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WILDLIFE CROSSING STRUCTURE HANDBOOK Design and Evaluation in North America

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Publication No. FHWA-CFL/TD-11-003
March 2011

Central Federal Lands Highway Division
12300 W. Dakota Ave.
Lakewood, CO 80228

Front Materials

Cover

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Foreword

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) encourages programs that protect both wildlife and roadway users when the two groups eventually interact. An ever increasing human population demands safe and efficient access to their facilities, but this often comes with the need to mitigate the compromises to the animal habitats. Safety of drivers and preservation of animals are important components that when they successfully mesh we achieve major program goals for improved safety, enhanced livability, and protection of the environment.

This FHWA report called the Wildlife Crossing Structure Handbook offers key background information on defining the overall wildlife-vehicle interaction problem, the needs to be addressed, and offers a multitude of tangible solutions to plan, design, construct, monitor and maintain effective critter crossings. This handbook is for all transportation, environmental, wildlife resource, and stakeholder officials who strive to preserve and reweave safe corridor passages for animals and vehicle travelers.

signature

F. David Zanetell, P.E., Director of Project Delivery
Federal Highway Administration
Central Federal Lands Highway Division

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

Quality Assurance Statement

The FHWA provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.
FHWA-CFL/TD-11-003
2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.

4. Title and Subtitle
Wildlife Crossing Structure Handbook Design and Evaluation in North America

5. Report Date
March 2011
6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)
Anthony P. Clevenger and Marcel P. Huijser
8. Performing Organization Report No.

9. Performing Organization Name and Address
Western Transportation Institute
P.O. Box 174250 Bozeman, MT 59717-4250

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)
11. Contract or Grant No.
DTFH61-03-P-00398

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Federal Highway Administration Planning, Environment and Reality 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE Washington, DC 20590

13. Type of Report and Period Covered
Final Report,
August 2003 - February 2011
14. Sponsoring Agency Code
HEPM-30
15. Supplementary Notes
COTR: Paul Garrett, FHWA-HQ. Advisory Panel Members: Mary Gray and Corrie Veenstra, FHWA- HQ; Brian Allen, FHWA-FLH; and Roger Surdahl, FHWA-CFLHD. This project was funded under the FHWA's Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP).
16. Abstract
This handbook provides numerous solutions to wildlife-vehicle interactions by offering effective and safe wildlife crossing examples. It initially describes the critter crossing problem and justifies the need to solve it. Project and program level considerations are identified for planning, placement and design of wildlife crossing structures. Key design and ecological criteria, construction and maintenance guidelines, and effective monitoring techniques are shown and described in this handbook's practical application examples called Hot Sheets.
17. Key Words
ANIMAL MOVEMENT BARRIERS, HABITAT CONNECTIVITY, HABITAT LOSS, ROAD ECOLOGY, WILDLIFE CROSSING, WILDLIFE MORTALITY, WILDLIFE-VEHICLE INTERACTION
18. Distribution Statement
No restriction. This document is available to the public from the sponsoring agency at the website http://www.cflhd.gov.
19. Security Classif. (of this report)
Unclassified
20. Security Classif. (of this page)
Unclassified
21. No. of Pages
224
22. Price

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized

SI* (MODERN METRIC) CONVERSION FACTORS
APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS TO SI UNITS
Symbol When You Know Multiply By To Find Symbol
  LENGTH  
in inches 25.4 Millimeters mm
ft feet 0.305 Meters m
yd yards 0.914 Meters m
mi miles 1.61 Kilometers Km
  AREA  
in2 square inches 645.2 Square millimeters mm2
ft2 square feet 0.093 Square meters m2
yd2 square yard 0.836 Square meters m2
ac acres 0.405 Hectares ha
mi2 square miles 2.59 Square kilometers km2
  VOLUME  
fl oz fluid ounces 29.57 Milliliters mL
gal gallons 3.785 Liters L
ft3 cubic feet 0.028 cubic meters m3
yd3 cubic yards 0.765 cubic meters m3
NOTE: volumes greater than 1000 L shall be shown in m3
  MASS  
oz ounces 28.35 Grams g
lb pounds 0.454 Kilograms kg
T short tons (2000 lb) 0.907 megagrams (or "metric ton") Mg (or "t")
  TEMPERATURE (exact degrees)  
°F Fahrenheit 5 (F-32)/9 Celsius or (F-32)/1.8 °C
  ILLUMINATION  
fc foot-candles 10.76 Lux lx
fl foot-Lamberts 3.426 candela/m2 cd/m2
  FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS  
lbf poundforce 4.45 Newtons N
lbf/in2 poundforce per square inch 6.89 Kilopascals kPa
APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS FROM SI UNITS
Symbol When You Know Multiply By To Find Symbol
  LENGTH  
mm millimeters 0.039 Inches in
m meters 3.28 Feet ft
m meters 1.09 Yards yd
km kilometers 0.621 Miles mi
  AREA  
mm2 square millimeters 0.0016 square inches in2
m2 square meters 10.764 square feet ft2
m2 square meters 1.195 square yards yd2
ha Hectares 2.47 Acres ac
km2 square kilometers 0.386 square miles mi2
  VOLUME  
mL Milliliters 0.034 fluid ounces fl oz
L liters 0.264 Gallons gal
m3 cubic meters 35.314 cubic feet ft3
m3 cubic meters 1.307 cubic yards yd3
  MASS  
g grams 0.035 Ounces oz
kg kilograms 2.202 Pounds lb
Mg (or "t") megagrams (or "metric ton") 1.103 short tons (2000 lb) T
  TEMPERATURE (exact degrees)  
°C Celsius 1.8C+32 Fahrenheit °F
  ILLUMINATION  
lx lux 0.0929 foot-candles fc
cd/m2 candela/m2 0.2919 foot-Lamberts fl
  FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS  
N newtons 0.225 Poundforce lbf
kPa kilopascals 0.145 poundforce per square inch lbf/in2

*SI is the symbol for the International System of Units. Appropriate rounding should be made to comply with Section 4 of ASTM E380 (Revised March 2003)

Table of Contents

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

Acknowledgments

The author wishes to thank Roger Surdahl of the FHWA-CFLHD for the sponsorship and leadership.

For their help in promoting the survey, the author thanks Tina Barbaccia of Better Roads Magazine, Michele Beck of the Montana Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP), Lorie Cover of the Idaho Technology Transfer (T2) Center, Mike Fitch of the Ohio Department of Transportation, Anthony Giancola of the National Association of County Engineers, John Kiefer of Michigan LTAP, Terry McNinch of Michigan LTAP, Russell Merle Jr. of the Clark County Department of Air Quality & Environmental Management, David Page of the Florida T2 Center, Carrie Plasters of EnviroTech Services, Dan Ratermann of the Missouri Association of County Transportation Officials, Bob Raths of the Association of Oregon Counties, Richard Rolland of the Tribal Technical Assistance Program, Mike Long, Chairman of the Transportation Research Board's Low-Volume Roads Committee, and others who may have regretfully been missed. The author is also very grateful to everyone who took the time to participate in the survey.

Finally, thanks to the staff at the Western Transportation Institute for their administrative support.

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