Negotiated Exaction Resources

The following are resources on transportation funding and financing using Negotiated Exactions.

The World Bank, 2015

This website outlines benefits, usefulness, and issues of developer exactions and impact fees.


Texas A&M School of Law, 2011

This paper discusses the Supreme Court rulings Nollan v. California Coastal Commission and Dolan v. City of Tigard, how these rulings have influenced exactions, as well as unanswered questions of how to properly deal with the rulings.


Bingham McCutchen LLP, April 2003

This paper explains exaction theory and history, the Dolan/Nollan Supreme Court Ruling, use of police power, reasonableness, and California's experiences.


Gus Bauman and William H. Ethier, 1987

This article first outlines the policy and legal issues that require consideration by those who review exaction schemes. It then presents the findings of a survey of national development exaction practices.