With the design-build-finance-operate-maintain (DBFOM) concessions approach, the responsibilities for designing, building, financing and operating are bundled together and transferred to private sector partners. There is a great deal of variety in DBFOM arrangements in the United States, and especially the degree to which financial responsibilities are actually transferred to the private sector. One commonality that cuts across all DBFOM projects is that they are either partly or wholly financed by debt leveraging revenue streams dedicated to the project. Direct user fees (tolls) are the most common revenue source. Availability payments have also been used in this capacity. Future revenues are leveraged to issue bonds or other debt that provide funds for capital and project development costs. Often they are also supplemented by public sector grants in the form of money or contributions in kind, such as right-of-way. Private partners usually required to make equity investments as well.
Design Build Finance Operate Maintain (DBFOM) Toll Concessions
Design Build Finance Operate Maintain (DBFOM) Availability Payment Concessions