Statewide Traffic Incident Management Program
    • Darin Weaver, Oregon Department of Transportation


National TIM Program Vision

Through continuous and enhanced planning and training of all TIM personnel:

  • Reduce or eliminate responder and motorist injuries and fatalities.
  • Promote rapid incident clearance thereby reducing traffic congestion and vulnerability.
  • Develop or enhance local TIM Programs that ultimately benefit corridors, regions and States.
  • Measure performance that demonstrates improved TIM responses and programs over time.
  • Emphasize TIM as a system operations "core mission" for all responders.
The Evolving Business Case: Why TIM?

The business case for training incident responders:

  1. The safety of incident responders.
  2. The safety of all road users.
  3. Congestion mitigation and commerce.

Source: Arizona Department of Public Safety Source: Vince Fairhurst Source: Ron MooreResponders and vehicles

Source: Arizona Department of Public Safety
Source: Vince Fairhurst
Source: Ron Moore

Responder Struck-By Fatalities

In a typical year, the following number of responders are struck and killed:

  • 10 Law Enforcement Officers.
  • 4 Fire and Rescue Personnel.
  • An estimated 40-60 Towing and Recovery Professionals.
  • Several transportation professionals from DOTs, Public Works, and Safety Service Patrol Programs.

Sources: Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting Program, National Fire Protection Association, Towing & Recovery Association of America 6

Responder Struck-By Crashes – Unknown
Number of Injuries and Property Damage

Responder vehicles damaged in crashes

Source: Ron Moore Source: Joseph Rose
Source: North Naples Fire Department
Source: Tennessee Department of Transportation

Secondary Crashes

Secondary Crashes are crashes that occur within the incident scene or within the queue or backup, including the opposite direction, resulting from an original incident.

FHWA Focus States Initiative

  • Lost time and productivity.
  • Increased cost of goods and services.
  • Impacts on air quality and the environment.
  • Increased fuel consumption.
  • Reduced quality of life.
  • Negative public image for response agencies.
AAA Crashes vs Congestion November 2011 Cost of Crashes Cost of Congestion
Total Per Person Total Per Person
2005 U.S. National $164.2 billion $1,051 $57 billion $430
2009 U.S. National $299.5 billion $1,522 $97.7 billion $590
TIM Defined
  • TIM consists of a planned and coordinated multidisciplinary process to detect, respond to, and clear traffic incidents so that traffic flow may be restored as safely and quickly as possible.
  • Effective TIM:
    • Improves the safety of emergency responders, crash victims, and motorists.
    • Reduces the duration and impacts of traffic incidents.


Arizona TIM Program Overview

Arizona State Trooper vehicle

Source: Arizona State Troopers

What triggered AZ DPS to implement TIM and TIM PMs?
  • History of officer involved struck by crashes.
  • On going work with International Association of Chief's of Police (IACP) to mitigate the outcomes of struck by crashes.
    • 2000-2001 Blue Ribbon Panel ref. Crown Victoria Police Interceptor (CVPI) crashes.
    • 2004 IACP Law Enforcement Safety Stops Sub Committee (LESSS).
  • Civilian secondary crash awareness and civil suit litigation.
Most Importantly was the Focus on Officer Safety!

In Arizona, 29 DPS officers had been lost in the line of duty, 17 of these were involved in motor vehicle crashes, 11 of these were involved in secondary crashes.

Fallen officers photos

Secondary Items Driving Change

Secondary Issues:

  • Expected recovery from great recession.
  • Predictions on freight movement.
  • Human resources:
    • Cuts and vacancies of FTEs.
    • New training and administrative mandates.
    • Inability to hire qualified candidates.
    • Increasing calls for service.
What did we find looking back at our TIM program prior to 2010?
  • Az Troopers placed the most focus on the causes, DUI, Reckless Driving, Distracted Drivers, Speeding etc.
  • Az Troopers were focusing on the big crashes not the everyday little crashes.
  • Az Troopers had been implementing TIM on those traffic incidents that were longer in length not the everyday little ones.
  • Little everyday traffic incidents in many cases led to or were connected to the big incidents.

"Take away practice: Apply TIM at every traffic incident and learn from the small ones before they get big," Captain Jeff King, Az State Trooper (retired)

TIM Performance Measures DATA Collection
  • The TIM PMs are being collected by AZDPS using Traffic and Criminal Software (TRACS).
  • Was added to the Statewide crash form used in 2014

AZ Crash Report form

IACP & Public Roads Magazine Articles

For additional background refer to:
James E. McGuffin Jr. and Jeffrey A. King, "Traffic Incident Management: The Next Evolution in Officer Safety," The Police Chief 82 (July 2015): 22–27.
Jeffrey A. King, "A Pivotal Job for Police," Public Roads Vol 78 No. 6, May/June 2015.

TIM Process

TIM Process Flow Chart

Text of TIM Process flow chart

  • Detection
  • Verification
    • Response
      • Site Management
      • Clearance / Removal
    • Traffic Management
    • Traveler Information
  • After-Action Review / Debrief
TIM Components

TIM Components flow chart

Text of TIM Components flow chart

  • TIM Components
    • Program (Committee/Task Force)
      • Relationships.
      • Needs Assessment.
      • Training.
      • Performance Evaluation.
      • Asset Management.
      • Contracting.
      • Administration & Staffing.
      • Finance/Budget.
    • Response
What is a TIM Program?
  • The goal of a TIM program is to allow for a more effective, efficient response for all responding agencies.
  • On-going effort from all TIM responders to continuously identify needs and opportunities for improvement.
  • TIM programs and associated committees and/or task forces are sustained and on-going.
TIM Program - Where do you Start?
  1. Identify, involve, encourage participation from all responding agencies and stakeholders - "get folks to the table."
  2. Identify a "champion" to lead program development and on-going program administration.
  3. Establish and maintain relationships.
  4. Collectively assess the "climate" - Where are we now?
    • Tool: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Capability Maturity TIM Self-Assessment (CMSA).
  5. Collectively establish goals for performance and progress - Where do we want/need to go?
    • Tool: Charter/Vision/Mission
TIM Who? - Identifying Program Participants
  • Law Enforcement.
  • Fire Departments.
  • State Environmental Agency.
  • Public Safety Dispatchers.
  • Emergency Management.
  • Medical Examiners/Coroners.
  • Federal, State, and Local Departments of Transportation.
  • Service Patrols (contracted and/or agency-staffed).
  • Planning Organizations.
  • Towing, Recovery, and Specialized Clean-Up Services.
  • Media.
TIM Program Committee Meetings
  • Meet regularly (e.g., monthly or quarterly) to:
    • Establish, confirm, reinforce goals/objectives.
      • Consider a vision or mission development activity and subsequent memorandum of understanding (MOU) signed by all participants.
    • Identify, discuss problem areas, needs (e.g., TIM CMSA).
    • Collaborate in developing solutions and strategies.
    • Conduct after-action reviews or debriefs.
    • Promote awareness of on-going TIM-related activities and initiatives.
    • Monitor training requirements.
    • Establish, reinforce and renew relationships.
Oregon's TIM Program Elements for Success

Logo- TIMLogo - Safe Quick Clearance

Darin Weaver
ODOT Statewide TIM Program Coordinator

Coordination, Communication & Collaboration

TIM Program


  • Statewide (or Agency) TIM Plan
  • Regional TIM Teams


  • TIM Newsletter
  • TIM Social Media
  • TIM Internet Page


  • Statewide TIM Training Committee
  • Cross-Disciplined TIM Training
Coordination – Have A Plan and Share It!

2011 Agency Plan » Build Support, Understanding and Buy-In » 2015 Statewide Plan

Report Cover for Oregon TIM Strategic Plan

Report Inner Page
Coordination – Regional TIM Teams

Responders doing clean up

TIM Meeting

Responders shaking hands

Oregon map

TIM Program Communications
  • Oregon TIM Program Communications
    • Diversify, optimize and streamline channels to broaden reach and accelerate engagement

Oregon TIM Program Communications

  • TIM Social Media
  • TIM Internet Site
  • TIM Trend Newsletter
Communication – Appeal to All TIM Responders
  • What activities are taking place...
  • What results they are meeting with...
  • How and Where responders can get involved with your program...

Oregon's TIM TYrend Report

Communication – Maintain & Build Engagement
  • Facebook
    • Advertise Events
    • Celebrate Successes
    • Educate & Inform
    • Build a TIM Community

Oregon TIM Facebook page

National TIM Responder Training

Oregon's responder training brochure

Statewide Implementation Committee

committee working

TIM Training - Keep It Cross-Discipline

Training photo

Training photo

  • Hand select trainers from each discipline to be a part of your state (or agency) training team
  • Ensure Training events have multi-disciplined trainers
  • Encourage Multi-disciplined / multi-agency attendance at each training event
TIM Training & Communication – Tools Linked & Complimentary

Oregon Training Program listings

Centralized Training Coordination

Training Request Comes In » Requester Provides Location Date/Time Preference » We Set Up Class On Eventbrite w/ Hardcopy Flyer » Everyone Advertises » TIM Program Schedules Trainers » Deliver Training

Explore New Outreach & Promotional Ideas

outreach ideas

From Gossip Column to TIM Program -

"Begin somewhere; you cannot build a reputation on what you intend to do." ---Liz Smith

Accident scene re-enactment during training

Variety of first responders

Realizing the Benefits


  • TIM Plan = Program Touchstone
  • TIM Teams embed local champions, help institutionalize TIM


  • Ongoing "TIM Meal"
  • Select Peer Pressure
  • Identifies how & where to get involved


  • Share the knowledge
  • Share the Game plan
  • Succeed as a Cross- disciplined, inter- agency TIM Team
Shape or Be Shaped

"Far and away the best prize that life has to offer is the chance to work hard at work worth doing." ---Theodore Roosevelt

TIM teams


Darin Weaver
Phone - 503.986.6613

Thank you.

Safety measures at accident scene

Responder and Motorist Safety

High-Visibility Safety Apparel Use

Manual on Uniform Traffic Control (MUTCD) Section 6D.03 states:

  • All workers, including emergency responders, within the right-of- way of a roadway who are exposed either to traffic (vehicles using the highway for purposes of travel) or to work vehicles and construction equipment shall wear high-visibility safety apparel.
  • Exceptions:
    • When uniformed law enforcement personnel are used to direct traffic, to investigate crashes, or to handle lane closures, obstructed roadways, and disasters, high-visibility safety apparel as described in this Section shall be worn by the law enforcement personnel.
    • Firefighters or other responders engaged in emergency operations that directly expose them to flame, fire, heat and/or hazardous materials.
High-Visibility Safety Apparel Use

Photo of officer not in safety gearshowing how you can barely see him

Source: SHRP2 National TIM Training Program

Vehicle Markings

nighttime visibility of properly marked vehicles

Source: Oak Creek Fire/Rescue, Wisconsin

On-Scene Lighting Procedures

on scene emergency lighting is essential

Source: SHRP2 National TIM Training Program

TIM After-Action Reviews

After-Action Reviews (AAR)
  • Purpose: To evaluate the decisions made and actions taken during an incident and to identify both best practices and opportunities for improvement.
  • Effective AAR/Debriefings provide a constructive forum to identify conflicts and inefficiencies and to then take steps to resolve or eliminate them.
  • AAR/Debriefings can help open lines of communication and foster relationships between responders.
  • Incident AAR/Debriefings should be multi-agency and multi-discipline.
AAR Typical Format
  1. Review basic details of incident.
    • Utilize pictures and/or video to illustrate incident scene.
    • Utilize maps to illustrate incident location and emergency alternate routes.
  2. Roundtable discussion – agency perspectives.
    • Discuss issues and/or areas of concern.
    • Identify solutions/enhancements.
  3. No finger pointing!
  4. Identify at least one action item per AAR/Debrief.

TIM Program meetings provide a regular opportunity to conduct AAR/Debriefs and follow up on resulting action items.


High-Level TIM Training Framework and Tiered TIM Focus Areas
  • Tier 1: National TIM Responder Training (SHRP2 L12)
  • Tier 2: Advanced TIM Workshop (for Mid-Level Managers)
    • Program Focus (Committee/Task Force)
      • Relationships.
      • Needs Assessment.
      • Training.
      • Performance Evaluation.
      • Asset Management.
      • Contracting.
      • Administration & Staffing.
      • Finance/Budget.
  • Tier 3: Executive Level Briefings (for Decision Makers)
    • Program Focus (Committee/Task Force)
      • Relationships.
      • Needs Assessment.
      • Training.
      • Performance Evaluation.
      • Asset Management.
      • Contracting.
      • Administration & Staffing.
      • Finance/Budget.
National TIM Responder Training Program
Implementation Progress - July 10, 2017

Train-the-Trainer Sessions

  • 320 sessions with 9,799 participants

In-Person Responder Training

  • 10,344 sessions with 237,453 participants

Web-Based Training (WBT)

  • 23,672 total | 18,340 NHI | 1,610 Other
  • 3,722 ERSI Responder Safety Learning Network

Total Trained: 270,924

National TIM Responder Training Program
Total Trained – July 10, 2017

Map of total responders trained by state, total of 270,924

National Training for Traffic Incident Responders (Tier I)

Training Course Design:

  • Course has been developed for responders by responders.
  • Webinar focused solely on the Training September 20, 2017.


FHWA Contact Information

Mr. Paul Jodoin
Traffic Incident Management Program Manager
(202) 366-5465

Registration Process for Non-DOT Participants

Webinar registration for non-DOT participants, including State DOTs, requires access to the FHWA External Portal (individuals who do not have an email address). Registration requires participants first request an account following the step-by-step instructions to receive a secure login.